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[No. 48] 


June, 1907 

Agents of the Society 

Londwn : KKCAN l'Al'l . • :;knui, Tklhnkk \ Co. 


. Ptfmrto at rtm MMTMOoiar PuanMnma hojib ttaAHMc 

v, 7*:, o (c 



[No. 48] 


of the 

Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society 

JUNE 1907 

Agencies of the Societies. 
London and America . . Trubner & Co. 

Farii .... Ernest Leroux & Co. 

Germany . . Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Printed at the Methodist Publishing Housk 



[No. 48] 


June, 1907 

Agents of the Society 

London: Kkcan I'auj - ;hNLii. Tkihnkk \ L«j. 




PtmrmAT rue mktmooist publishing hojsb. fiiMniDMt - 

Table of Contents. 


Description of New Species of Hymenoptera ffom 

Borneo, hv P. Cameron ... ... ... 1 

A Pelandok Tale ... ... ... ... 27 

The Pelandok, His Adopted Son, and Pa' Si Bago' 45 

The Story of the Five Men who Stole the King's 

Daughter ... ... ... ... 57 

Mat Janin ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Pa : Pandir ... ... ... ... 73 

The Pelandok and the Kotan Cutters ... ... 85 

How the Bear lost his Tail ... ... ... 87 

The Rich Man, the Poor Man, and the way the Pe- 
landok Squared the Score ... ... 1*1 

List of Graveyards of the Late Sultans of the State of 

Porak " 97 

i (. mn 1 1 ■ ... ... ... ... vi 

Christmas Island Flora — Additional Notes, hv //. *V. 

Ridfay ... ... ... ... ... 107 

w < — * ' 






The Right Rev. Bishop Hobb, President. 
Dr. Galloway, Vice-President for Singapore. 
Hon. R. N. Bland, Vice-President for Penang. 
Mr. H. N. Ridlbt, Honorary Secretary. 
Mr. R. J. Bartlett, Honorary Treasurer. 
Dr. Hanitsch, 

Mr. C. B. Klobs, 
Hon. A. T. Bryant, 
Mr. M. Hellish, 
Mr. A. Knight, 


List of Hembers for 1907. 

♦Life Members. 

t Honorary Members. 

Patron : H. £. Sir John Anderson, k.c.m.g. 

Abbott, Dr. W. L. 
Anthonisz, Hon. J. O. 
Acton, R. D. 

Bampfylde, Hon.C. A. 
♦Banks, J. E. 

Barker, Dr. A. J. G. 

Barnard, B. H. F. 

Baenes, W. D. 

Bartlett, R. J. 

Beatty, D. 

Bbntara, Luar, Hon. Dato. 

Bicknell W. A. 

Bidwell, R. A. J. 

Birch, J. K. 

Birch, E. W., c.m.g. 

Bishop, J E. 
♦Blagden, C. O , M.A. 

Bland, Hon. R. N. 

Bland, Mrs. R. N. 

Brockman, E. L. 

Brown, Dr. W. C. 

Bryant, Hon. A. T. 

Buckley, C. B. 

Burgess, P. J. 

Burn-Murdoch, A. M. 

Kuala Lumpor, Selangor. 


Pittsburg, U. S. A. 
s.p.m.j. Batu Pahat. 
Taiping, Perak. 
Kuala Lip is, Pahang. 

Kuala Lumpor, Selangor. 
Kuala Lumpor, Selangor. 


• * 


Khartoum, Egypt. 
Kuala Lumpor, Selangor. 

Taiping, Perak. 


Kuala Lumpor, Selangor. 

Ulu Slim, Perak. 




Larut, Perak. 

Kuala Lumpor, Selangor. 


Rangoon, Burmab. 





Batang Padang, Perak. 


Kuala Pilah, N. Sembilan. 

Batang Padang, Perak. 

Baram, Sarawak. 
Donald, Dr. J. Penang. 

Dunkerley, Ven. Arch. W. H. C, m.a. England. 

Edgar, Dr. P. Galistan Ipoh, Perak. 

Edmonds, R. C. Ipoh, Perak. 

Eoerton, His Excellency Sir. W., k.c.m.g. Lagoa, W. Africa 

Elcum, J. B. Singapore. 

Everett, H. H. Santubong, Sarawak. 

Fleming, T. C. Tampin, Negri Sembilan. 

•Flower, S. S,, f.l.8. Ghizeli, Egypt. 

Flower, V. A. Singapore. 

Fort, Hon. Hugh Singapore. 

Freer, Dr. G. D. Singapore. 

Galloway, Hon. Dr. D. J. Singapore. 

Butler, A. L. 
Byrne, H. E. 

Campbell, A. 
Campbell, J. YV. 
Camus, M. de 
Carruthmrs, J. B. 
Cbrruti, Giovanni Battista 
Chapman, W. J. 
Clifford, Hon. H. c.m.g. 
Collybr, Hon. W. R., 1.8.0. 
Colling b, H. B. 
•Conlay, W. L. 
Cook, Rev. J. A B 
Craddock, W. H. 
Curtis, C, f.l.s. 

Dallas, Hon. F. H. 
Dane, Dr. R. 

Dent, Sir Alfred, k.c.m.b. 
Dew, A. T. 
•Deshon, Hon. H F. 
Dickson, E. A. 
Douglas, F. W. 
Douglas, R. S. 

• • • 



•Gerini, Lt. Col. G. E. 
Gibson, W. S. 
*Gimlettb, Dr. J. D. 

Grandjean, W. D. 
Gueritz, His Ex : E. P. 

Haines, Rev. F. W. 
Hale, A. 
Hanitsch, Dr. R. 
Harrison, Dr. H. M. 
Hatnes, A. Sidney 
Hellier, Maurice 
Hemmant, G. 
IHervey, D. F. A., c.m.g. 
Hewitt, John. 
Hill, Hon. E. C. 

Bangkok, Siam. 

Klang, Selangor. 

Sandford House, Merton Rd. 

Southsea, England. 


Taiping, Perak. 


Pekan, Pahang, 

Taiping, Perak. 


Kuala Pilah, N. Sembilan. 

Aldeburgb, England. 



Accra, W. Africa. 

Hinks, Lt. T. C. 
fHosB, Rt. Rev. Bishop G. F., m.a. Singapore. 
Hose, Dr. Charles. Sibu, Sarawak. 

Hose, E. S. Kuala Lumpor, Selangor. 

Hose, R. E. Busau, Sarawak. 

Hoynch van Papendrecht, P. C. Germany. 


Hullett, R. W., m.a. 

Izard, Rev. H. C. 

J anion, E. M. 
Johnston, L. A. M. 

Kehdino, Dr. 
Ker, J. Campbell. 
Kinsey, W. E. 


Kloss, C. Boden. 
Knioht, Arthur. 
Knocker, F. W. 

Laidlaw, G. M. 
t Lawes, Rev. W. G. 



Medan, Deli. 


Kuala Pilah, N. Sembilan. 

Kuching, Sarawak. 



Taiping, Perak. 

Telok Anson, Perak. 
New Guinea. 



Lawrence, A. E. 
Laws, G., m e., a.i.m.m. 
Lemon, A. H. 
Lbbmit, A. W. 
Lewis, J. E. A, b.a. 
Lim Book Kenq, Dr. 
Luering, Rev. Dr. H. L. E. 
Lyons, Rev. E. 

Machado, A. D. 
Maclaren, J. W. D. 
MacDouoal, Dr. W. 

Mukoh, Sarawak. 
Kuching, Sarawak. 
Ipoh, Perak. 
Dagupan, Philippine I. 

Sungei Siput, Perak. 
Christmas Island. 

Mahomed, bin Mahbob, Hon. Dato. Johore. 

Makepeace, W. 
Marriott, H. 
Marshall, F. C. 
Mason, J. S. 
McCausland, C. F. 
Maxwell, Eric 
Maxwell, W. Geo. 
Moorhol t 8e, Sydney. 

Nanson, W., B.A., p.s.a. 
Napier, Hon. W. J., d.c.l. 
Norman, Henry 
Nunn, B. 

Pears, Francis 
Perak Government Museum 
fPERHAM, Ven. Archdeacon, A. 
Pykett, Rev. G. F. 
Pra, C. da 
Pringle, R. D. 
Pustau, R. von 

Rankin, H. F. 
Ridley, H.N., m.a., f.r.s. 
Richards, W. S. O. 
Rigby, J. 

Roberts, J. A., m.a. 
Robbrts,B. G. 

Raub, Pahang. 
Raub, Pahang. 
Batu Gajah, Perak. 
Ipoh, Perak. 

Jugra, Selangor. 


Taiping, Perak, 



Kwala Pilah N. Sembilan. 



Krian, Perak. 
Ipoh, Perak. 


Robinson, H.C. Kuala Lumpor, Selangor 

Rostados, E. Tras, Pabang. 

Rowland, W.R. Port Dickson, N. Sembilan. 

t Sarawak, H. H. Rajah of, o.c.M.o. Sarawak. 
Sarawak, H. H. The Ranee of England. 

ISatow, Sir E. M., k.c.m.g. 

Saunders, C. J. 

Schwabs, E. M. 

Scrivenor, J. B. 

Seah Liang Seah 

Seau Song Seah 

Shelford, R. 

Shelford, W. H. 

Shbllabear, Rev. W. G. 

Simmons, J. W. 

Singer, C. 

Skeat, W. W. 
ISmith, Sir Cecil C, g.c.m.g. 

Sohst, Theo. 

Staples, F. W. M. 

St. Clair, W. G. 

Sugars, J. C. 

Tatlock, J. H. 
Thomas, G. E. V. 

Peking, China. 


Tanjong Rambutan, Perak. 

Kuala Lumpor. 






Tampin, N. Sembila.n 







Batang Padang, Perak. 

Ipoh, Perak. 

Van Beuninoen von Helsdingen, Dr. R. 

Tanjong Pandan, Billiton. 

Walker, Lt. Col. R. S. F., c.m.g. Taiping, Perak. 

Waterstradt, J. 
WATKIN8, A. J. W. 
Wellington, Dr. A. R. 
West, Rev. B. F. 

WlCKETT, F., M.I.C B. 

Williams, H. F. 
Winstedt, R. O. 
Wood, C. G. 
Wolff, E. C. H. 

•Youno, H. S. 

Batjan, Sourabaya. 


Kuching, Sarawak. 


Lahat, Perak. 


Tapah, Perak. 

Batu Gajah, Perak. 

Seremban, N. Sembilan. 

Bau, Sarawak. 



of the 

Annual General Meeting; 

The Annual General Meeting was held on January 18th 

Present. Dr. Galloway (in the Chair) 

Mr. Bartlett Hon. A. T. Brvant 

Mr. Knight Dr. Lim Boon Keng 

Dr. Hanitsch Mr. Marriott 

Mr. Hellier Mr. Ridley 

The Minutes of the last General Meeting were read and 

The Annual Report of the Council laid on the Table was 

The Treasurer's account was laid on the Table and passed. 

The members elected during the past year were confirmed 
in their election. 

The officers for the following year were elected viz : — 

President : Right Rev. Bishop Hose. 
Vice President for Singapore : Dr. Galloway. 
Vice President for Penany : Hon. R. N. Bland. 
Hon. Secretary : H. N. Ridley. 
Hon. Treasurer : R. J. Bartlett. 

Councillors : Dr. Hanitsch, Mr. C. B. Kloss, Hon. A. T. 
Bryant, Mr. M. Hellier, Mr. A. Knight. 

A Committee to prepare a new edition of the Map of the 
Malay Peninsula was chosen, viz., Mr. Marriott, Mr. St. Clair, 
Dr. Hanitsch, Mr. H. N. Ridley. 

Votes of thanks were accorded to the Chairman, the Hon. 
Secretary and Hon. Treasurer. 

Annual Report for 1907. 

The Council are pleased to note that the numbers of 
members of the Society are on the increase. 

During the year the following new members were elected : 

Mb. J. W. Campbell 
Mb. R. D. Pbingle 
Mb. H. Collinge 
Mb. C. Singer 
Mb. W. E. Kinsey 
Db. A. A. Wellington 
Mb. A. E. Lawbence 
Mb. Abchibald Campbell 

Mb. Chapman 
Db. Macdougall 
Mb. B. Nunn 
Db. John Donald 
Mb. G. Hammont 
Rev. G. F. Pykbtt 
Mb. J. B. Scbivenob 
Mb. Ivone Kibkpatbick 
Mb. J. Rigby 

In recognition of the long services of Mr. W. R. Collyer as 
Vice President of the Society the Council elected him an 
Honorary Member of the Society. 

The Council have to regret the loss by death of Mr. H. H. 

During the absence on leave of the Honorary Treasurer, 
Dr. Hanitsch, Mr. Bartlett kindly consented to act as Treasurer 
till his return at the end of the year. 

One number of the Journal was published, containing arti- 
cles on Ethnology by Mr. Maxwell, Mr. Winstedt, the Rev. 
E. Gomez, Mr. C. B. Kloss, and Mrs. Bland, on Topography by 
Mr. Knight, and on Natural History by Mr. Kloss, Mr. Shelford, 
Mrs. Norman, Mr. Hewett, and Mr. Ridley. 

In a separate volume the Hikayat Shamshu '1 Bahrain, a 
Malay manuscript edited by Mr. Maxwell, was also published. 

Another volume of the Journal will be in the hands of the 
Society very shortly. 

The Library was transferred to a more spacious room in 
the new building of the Museum. 

The books and papers were arranged and sorted and fur- 
ther progress made in cataloguing. 


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Description of New Species of 
Hymenoptera from Borneo. 

A.— On some new species of Ipkiaulax (Brtconidac) 

from Kuching, Borneo. 

By P. Cameron. 

I am indebted to Mr. John Hewitt, the Curator of the 
Sarawak Museum, for the opportunity of describing the fol- 
lowing species of IphicmUix which appeal's to be the most 
abundant genus of Hymenoptera in Malaya, so far as the 
number of species is concerned. 

The species may be most conveniently grouped by the 
form of the plate on the base of the 2nd abdominal segment. 

i. The plate large, triangular, striated, bordered by 
oblique striae. Instynis, Sm., cariniceps, Cam., 
octofoveatus. Cam. In this group the 1st abdomi- 
nal segment is closely longitudinally striated, and 
the metanotum is more or less black. 

ii. The plate minute smooth, followed by a keel which 
extends to the apex of the segment ; the central 
part bordered by keels ; the 1st segment keeled 
laterally and down the centre. Alienatus, Cam. 

iii. The plate moderately wide at the base, becoming 
gradually narrowed to a fine point, then continued 
as a keel to the apex of the segment. In this 
group the striation does not extend beyond the 
middle of the 3rd segment, the following segments 
being smooth. There is a distinct keel down the 
middle of the 1st abdominal segment and a less 
distinct one along the sides. Extratutus, Cam. 
enrythecus, Cam., and declinatus, Cam. 

Jour. Strait* Branch R. A. Soc„ No. 48, 1907. 


iv. The plate striated, gradually narrowed to a point 
at or near the apex of the segment. The striation 
in this group extends to the apex of the 4th 
abdominal segment. The 1st abdominal segment 
is more or less striated and the metanotum is 
more or less black ; in longiceps it is strongly 
striated. Longiceps, Cam. ; lineativentris, Cam. ; 
pallidiorbitalis, Cam., which is noteworthy for the 
head being largely pale yellow. 

Iphiaulax insignia, Sm. 

Brocon insignis, Smith, Journ. Linn. Soc, 1857, 123. 
Iphiaulax insignis, Szepligeti, Termes. Fiizetek* XXIV. 
372. ? 

This long-tailed species has been taken by Mr. Hewitt in 
September. The 9 is 22 mm. long; with the ovipositor 83 mm; 
its 1st abdominal segment is closely longitudinally striated ; 
the area on 2nd segment is large triangular, ending in a sharp 
point, not reaching to the base of the apical third of the 
segment ; it is bordered by stronger, oblique striae, the rest of 
the segment bears close, more or less interlacing striaB ; the 
3rd to near the apex and the basal two-thirds of the 4th are 
olosely striated, the striae radiating from the middle ; the rest 
of the abdomen smooth, bare shining. The face is tinged with 
yellow ; the head somewhat thickly covered with black pu- 
bescence. Basal half of mandibles red, tinged with yellow, 
the apical black. Palpi pale red, covered with pale pubes- 

The I. insignis of Szepligeti, quoted above from Java, is 
probably different from Smith's insect, from Borneo ; Smith 
gives the length of the ovipositor as 44 lines ; Szepligeti 
gives the length of his insignis as 55 mm. ; the body length 
being 20 mm. Of the known Bornean species the present 
can only be confounded with I Shelf ordi, Cam. (Journ. St. 
Br. Roy. As. Soc. 1903, 103), which is smaller (15 mm.), but 
with the ovipositor longer (95 mm.), the striation only extends 
on the abdomen to the middle of the 3rd segment ; the area on 
the 2nd is longer, being twice longer than its greatest width ; 

Jour. HtraiU Branch, 


and the sheaths of the ovipositor are broadly white at the apex, 
the sheaths in insignia being entirely black. In insignis the 
1st abdominal segment is more than twice longer that it is 
wide at the apex. 

Iphiaulax cariniceps, sp. nov. 

Black, the head, thorax, except the centre of metanotum 
broadly, the anterior legs, the middle, except the tarsi, and 
the base of hind cox®, red ; wings fuscous violaceous, the 
nervures and stigma in part testaceous ; the middle of face 
depressed, with a stout keel down the middle, the 1st, 2nd, 
the 3rd, except at the apex and the basal half of the 4th 
abdominal segment strongly closely longitudinally striated ; 
the area on 2nd segment triangular, slightly longer than it is 
wide at the base ; closely longitudinally striated, reaching to 
the middle of the segment. 9 

Length 14 mm.,-terebra 42 mm. 

Kuching. March. 

Face" coarsely, rugosely not closely punctured, sparsely 
covered with black hair ; the clypeus more closely and finely 
punctured. Front broadly depressed, the depression deep, 
clearly defined, twice the width of the lateral part, which is 
closely, distinctly punctured and sparsely covered with black 
hair ; the centre is bare, aciculated, shining. Antennal scape, 
shining, bare, not much dilated at the apex, about 3 times 
longer than thick. Malar space furrowed, the depression 
much widened below. Thorax smooth, parapsidal furrows 
Jeep ; the metanotum thickly covered with black hair. The 
1st abdominal segment is fully one third longer than wide, the 
basal half with a rounded slope ; the central part of the 2nd 
is bounded by a keel which converges towards the apex ; the 
part bounding the area stoutly, obliquely striated, the part at 
its apex is more finely and closely longitudinally striated ; 
outside the keel is a depression, closely, strongly obliquely 
striated, and with a large, almost smooth depression at its 
Apex ; the outer edge closely, rugosely longitudinally striated. 
Suturiform articulation wide, deep, crenulated, widened at the 

B* A. 8o«, No. 48, 1007. 


outer edges ; there is a narrower crenulated furrow at the 
base of the 3rd segment. The basal half of the wings has the 
fuscous colour suffused with fulvous, the nervures there being 
blackish ; the nervures on the apical half are paler, fuscous 
in colour ; the basal half of the stigma testaceous, the apex 
dark fuscous, legs somewhat densely pilose ; the sheaths of 
the ovipositor more densely covered with stiffer black pu- 

The wide triangular area on the 2nd abdominal segment 
is rare with the Bornean spe2ies of Iphiaulax. It is found 
with i". iniqnis, Sm. 

Iphiaulax octofovcatus, sp. nov. 

Black ; the head, thorax and 4 anterior legs red ; the 
median segment largely tinged with black ; the middle tarsi 
blackish, wings fuscous, the nervures and stigma black ; the 
apical half of the 1st, the 2nd entirely and the basal half 
of the 3rd, 4th and 5th segments in the centre, coarsely 
irregularly rugosely striated, the striae irregular,, more or 
less broken, the striae on the 2nd stronger and more dis- 
tinctly separated ; the area broad, triangular, as long as it is 
wide at the base ; a keel as long as itself runs from its apex 
to near the middle. The head and mesonotum sparsely, the 
metanotum and back of abdomen more densely covered with 
black hair. Face rugosely punctured, the centre raised and 
smoother. First abdominal segment of almost equal width, 
3 times longer than it is wide at the base, slightly, but dis- 
tinctly longer than the 2nd ; the segments are all longer 
than wide ; the abdomen is 3 times longer than the thorax ; 
slender ; the suturiform articulation crenulated, not bifurcated 
at the apex ; there are oval fovea on the sides of the 3rd to 6th 
segments. The hind coxae are longer than usual, almost as 
long as the 1st abdominal segment and of almost equal width. 
Temples roundly narrowed, as long as the top of the eyes ; 
the occiput rounded inwardly. 

Length 12 mm. 
Kuching. July. 
A distinct species. 

Jour Strait* Branch 


Iphiaulax alienatus, sp. nov. 

Black, the head, thorax and anterior leg9 red, the middle 
legs red, suffused with black, the 1st abdominal segment smooth, 
the middle with a stout keel, the sides with a weaker, more 
irregular keel, the 2nd segment and the basal two- thirds of the 
3rd sti'ongly irregularly striated, the 2nd with a central keel 
slightly, triangularly dilated at the base, extending to the apex 
of the segment, the central part bordered by keels which slightly 
converge towards the apex ; the suturiform articulation wide, 
deep, crenulated ; there is a wide, transverse depression shortly 
beyond the middle of the 3rd, where the striae end ; there are 3 
stouter keels down the centre almost dividing the depression 
into 2 parts. Legs densely covered with long black pubes- 
cence. 9 . 

Length 15 mm. ; terebra 32 mm. 

Kuching. August. 

Face coarsely punctured-reticulated ; the clypeus more 
finely reticulated, bordered all round by a keel. The 2nd 
abdominal segment is as long as the 1st, longer than the 3rd ; 
on the outer, apical half of the central division is a longish 
curved depression ; the striae are stout, few in number and more 
oblique on the outer than on the inner parts ; the central part 
of the 3rd, on either side of the central keels, is raised, smooth. 
Malar space not much more than half the length of the eyes. 
The basal two abscissae of the radius together shorter than the 

Iphtaulax extrancus, sp. nov. 

Black, the antennal scape, head, thorax and front legs red, 
the middle femora tinged with red ; wings fuscous, the nervures 
and stigma black. First abdominal segment smooth, keeled down 
the middle, the sides depressed; the central part is clearly 
raised and has perpendicular sides ; the part bordering it below 
narrow, stoutly crenulated ; the segment is slightly longer than 
the 2nd, which is stoutly striated to near the apex ; its central 
area is smooth, harrow, bordered by raised keels ; it becomes 
gradually narrowed to a fine point near the middle and is 
continued as a fine keel to the apex ; the segment is smooth at 

R. A. Sor., No. 48, 1907. 


the base; there is a longish f oven,, narrowed at the hase, on 
either side of the a]»x; the 2nd segment is striated, finely 
closely broadly to shortly beyond the middle ; I.ho 3 central keels 
on the auturiform articulation are continued beyond the furrow, 
the lateral being much longer than the central, which does not 
extend much beyond the furrow ; the sides near tho apex n re 
broadly depressed ; there is a curved crenulated furrow at the 
base of the 3rd segment. Wings fuscous violaceous, the nervures 
and stigma black. 9 

Length 13 mm. ; terehra 30 mm. 

Kuching. September. 

Face rugosely punctured-reticulated ; the cly|»us with a 
curved, finely punctured depression in the middle above. 
Temples as long as the top of the eyes, broadly rounded behind. 
Metanotoin thickly covered with blackish . hair. The basal 3 
ventral segments of the abdomen white except for an oblique 
black spot on the 3rd. The 1st segment 3 times longer than 
it is wide at the apex. 

Ipkiaitlax EurytheeitH, *\i. nov. 

Black, the head, thorax, anterior legs, the middle coxra 
trochanters and femora for the greater part red, tlio metanotuni 
largo infuscated ; wings fuscous violaceous, the nervures and 
stigma black; the plate on 2nd abdominal segment longish 
triangular, smooth at the base, finely closely striated at the 
apex, the keel narrow, extending to the a|>ex, where there is a 
broad, smooth plate ; the basal 2 alwlominal segment, closely 
longitudinally striated; the basal half of the 3rd at the sides 
more finely striated. 9 

Length 10 mm. ; terebra 11 mm. 

Kuching, Decemlier. Sadong, August. 

Face smooth, hare, shining in the middle, the sides weakly 
punctured and haired ; the clypeus bordered laterally by a 
pyriform fovea, deepest and widest below. Temples as long as 
the eyes, rounded behind. First abdominal segment twice long- 
er than wide of equal width throughout ; stoutly, irregularly 

Jour, 9 trait > Branch, 


longitudinally striated, smooth in the centre at the base and, to 
a less extent, at the apex ; the lateral furrows deep, obscurely 
crenulated ; the 2nd segment strongly striated, the stria 
interlacing ; the basal area bordered laterally by a short, broad, 
smooth triangular one. Sutunform articulation broad, irregular- 
ly striated ; there is an almost smooth, triangular plate on the 
sides of the 3rd segment, their apices bordered by a broad, 
closely striated band. The abdomen is as long as the head 
and thorax united. Malar space with a wide shallow depression. 
The basal 2 joints of the fore tarsi together are longer than the 

This species comes very near to /. Umyitarsis, Cam. ; if it 
were not for the difference in the form of the plates on the 
2nd abdominal segment, I might have considered them identi- 
cal species ; the central plate in the present species is long and 
narrow, becoming from the base gradually narrowed to a fine 
point ; the lateral plates are much broader than long ; in 
longitarsis the central plate has the basal half of equal width, 
the apical narrowed to a point ; the lateral plates are longer 
than wide. 

Iphiaulux pallidiorbitaliSt sp. nov. 

Black, the head, antennal scape, pro-mesothorax, base of 
roetathorax, anterior legs and middle coxae, trochanters and 
femora, red ; the outer orbits, malar space to shortly beyond 
the inner eye orbits and the base of the mandibles, pale yellow ; 
wings fuscous, the nervures and stigma black. The 3rd to 5th 
segments of abdomen closely, regularly striated ; the 2nd with 
the central area, extending to the apex of the segment, becom- 
ing gradually narrowed towards the apex ; it is formed by 2 
keels which unite shortly before the apex, towards which they 
are continued as one ; in the centre is a keel extending from 
the base to the apex ; at the base, on either side, is a short 
curved keel ; the central area is bordered by transverse curved 
stride, more or less broken ; outside these are 2 irregular longi- 
tudinal keels which are united at the base ; the space between 
these and the outer edge is smooth, except at the apex, which 
is irregularly reticulated. The suturiform articulation is not 

B. A. Soe., So. 48, 1907. 


divided at the sides, which, at the furrow, are reticulated ; there 
are no transverse furrows on the apex of the segments ; there 
is a narrow crenulated furrow on the base of the 4th segment. 
The raised centre of the 1st abdominal segment is keeled down 
the sides and down the middle ; on the sides are 3 or 4 irregular 
foveaB ; the wide lateral furrow r s are irregularly transversely 
striated. Malar space nearly as long as the antennal scape, 
more than one third of the length of the eyes. Contre of 
face base, smooth, the sides sparsely haired. Temples as 
long as the top of the eyes, rounded, but hardly narrowed ; 
the occiput rounded inwardly. Metapleural furrow distinct, 
continuous. On the centre of the apex of tho metanotum are 
3 stout keels, bordered at the end by a stouter transverse one. 
Front distinctly broadly depressed in the centre ; there is a 
furrow down the middle. Tibiae and tarsi densely covered 
with black stiff hair. Tho apical wing nervures are fuscous. 6 

Length 9-10 mm. 

Kuching. March. 

Iphiaulax longiccps, sp. now 

Black, the head, thorax and fore legs red, the middle legs 
of a darker red, their tarsi fuscous wings fuscous, the nervures 
and stigma black ; the 2nd, 3rd and entirely the 4th abdonimal 
segment to shortly beyond tho middle closely, strongly longi- 
tudinally striated ; the area on 2nd segment reaching to the 
apex, becoming gradually narrowed to a sharp point ; some- 
what strongly longitudinally striated ; the raised central part of 
the 1st segment broadly furrowed down the middle, the furrow 
narrower than the sides, which are irregularly longitudinally 
stoutly striated, almost reticulated. Apical slope of metano- 
tum stoutly longitudinally striated, the centre at the base 
raised, the raised part smooth at the base, the apex with a 
twisted keel. Sheaths of ovipositor broadly white at apex. 9 . 

Length 13 mm., terebra 20 mm. 

Kuching. December. 

Cheeks slightly longer than the eyes, broadly depressed, 
more deeply above than below ; above smooth, and shining in 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


the middle, below closely, uniformly finely punctured. Face 
strongly, but not closely punctured, the middle below impunc- 
tate, finely, closely longitudinally striated. Middle of front 
distinctly depressed, the sides of the depression irregularly 
raised ; in the middle is a keel which is wide above, gradually 
narrowed below. Temples two-thirds of the length of the 
eyes, rounded behind. The part bordering the keel on the 2nd 
abdominal segment at the base is stoutly transversely striated, 
followed by a smooth space ; beyond is a long and a short 
curved longitudinal keel, the outer more curved than the 
inner ; inside are 4 stout, curved oblique keels, the keel be- 
tween the 2 portions is flat and becomes gradually widened ; the 
apex on the outersido is wide, depressed ; the struo on the 
outerside of the 3rd segment are more curved and irregular 
than are those down the middle. The apex is smooth and 
shining ; the apex of the striated lateral parts depressed ; 
there is a curved depression on the sides of the striated part of 
the 4th segment near the apex. Centre of mesonotum depress- 
ed at the apex. 

This species should be known by the long malar space and 
by the strongly striated metanotum. 

Iphiaulax limativcntris, sp. now 

Black, the antennal scape, head, pro- and mesothorax, the 
anterior legs and the middle femora, red ; wings fuscous, the 
nervures and stigma black ; the 1st and 2nd abdonimal segments 
strongly, the 3rd more finely, except at the apex, and the basal 
half of the 4th still more finely striated ; the 2nd segment as 
long as the 1st, fully one fourth longer than wide, the 3rd 
slightly longer than wide ; the raised central part of the 1st 
segment deeply furrowed in the middle, the apex of the furrow 
narrowed ta a point, the basal half 6f the sides raised, flat, 
with a fovea at the base and apex, both obliquely narrowed at 
the apex, almost the apical half of the sides depressed, the 
depression divided by an oblique keel : the keel on the 2nd seg- 
ment extends from the base to the apex, is not very broad 
at the base and becomes gradually narrowed to a point, 
and is closely, somewhat strongly striated; the raispci 

B.l.Soc,, Jf0.48, 1907. 


central part of the segment is not very clearly defined and 
becomes slightly narrowed towards the apex, near which, 
• on the sides, is a fovea, narrowed at the base and apex, longish, 
the basal 3 segments, together, are almost as long as the head 
and thorax. Face smooth in the middle, the sides sparsely 
punctured ; the clypeus aciculated strongly. Metapleural 
furrow wide, undivided. Temples rounded not narrowed ob- 
liquely, as long as the top of the eyes ; the occiput transverse. 
Apical half of niesonotum flat. Apex of ovipositor broadly 
white. 9 

Length 13 mm. ; terebra 24 mm. 

Kuching. July. 

Legs with the pubescence moderately dense and long. 
Apical slope of metanotum with a stout keel bordered by dis- 
tinct furrows. The outer furrow on the 1st abdominal seg- 
ment is aciculated, the apex depressed and more shining ; the 
base and apex of the basal and apical parts stoutly, transversely 
striated, 4 on each end, the basal stouter than the apical. The 
black ventral spots occupy almost the whole of the segments 
Malar space as long as the eyes. 

May be known by the long 2nd abdominal segment with 
its striated keel extending from the base to the apex, by the 
stout keel, bordered by furrows, on the apex of the metanotum 
and by the long malar space. It is allied to I. longiceps which 
has the apical slope of metanotum striated throughout, and 
has the 2nd abdominal segment only as long as the 3rd. The 
ventral marks are larger than usual. 

Iphiaiilax declinatus, sp. now 

Black, the antennal scape, head and thorax bright red ; the 
fore legs of a more obscure red ; the middle tinged irregularly 
with red ; wings fuscous the stigma and nervures black ; the 
apex of the sheaths of the ovipositor from shortly beyond 
the middle white. Basal half of 1st abdominal segment 
smooth, impunctate ; unstriated ; the raised middle of the apical 
half with a fine keel down its centre its sides clearly mar- 
gined ; there are a few irregular striae on them ; the lateral 

: ' : Jour. Straitf Branch, 


furrows wide, shallow, smooth. The area on the 2nd segment 
becomes gradually narrowed to a tine point, longer than it is 
wide at the base ; the part bordering it is irregularly, stoutly 
reticulated ; the outer division is depressed in the middle and 
obliquely striated, the striae more regular at the apex than at 
the base ; the 1st transverse furrow is deep, stoutly, but not 
closely crenulated ; at its sides near the outer edge is a large 
irregular smooth space ; the 2nd furrow is narrower and more 
closely crenulated ; there is a narrow, smooth furrow ou the 
base of the 5th segment. Abdomen clearly longer than the 
head and thorax united. There is a distinct furrow down the 
centre of the front. 

Allied to /. trichiothecus, Cam.; it is a stouter species, with 
the back of the abdomen not suffused with rufous, the central 
part of the 1st abdominal segment is of equal width, not nar- 
rowed towards the apex, the central keel is much shorter, net 
half the length of the segment, this keelless basal part being 
perfectly smooth ; in t rich iolhet' its the keel extends from the 
apex to the base, the sides being more or less striated - 

Chaolta laticauda, sp. nov. 

Red, the flagellum of antenna) hind legs, except the base 
of coxas, the abdo.nen in the centre of the 1st segment, the 
apical 3, and the sheaths of the ovipositor, black ; the middle 
abdominal segments largely suffused with rufous ; wings 
fuscous, tinged with violaceous, the nervures black, the stigma 
black, suffused with testaceous. 2 

Length 12 mm. ; terebra 13 mm. 

Kuching. December. 

The keel between the antenna? is stout; the plate is not 
very prominent, broader than long depressed, gradually widen- 
ed towards the apex ; the keel only extends to its base. Centre 
of face broadly depressed, finely rugose, the sides rounded, 
smooth. Tips of mandibles black. Flagellum of antennas 
densely covered with short, stiff black pubescence. Thorax 
long, narrow, flat above, without furrows ; tho metapleuraa 
with a wide, shallow furrow in the middle. First abdominal 

B A- 3oc , No. 48, 1907. 


segment flat, the centre clearly separated, of equal width, closely 
longitudinally striated, the striae more distinct and more widely 
separated at the apex ; the sides become slightly, gradually 
wider towards the apex and are closely finely striated ; the 2nd, 
3rd and 4th, segments are closely, distinctly longitudinally 
striated, the striae becoming gradually weaker, and have oblique 
furrows on the sides at the base ; the 2nd is raised in the mid- 
dle, without an area. 

The frontal plate is smaller, much less prominent than in 
C.fmcipcnnis, Cam. ;and C. ntficeps, Cam. ; it differs, further, 
in having the abdomen flatter, largely tinged w r ith rufous, the 
sheaths of the ovipositor are broader and more densely pilose. 

B. — On new Ichneumonidae. 

Hytophatnm, gen. no v. 

Head very little developed behind the eyes, the occiput 
broadly rounded inwardly ; the face and clypeus flat, not sepa- 
rated by a suture, the apex of the latter broadly rounded. 
Mandibles not broad, the upper tooth long, sharp-pointed, the 
sub-apical short, turned inwardly. Scutellum flat, longer than 
wide, the sides not keeled. Metanotum short, the apex with 
an oblique, straight slope ; the basal slope without clearly 
defined areae, the areola only separated from the lateral by 
being rough, instead of smooth and shining; the apical 3 are 
separated only by the fact that the centre is depressed ; the only 
distinct keel on the segment is one round the apical slope and 
one round the top of the pleurae ; the former is dilated into a 
blunt tooth near the middle ; there is a broad keel over the meta- 
sternum. Post-petiole distinctly separated, depressed in the 
middle at the base ; the gastracoeli broad, united by a deep 
depression. Legs (especially the hinder) stout ; the hind 
coxae larger and stouter than usual. Antennae longer than the 
body> tapering towards the apex, not serrate. Areolet 5- 
angled ; disco-cubital nervure unbroken ; the transverse median 
nervure received shortly beyond the transverse basal. 

The characteristics of this genus are the unseparated, 
rounded at the apex, clypeus, short temples, longish malar 

Jour. Straiti Branch, 


space, the long upper and short lower teeth of the mandibles, 
the confluent basal are® of the metanotum, and the tuberculate 
base of the post-scutellum. I am not sure, until the 9 is known 
if it belongs to the Ichncumonini or to the Joppini. 

Hytophatnus lineatus, sp. nov. 

Black, the sides of the face broadly, of the clypeus nar- 
rowly, the black central part on the clypeus being broader, and 
more irregular than that on the face, mandibles, except at the 
apex, palpi, the eye orbits — the line widened on the vertex — 
a line on the pronotum, a broader one on the apical half of 
the propleurse below, the mesopleuraB from shortly below the 
middle, tubercles, tegulae, scutellums, a semicircular longi- 
tudinal mark on the sides of the apex of the metanotum, the 
rounded part on the outerside, a small and a larger mark 
below the hind wings, a large irregular mark, narrowed above, 
on the apex of the metapleurae and broad bands on the apices 
of the abdominal segments yellow. Legs fulvous, the 4 
anterior tinged with yellow in front, the coxae and trochanters 
yellow, the hind coxee on the outerside broadly in the middle, 
the hind knees and the apex of the hind tibiae, black ; the hind 
tarsi yellow. Antennae broadly white in the middle. Wings 
hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. 2 . 

Length 9 mm. 

Kuching. September. 

Densely covered with a white clown ; smooth, the middle 
of the face and the mesonotum weakly punctured, the meso- 
notum with a plumbeous hue. Metanotum sparsely punctur- 
ed, more densely haired than the rest of the thorax. The 
post -petiole and the 2nd and 3rd segments closely longitudin- 
ally reticulated-striated. Legs shortly, densely pilose. 

Aulojoppa, gen. nov. 

Head cubital, the temples wide, the occiput roundly in- 
cised, not margined. Clypeus separated from the face, ita 

B. A Soc, No. 48, 1907. 


apex broadly, distinctly round. Mandibles bioad, curved, the 
teeth large clearly separated, sharply pointed, the upper longer 
than the lower. Apical half of pronotum projecting, especially 
at the apex, which forms an incision with the tegulae. Basal 
slope of mesonotum with distinct parapsidal furrows. Scutel- 
luni not much raised, not margined, wider than long. Meta- 
notum regularly areolated the areola longish horse-shaped. 
Apex of abdomen bluntly pointed ; it has an ovipositor as 
long as the apical two segments united. Areolet 5-anglod ; 
the 2nd transverse cubital nervure is faint, longer and mure 
obliquely sloped; the transverse median nervure in hind 
wings broken near the bottom. 

The labrum is hidden ; the disco-cubital nervure unbroken 
by a stump ; the transverse median nervure interstitial ; the 
basal are© of metanotum confluent ; the cheeks are margined ; 
the post-petiole is not clearly separated and closely longitudin- 
ally striated ; the last abdominal segment large, as long as 
the penultimate. The apex of the metanotum ends laterally 
in 2 small, but distinct teeth. The hind femora reach to the 
base of the 4th segment, the legs being short and slender. 
Eyes large, parallel ; the malar space small. There are dis- 
tinct parapsidal furrows on the base of the mesonotum. 

The distinctive characteristics of this genus are the large, 
cubital head, the rounded apex of the clypei^s, the distinct 
furrows at the base of mesonotum, the broad scutellum and 
the long projecting ovipositor. 

Anlojoppa spilocepJiala, sp. nov. 

Black, 2 large marks, roundly narrow T ed on the innerside, 
on the sides of the face, the clypeus, except at the top, a large 
pyriform mark — the narrowed end in front, — on the sides of the 
vertex, a broad line in the middle of the outer orbits close to 
the eyes, a line on the apical third of the pronotum, and of 
th9 propleurai below tegulie, scutellum, a large, somewhat 
triangular mark on the sides of the metanotum, covering the 
spines, the base of the 1st abdominal segments and the apices 
of the others — those on the 3rd, 4th and 5th broadly dilated 

Jour, Straits Branch, 


laterally — the apical entirely, yellow. Le^s yellow ; the 4 
anterior femora below, the posterior entirely, the hind coxse, 
trochanters, femora and apex of tibiuB, rufofulvous. Antennas 
black above, pale yellow below. Wings hyaline, the nervures 
and stigma black. 9 

fi«ngth 10 mm. ; terebra 1 mm. 

Kuching. February. 

Head smooth, shining; the front strongly, closely reti- 
culated, the raised . central part of the face closely, finely 
longitudinally striated. Mesonotum opaque, impunctate to- 
wards the apex in the centre, irregularly, weakly striated. 
Base of metauolum smooth ; the rest weakly irregularly longitu- 
dinally striated. PropleursB smooth, irregularly striated in the 
middle below ; the base and lower part of the mesopleurae 
finely punctured, the metapleurae, if anything, more weakly 
punctured. Post-petiole strongly, closely, the 2nd segment 
weakly striated, except at the depressed base, where the stria- 
tion is much stronger. The base and lower part of the sheath 
of the ovipositor is pale yellow. 

Cratojoppa ornaticeps, sp. no v. 

Black, the face, except a broad line of equal width down 
its middle, clypeus, mandibles except at apex, palpi, the inner 
orbits, the line narrowed below and wide on the incision 
opposite the ocelli — the incision gradually narrowed towards 
the middle, the line going round the top and down the outer 
orbits on which it becomes gradually widened from the top to 
the bottom, a line on the sides of the pronotum, not extend- 
ing on to the base, a line on the lower part of the base, 
teguhe, tubercles, 2 longish lines in the middle of mesonotum, 
the scutellur keels, sides of scutellum, post-scutollum, a tri- 
angular mark — the narrowed end at the base — the apex with 
a triangular incision, — behind the hind wings, an irregular 
mark, gradually narrowed below, on the sides of the apical 
slope of the metanotum, a broad line, extending from the base 
to the apex, on the lower part of the mesopleurae, its base 
oblique, straight, the apex narrowed and rounded, and broad 

B. A. Hoc., No. 48, 1907, 


lines on the apices of the abdominal segments — the basal 5 
dilated at the sides, the 6th of equal width, the 7th also of 
equal width and occupying the apical three-fourths of the seg- 
ment, — bright lemon-yellow. Antenna) broadly ringed with 
white — the white part wider than the black basal or apical. 
Legs yellow, the hind femora fulvous ; an irregular line, 
dilated in the middle on the hinder part of the 4 anterior 
femora, a line, nan-owed at the base, on the hinder part of the 
4 anterior tibiae, the apical three joints of the 4 anterior tarsi, 
the hind coxae, except broadly at the apex above and more 
regularly and narrowly at the apex below the base of the basal 
joint of the trochanters, the apical one more irregularly, and 
the apical fourth of the hind femora and tibiae, black. Wings 
hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. 9 . 

Length 14 mm. 

Kuching. June. 

Head smooth, the face and clypeus sparsely punctured in 
the middle ; it is wider than the thorax ; the temples wide, 
roundly narrowed, the occiput roundly, deeply incised, mar- 
gined. Pro- and mesothorax smooth ; the apex of propleura 
obliquely, finely punctured ; the apical half of the raesono- 
tum in the centre with large, deep punctures, placed irregu- 
larly, the base in the centre weakly irregularly punctured. 
Areola smooth ; the basal lateral areae of metanotum strongly 
deeply punctured, the apical strongly transversely striated. 
Pro- and upper half of mesopleurae smooth, the lower half of 
the latter closely finely punctured ; the metapleuraa coarsely 
punctured. Post-petiole finely, closely striated in the middle, 
the sides with large scattered punctures; the 2nd, 3rd 
and 4th segments are strongly, the 5th weakly longitudinally 

C. rufo-femora, Cam. May be known by the areola being 
irregularly strongly punctured on the apical half and by the 
basal abdominal segments having separated spots, not con- 
tinuous lines. From the Indian known species it may be 
known by the black mark on the face, by the black areola, 
which is also shorter and not transverse at the apex, but 
rounded inwardly. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


MesosUnoideus angulicollis, sp. nov. 

Black, a large mark in the centre of the face, rounded 
above, slightly narrowed below, a line on the sides, rounded, 
narrowed above and below, clypeus, mandibles, except at the 
apex, a line on the upper inner orbits, rounded, narrowed above 
and below, a narrow line, interrupted in the middle, on the base 
of the prothorax, a broad raised line in the middle of prbnotum, 
tegulae, soutellums, metanotal spines, and broad lines on the 
apices of the abdominal segments — the 1st and last broader 
than the others, yellow. Legs reddish fulvous, the 4 anterior 
coxae and trochanters and the upper side of the hind coxae, 
yellow, the rest of the hind coxae, the apex of the hind fermora 
and the base of their tibiae, black. Antennae broadly white 
in the middle. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures black. 

Length 11 mm. 

Kuching. February. 

Head, if anything, wider than the thorax ; the face some- 
what strongly punctured, the clypeus less closely punctured 
above, smooth below, covered with white pubosence. The part 
between the ocelli and the frontal depression bearing stout, 
more or less, curved striae. Base of thorax above broadly 
rounded ; a rounded incision between the yellow dilated part of 
the pronotum and the black apex, which is rounded. Mesonotum 
finely rugose, more or less striated at the base. Scutellum 
roundly raised, longer than wide, the apex with a rounded 
slope ; it is almost smooth ; the basal depression is large and 
has 4 stout, slightly converging keels ; there are stout lateral 
keels on the basal slope. On the metanotum there is a distinct 
petiolar area, which is smooth and depressed at the base ; on the 
apex are 3 stout irregular transverse striae ; the base on the 
aides closely, mostly transversely reticulated ; the transverse 
keel is stout and is roundly curved towards the base in the 
middle ; the rest of the metanotum is strongly, widely reticulat- 
ed, the reticulations irregular, more or less angled. The upper 

R. A. Soc., No. 48, 1907. 


part of the propleuroe is covered with close oblique striae, bordered 
behind by a stout keel ; below it bear? stout, clearly separated, 
longitudinal keels. Meso- and metapleurse stoutly reticulated, 
covered with white pubescence ; the former with a large, 
smooth and shining space at the apex. The 1st abdominal 
segment is broad at the base, becoming gradually wider 
towards the apex ; the sides are high, bordered above and below 
and are roundly incised on the ventral side at the apex ; the 
2nd and 3rd segments are closely, distinctly punctured ; the 4th 
is weakly punctured, the others almost smooth. Metanotal 
spines large, prominent, conical, yellow. Areolet longer along 
the transverse cubital nervures than along the radius ; the 2nd 
transverse cubital faint; the recurrent nervure is received 
near the apex ; the transverse median behind the transverse 
basal ; the transverse median in hind wings is broken not far 
from the top of the lower third. 

Mesostcnoidctis is a Mesostcnvs w T ith spined metanotum. 

It may be as well to differentiate it from the Bomean allied 

genus Vagcnatlxa. The differences may be expressed as follows : 

Baie of thorax above transverse, laterally projecting into 
stout, large teeth ; metanotum without a transverse keel and 
no petiolar area; the lower sides of the petiole at the base 
and apex spined, areolet larjje, Unger than wide. 

Vagcnatha, Cam. 

Base of thorax rounded, not toothed, metanotum with a 
transverse keel and petiolar area, the lower sides of abdomin- 
al petiole not spined ; areolet small, almost square. 

MesostenoideuSf Ashm. 

In M. anqulicollis % the labium is incised in the middle ; 
this is not the case with M. carinisentes, Cam., from Sikkim ; 
the latter species differs further in the scutellum being flat and 
keeled to the top of the apical slope. 


Accent tint, 

Xoridesopus, gen. nov. 

Areolet small, almost square. Disco-cubital nervure 
unbroken. Transverse median nervure received distinctly 

Jour. Straiti Branch, 


before the transverse basal. Transverse median nervure in 
hind wings broken below the middle. Median segment with 2 
transverse keels ; its spiracles small, longish oval. Hind legs 
not unusually long, the basal joint of the hind tarsi as long as 
the following 4 united the fore tibiae compressed at base. Apex 
of clypeus transverse, depressed obliquely ; the apex bordered by 
a keel which curls round the sides, where it is more distinct. 
Apex of mandibles with 2 equally-sized teeth, clearly separat- 
ed. Labrum large, projecting. Parapsidal furrows distinct 
to shortly beyond the middle. Basal half of mesosternum 
bordered by a curved furrow. Scutellum not prominent, not 
margined. All the claws are simple, not toothed. Ovipositor 
about one third of the length of the abdomen ; it issues from 
the apex of the 5th segment ; the 6th and following segments 
are cleft in the middle to receive it ; there is no prominent, 
cultriform hypopygium. Temples short. Fore tibiaa short, 
stout, broadly, distinctly narrowed at the base ; the hind coxaa 
are more than twice longer than thick ; the fore tibiaa have 
one, the posterior four have 2 moderately long spurs ; the 
legs are slender and, except as regards the foretibias, are form- 
ed as in the cryptina. The 1st abdominal segment is roundly 
curved at the base ; its sides are keeled above and below ; the 
spiracles are placed before the middle. 

The only group in which this genus can be placed is the 
Acocnitini ; the form of the 1st abdominal sogment and the 
position of its spiracles separate it from the Cryptina, with 
which it has a considerable resemblance. It has the inflated, 
contracted at the base, tibiaa of the Xoridini, but not the 
characteristic head of that group. On the other hand it has 
not the ploughshare-shaped, prominent hypopygium of the 
Acocnitini. So far as the alar neuration is concerned it is as 
in the Cryptina, as e.g. in Mesostenus. The legs are shorter 
and more slender than in the Acoenitini. For the present I 
leave it in that tribe. 

Xaridesopus annulicornis, sp. nov. 

Black, the sides of the face, the orbits all round, the band 
on the outer side becoming gradually widened below, the sidey 

ft. A. Hoc., No. 48, 1907, 


and top of the clypeus broadly, labrum, palpi, a line on the 
lower edge of the propleurae, tegulae, a conical mark on the 
apex of the middle lobe of mesonotum, scutellums, a square, 
large mark between the two keels of metanotum, the apical slope 
except a small square black mark in the middle of the apex, 
tubercles, a mark, with the apical two-thirds dilated, the 
basal narrowed, its base projecting upwards and downwards, 
the base of the dilated part roundly curved upwards, the apex 
straight, oblique on the lower part of mesopleurae, a conical 
mark below the hind wings, the upper part of the metapleursa 
broadly, the base of the 1st abdominal segment, broadly, the 
apices of the 1st to 6th, the bands dilated backwards on the 
sides, a broad band on the middle and sides of the 7th seg- 
ment, laterally projecting to the base, and the apex of the 
8th broadly, above projecting to the base, where it becomes 
gradually narrowed, and the ventral segments, except the last, 
yellow. Antennae pale yellow, the base and apex broadly 
black, the base more broadly than the apex — the 4 basal and 
the basal half of the 5th and the apical 7 joints. Legs with 
the coxes pale yellow, the apical half of the hinder black below, 
the mark incised in the middle ; the femora and trochanters 
fulvous, the hinder deeper in tint than the anterior, the tibiae 
yellow, tinged with fulvous ; the 4 anterior tarsi fuscous, the 
hinder white; the apex of the hind femora broadly black, 
wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. 9 • 

Length 12 mm. ; terebra 2\ mm. 

Kuching. December. 

Head smooth, the face sparsely pilose. Pro- and meso- 
thorax smooth ; the depression on propleuraa broadly striat- 
ed ; the upper part of the mesopleurae depression striated more 
stoutly. Base of metanotum finely closely, longitudinally 
striated, the striae interlacing ; the part between the keels 
finely longitudinally reticulated ; the apical slope coarsely 
transversely striated. Metapleurse smooth at the base, the rest 
somewhat stoutly, obliquely striated. Basal 4 segments of 
abdomen closely punctured, the puncturatiorubecoming gradu- 

. ally weaker. Hind tibiae and tarsi sparsely, but distinctly 

: fepinoso. 

Jour. Sf raits Branch, 


Hadrocryptiis dentatus, sp. no v. 

Black ; the facial tubercle, sides of face — the line slightly 
broader than the black central part — clypeus, labrum, a line on 
the upper inner orbits to the end of the top of the eyes, the outer 
to near the outer edge, base of mandibles to near the middle, 
base of pronotum, a longish oval mark on the sides of the 
middle lobe of mesonotum at the base another at the apex ; 
scutellar keels, scutellum except at the base, post-scutellum, 
the keels at the sides of both, a broad reversed T-shaped mark 
on the apex of metanotum, its top rounded, the sides blunter, 
a curved line on the apex of propleurae, tubercles, a mark, 
longer than wide, on the lower third of the apex of meso- 
pleurae, the apex of metapleurio broadly, the mark obliquely 
narrowed above and below, and broad bands on the apices of 
the abdominal segments, the apical dilated backwards on the 
sides to the base of the segments, yellow. Four front legs 
yellow, the femora tinged above with fulvous ; the hinder 
yellow, their femora tinged with fulvous, the outer side of the 
coxae, the inner to near the apex, the apical joint of the troch- 
anters on the innerside, the base of the femora narrowly, the 
apex more broadly — the band as long as the 2nd tarsal joint — 
and the apical 2 joints of the 4 anterior tarsi, black. The 
5th to 13th joints of antennae white. Wings hyaline, the 
nervures and stigma black. 2 . 

Length 15 mm. ; terebra 6 mm. 

Kuching, Borneo. June. 

Facial tubercle prominent, longish oval, twice longer than 
wide, blunter pointed and broader below than above, strongly 
punctured. Face and clypeus strongly punctured, the latter 
less strongly than the former ; the apex of the clypeus trans- 
verse, the sides slightly projecting and there is a minute 
tubercle in the middle ; the lateral projections leaf-like. 
Front and vertex smooth, punctured behind the ocelli. Meso- 
notum smooth, the apox in the middle finely punctured. 
Scutellum distinctly, not very closely punctured, the apical 
slope striated. The base of the metanotum has the basal half 

B. A. Hoc., No. 48, 1907. 


smooth, the apical closely punctured ; the space between the 
2 keels reticulated, finely at the base, which, at the sides, is 
longitudinally striated ; the apical slope is strongly, irregularly 
transversely striated. Propleurso smooth, the middle depres- 
sion striated, the striae becoming longer towards the apex. 
Mesopleurae, except at the apex, closely punctured, behind 
the dilated smooth apex is a band of clearly separated 
punctures; the lower part is more or less striated. Meta- 
pleune smooth, sparsely, but distinctly punctured at the base, 
the rest closely, stoutly obliquely striated. The dilated half 
of the petiole is sparsely distinctly punctured ; on its apical 
half (of the apex) is an oval, longish, depression ; at the base 
of this is a longish, more clearly defined longitudinal furrow, 
with obliquely sloped sides ; the petiole is narrowed at the 
extreme base ; from there it becomes gradually widenod to- 
wards the apex ; it is finely punctured ; the 2nd, 3rd and 4th 
segments are closely, distinctly punctured, the puncturation 
becoming gradually weaker. Aroolet large, longer along the 
radius than on the transverse cubital uervures, 5-angled ; the 
recurrent nervure is received shortly beyond the middle. 

Under the middle of the petiole, on the sides, are 4 short, 
distinct teeth ; the basal 2 are more widely separated than are 
the apical, which are separated from each other by a slightly 
less distance than they are from the basal pair. The trans- 
verse median nervure in the hind wings is broken shortly, but 
distinctly below the middle. 

This species may bo known from H. Jiasutus, Cam., and 
H. tuberculatus, Cam., from the Eastern Himalaya by the teeth 
on the lowerside of the abdominal petiole, and by there being 
a small mark on the apex of the mesopleurae instead of a large 
long mark, narrowed at the base along the lowerside, extend- 
ing from near the base to the apex. 

C — On two new species of Mcllinus- 

Mellinus nigrolineatus, sp. nov. 

Thorax pale testaceous, the metanotum pale yellow, the 
abdomen rufo-testaceous ; the head, a broad line in the middle 

J our. Straits Branefa, 


of the basal half of mesonotum, a slightly narrower one on the 
apical three-fourths down the sides, the furrow at the base of 
the scutelluin, the metanotal area, the central furrow, its apex, 
the centre of propleurae broadly, the mesosternura, the apex of 
mesopleurac and the base of metapleurae, black ; the apex of 
the petiole and the base of the dilated part broadly, infuscated ; 
antennae black, the scape yellowish, the basal joints of flagel- 
lum testaceous below. Wings hyaline, iridescent, the costa, 
stigma and nervures fuscous. 9 . 

Length 10 mm. 

Kuching. January 14 th. 

Face and clypeus densely covered with silvery pubes- 
cence as are also, but less densely, the sides of the front ; the 
vertex is smooth, shining and sparsely haired. Below the 
antennae is a transverse keel ; between it and the base of the 
antennae is a longitudinal plate, rounded and narrowed in the 
middle. Eyes large slightly diverging below, coarsely facet- 
ted. Thorax smooth, shining, sparsely haired ; the furrow 
at the base of scutellum, stoutly crenulated. On either side 
of the metanotal area are six stout, clearly separated keels. 
The base of propleurao stoutly, irregularly striated. The dilat- 
ed apex of petiole large, longer than wide, pyriform. The 
mandibles are testaceous, tinged with yellow-collar transverse, 
margined at the base. Tibiae fringed with white hair ; the 
tarsi covered with darker, shorter, stiffer hair. The apical 
half of the metanotum has the sides transversely striated. 
The petiole is distinctly, roundly curved and is much more 
dilated than in pygmacm or arvensis ; it is longer than the 
following 2 segments united. 

Mellinus nigromaculatus, sp. nov. 

Bufo-testaceous, the head, the 3rd and following segments 
of the antennae, a small irregular spot on the sides of the meso- 
notum at the base, a larger one near tho centre, the furrows at 
the base and sides of the scutellum, the metanotal area, upper 
part of furrow, the base of mesopleuraa broadly, of the meta- 
pleuro narrowly on lower half and the mesosternum, the 

ft. ▲, Soc., 2*0. 48, 1007. 


mark roundly dilated on to the mesopleurae, black. Legs 
coloured like the body, but paler, the hinder darker tinted 
than the anterior. Head densely covered with silvery pubes- 
cence ; the front with a distinct keel down the middle ; 
except at the ocelli the front and vertex are dark rufo-testace- 
ous. Mandibles yellowish to beyond the middle ; the apex 
black, the part behind it rufo-testaceous. Antennal plate 
Btout, roundly narrowed in the middle ; there is no transverse 
keel below it. Scutellar furrow irregularly crenulated. Meta- 
notal area large ; in its middle are two widely separated keels ; 
on either side are a few irregular striae. Abdominal petiole 
curved, thickly nodose at the apex ; it is as long as the follow- 
ing 2 segments united. Thorax sparsely covered with pale 
and fuscous hair. The keel bordering the base of the apex of 
pronotum is narrow, and is thinner in the middle than at the 
sides. Basal two segments of antennae pale yellow, the others 
black, brownish below. Wings hyaline, highly iridescent, the 
stigma and nervures dark fuscous. ? . 

Length 8 mm. 

Kuching. November 13th. 

There may be a black mark in the middle of the meso- 
notum, forming a triangle with the basal pair. Ocelli in a 
triangle, the hinder bordered by a furrow on the outer side 
and separated from the eyes by a distinctly greater distance 
than they are from each other. Sides of pronotum at base 
roundly narrowed. 

There are now three species of Mcllinus known from 
Borneo. They may be separated thus : 

Thorax black ; the head and thorax covered with gold- 
en pubescence; the metanotal area not clearly 
defined ... ... ... crabriformis, Sni. 

(b.) Thorax testaceous, marked with black ; the pubescence 
on the head and thorax silvery ; the metanotal area 
clearly denned, depressed. 

Mesonotum with 3 large black linen ; the head black, 
entirely, the collar transverse, the sides not nar- 
rowed, a transverse keel on the face below the 
antennrc ... ... ... nigrolineatus. 

Jour. Straits Branca, 


Mesonotam with 3 spots in a curve ; the head black 
and testaceous, the collar broadly, distinctly round- 
ly narrowed, no transverse keel below the an- 
tenna* ... ... ... nigromaculatus. 

D,— On some Vespidze. 

Icaria parvimaculata, sp. now 

Black, a short line on the base of the mandibles, a small 
mark on the sides of the clyi>eus shortly above the middle, 
2, almost united, lines on the base of the post-scutellum, a line 
down the sides of metanotum, straight on the inner, rounded 
on the outerside, a short line, dilated backwards in the middle, 
a narrow line on the apex of the 2nd abdominal segment and 
a narrow indistinct one on the apex of pronotum, pale yellow ; 
wings hyaline, the apex broadly smoky in front, the stigma 
and nervures black in front. 9 . 

Length to end of 2nd abdominal segment 6 mm. 

Marup. May (J. Hewitt). 

First abdominal segment as long as the second ; its base 
narrow, the apex dilated roundly above, becoming gradually 
higher above ; seen laterally the segment becomes gradually 
widened from the base to the apex ; the 2nd segment cup- 
shaped, roundly narrowed at the base, shorter than it 
is wide at the apex, closely distinctly, almost unifonnly 
punctured, the punctures more or less interlacing ; the first 
segment smooth, shining ; both are sparsely covered with 
white pubesence. Clypeus very shining, very sparsely punctur- 
ed, almost smooth on the lower, more distinctly and closely 
on the upper half ; it is slightly broader than it is long and 
ends in a distinct tooth. 

In its black colouration this species approaches I. lugu- 
bris, Sin. and I. flavolincata, Cam., but it cannot be confound- 
ed with either ; in form it more resembles I. vialayana and 
/. ornaticeps. 

ft. A. ?OC., So. 48, 1907. 


Icaria intermedia, Cam. 

This species (described from Java, Tijdsch. voor Ent. 
XLVIII) has been taken at Transan, Borneo in August. The 
band on the apex of the 2nd abdominal segment is slightly 
narrowed at the base in the middle. 

Icaria maculifrons, Cam. 

A very dark, blackish example of this species has been 
taken at Merdang in December. 

Icaria artifex, Sauss. 

Two very dissimilar specimens, as regards the size of 
yellow marks and their shape — one from Kuching in March, 
the other from Sadong in August. The usual yellow line on 
the sides of the petiole may be absent or greatly reduced ; the 
shape of the marks on the 2nd abdominal segment varies, and 
the line on the clypeus may be black or red. 

Jour. Straits Brantfa, 

A Pelandok Tale. # 

The story is told that once on a time in the old on days the 
king of a certain country was out hunting, ho had been out 
many days and had got nothing. Owing to the noise that was 
made by all his followers all the animals had run right away. 
A certain pelandok was also running away. While he was 
busy running along glancing to the right and to the left, he 
came to a certain place where there was a pond, into which 
he fell. He swam to the west and ho swam to the east look- 
ing for a place to get up but he could not find one. While he 
was in this fix an elephant passed. Now at that time of day 
there happened to be a very big storm indeed with thunder 
booming and lightning crackling hither and thither. When 
the pelandok saw the elephant, he said to him, " Ho Ka Sang 
Gajah, are you not afraid that the sky will fall in? Just 
listen to the noiso, rum rum." 

The elephant said, " If the sky is really going to tumble 
in, I am afraid it may hit me, and if it hits me I shall die." 

The elephant then said, " What are you doing down 
there in that very deep well ? " 

The pelandok replied, " Oh I have two reasons for being in 
this well, first I ran away from this sky that is going to fall 
in, then secondly I saw very rare game in this well which has 
never been seen by my grand- fathers, great-grand-fathers, 
great-groat-grand-fathers or great-great-great-grand-fathers, 
who were before me." 

The elephant then said, " If that is really so, may I also 
come in and get away from this sky that is on the point of 
failing in ? May I too see this game ? " 

The pelandok said, " If you are frightened and if you want 
to see this game, come along." 

* This tale is by Penghulu Mohamed Noordin bin Jaffa r of Kota 
8tia, Lower I'erak. The source is unknown. 

ft. A. Soc., Xo. 48, 1907. 


So the elephant tumbled right down into tho woll. After 
that a tiger came along, on whom the same trick was played. 
And then a rhinoceros on whom the same trick was played. 
And then a deer on whom the same trick was played. And 
then a wild pig on whom the same trick was played. When 
they were all inside the well, the pelandok said, 41 Hei, I fooled 
you that time." 

When the tiger heard what the pelandok said he (the tiger) 
said, " Very good, Salam di Rimba, if over I get out of this well, 
I will eat you." 

While he was saying this the pelandok took a piece of 
wood and began to tease the elephant. The elephant said, 
" Stop that, or I shall kick you." But the pelandok paid no 
attention and went on teasing. At last the elephant kicked 
him right up on to the ground outside, saying, ** Now you aro 
sure to be killed when struck by the sky." 

The pelandok said, " Oh that was merely my cunning. I 
wanted to get out and could not, so 1 said the sky would fall 

Just then the tiger scrambled up to the edge and got away 
into the jungle, saying as he went " If ever I catch you, I'll 
eat you." 

After that the pelandok went to some people and saidi 
44 Hoo ee . . . . gentles and lords, in that well there, there aro 
many beasts. Elephants, rhinoceroses, pigs and deer have 
fallen into it. You can go and take them." 

After that ho went on his way. The tiger also went on 
bis, looking for the pelandok, but the pelandok kept on moving. 
After two or three days the pelandok came across a very large 
hornets' nest. Indeed the noise of the hornets could be hoard 
about twenty?yards away. He walked on very slowly carrying 
a leaf with him, and then he sat down near the hornets' nest 
which he gentle fanned. A short time aftor he was so seatod 
the tiger came along and said to him, 4< This time I really 
will eat you, Salam di Eimba." 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


The pelandok said, " Don't talk of eating me when I have 
had orders from King Solomon to take care of his gong." 

The tiger said, " Is that really King Solomon's gong that 
you are looking after ? " 

The pelandok answered/ 4 Are you deaf ? Listen care- 
fully. Does not it sound hy itself? When it is struck 
its sound is wonderfully sweet. So delicious is it that perhaps 
if you were to hear it you could neither eat nor sleep." 

The tiger said, " Hei Salam di Kimba, may I try and strike 
it? I am very anxious to listen to the sound." 

The pelandok answered, " Ka Sang Rimau, you are 
speaking like a madman. You are speaking as if it were my 
own. Still I don't know. If you very much want to hear 
it I will go and tell King Solomon. If he allows it, you may 
strike. But mind you strike it when I say you may, and not 

The tiger replied, " Very well.'' So the pelandok rushed 
away. When he got some way off he said, " Ho Ka Sang 
Rimau, King Solomon commands you to strike." When the 
tiger heard that he struck it with his paw. The hornets stung 
him all over his body. The tiger ran here and there in very great 
pain. He threw his whole soul into his running. 

The tiger said, " Very good. I have not got hold of you 
yet : but if ever I do meet you, there is not the slightest doubt 
that I will eat you." 

After that the pelandok walked on very hungry and looking 
for some food. Two or three days later he came across a very 
large and extremely handsomely striped python. Its coils 
were just like a very handsomely striped cloth. The pelandok 
sat down by it. The tiger walked on in a rage looking for the 
pelandok. At last he met him and said to him, " This time 
your doom has overtaken you, Salam di Rimba." 

The pelandok said, " Don't keep on talking of dooms. 
Look first. What is this ? Do you know its name ? " 

B. A. Hoc., No. 48, 1907. 


The tiger went close to look at the python and said, " Hei 
Salam di Rimba, what is this called ? '' 

The pelandok replied, " This is what I have been ordered 
by my lord King Solomon to take care of. It is called King 
Solomon's waist-cloth. This handsome cloth descended to 
him from his ancestors. Its great charm lies in the fact that 
it prevents one from dying. If it is worn for an hour, you are 
not likely to die for at least a year after that." 

The tiger thought, perhaps what he says is true, so he 
said " Hei Salam di Rimba let me put it on for an hour, for I 
am not very well able to search after my food." 

Then Salam di Rimba replied, " Hei Ka Sang Rimau, 
just reflect a moment. Is it right ? I nor my ancestors have 
never seen a cloth like this, lot alone possessed one. This is 
King Solomon's own and I have been ordered by him to take 
care of it. Still if you are really want to try it, wait a bit till 
I first go and lay your request before King Solomon." 

The tiger said, " Make haste Salam di Rimba. for I am 
very hungry." 

So the pelandok rushed off swiftly* A little later he 
called out from a distance. " Ho Ka Sang Rimau, put it on, 
put it on." 

So the tiger took 'the python's head and put it round his 
waist. The snake gave him a terrific squeeze and the tiger 
jumped here and there like a stuck fowl, half dead, struggling 
to escape from the snake's coils. At last he managed to get 
free. He was till more incensed against the pelandok. He 
went on his way looking out for some food, and peering here 
and there for the pelandok. The pelandok also went away from 
that place. At last about five or six days after, he met the tiger. 
The tiger said, " This very day your doom has newly overtaken 
you Salam di Rimba." 

The pelandok answered, " What is to be done ? Still 
I would like to ask you one thing." 

The tiger said, M What do you want to ask ? " 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


The pelandok said, " If you want to eat me please swal- 
low me whole without crunching me. If you crunch me up 
I will live, but if you swallow me, I will die. Then too you must 
swallow me head foremost. If you swallow me tail first I will 
live, but if head first I will die." 

The tiger said, M Very well." Thereafter he swallowed the 
pelandok whole, head first. After he had been swallowed, the 
pelandok worked its way through the tiger's stomach and pro- 
ceeded to stick his head out of the tiger's fundament. The 
tiger rejoiced greatly at having disposed of the pelandok and 
went on seeking for his food. He came across a pig. He 
crouched down to wait for it. The pelandok knew that the 
tiger was lurking for that pig so he called out, " Ho, pig, pig, 
pig, run away. This tiger is going to spring on you." 

When the pig heard that he ran away. The tiger said, 
M Curse this fundament of mine. It is making a noise every 
day. It never used to do that." 

So he searched for a tree stump and rubbed himself 
against it till his back was all bloody. In fact after the tiger 
swallowed the pelandok he never got a tiling to eat and so he 
became very hungry. When he had been several days without 
food, and was ravenously hungry, the tiger went after a man 
who was making a clearing in the jungle, and lay in wait to 
catch him. The pelandok knew that the tiger wanted to 
catch the man who was busy in the clearing so he called out, 
'* Ho you there in the clearing, run away, the tiger wants to 
catch you." 

When the man heard a voice like that he ran off. The 
tiger was very astonished that his hindquarters should speak 
like that. He was very angry indeed with his back. So he 
scratched himself against every tree until he was covered 
with blood. Finally his back became flyblown and covered 
with a great many large maggots. Also he became unable to 
walk owing to the length of time that he had been unable to 
get anything to eat. At last he died. The pelandok also was 
very hungry, for for a long time he too had had no food. He 
was tremendously thirsty. So he got out and went hither and 

E. A. Hoc, No. 48, 1907. 


thither but could get nothing to eat or drink. At last he got to 
a river where he had a drink. He noticed on the other bunk 
fruit which he could eat. Then he looked carefully for 
a minute and thought, " How am I to get across ? I 
don't think I am able, for I am very weak." 

Then he had an inspiration, " I had better call sisters 
Sang Garagi, and say that they have all been ordered by King 
Solomon to come to the top of the water and that I have 
been ordered to take a census of all that are in the river." 

After that all the crocodiles that were in that river came 
to the top of the water. The pelandok said, " Eider sisters 
Sang Garagi, arrange yourselves properly please, head to head 
so that I can count you easily." 

The crocodiles then arranged themselves from one side 
of the river right across to the other bank. After that the 
pelandok jumped on to the heads of the crocodiles counting, 
4 One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten," and 
so on till he got across. When he reached it he jumped up 
on to the dry ground and said, " Hei, that was my cunning. 
I wanted to get across and could not, so I told you of King 
Solomon's order." 

Then he had his meal. The crocodile said, " You had 
better not come here to drink, we will catch you and then only 
will be satisfied." 

Some days after, what with his walking and his looking 
for his food, the pelandok became very thirsty and went to 
the river bank to drink. A crocodile came and caught him 
by the foot. The pelandok said, " Do you think that you 
have caught my foot? Is it not a twig that you have 
caught ? " 

The crocodile thought, " Perhaps that is so, for I do not 
feel any flesh and it tastes just like a piece of wood." 

So the crocodile let go and the pelandok sprang up the 
bank and said, " Hei, that was only my cunning. You really 
had my foot, but I said that it was a branch." 

Jotp. Strait* Branch, 


After that the pelandok went on to the sea side to a place 
where some men lived who had fishing stakes. When he got 
near he heard the men in the fishing village making a com- 
motion because the whole of their fish disappeared, being eaten 
up every day by some animal. The pelandok thought what 
can this be that eats all the men's fish. So one day when all 
the men had gone to sea he crept below a house in the village. 
Ho had lain there only a minute when a giant came along, 
and quite devoured all of the fish in the village. The pelandok 
thought, " It seems that it is this evil giant that is devouring 
all these men's fish." 

Then he said, " Good, to-morrow I will give him some 

After that all the men came back from the sea to the 
village and saw that their fish were again finished. They said, 
" Who is it that devours our fish ? if we only knew we 
would kill him." 

After that the next day the men once more went away to 
sea, and the pelandok came into the village and looked round 
for a piece of rotan with which to make a running noose. 
While he was busy fixing the loop the giant came along to eat 
the fish and found the pelandok busy making the knot. The 
giant said, " Hei Salam di Rimba, what are you doing there? " 

The pelandok replied, " Two things only, first to increase 
the deadliness of my eye teeth and second to make a medicine 
for all stiffnesses of joints or bones." 

A little later the pelandok said, " Granpa, I want to sleep 
a little. Don't disturb me." — " Very well." — " When my eyes 
wink that is a sign that I am asleep." — When my eyes are 
closed that is a sign that I am asleep." 

The pelandok then threw himself down and closed his eyes. 
The giant thought perhaps in a little he will wink. The giant 
saw the pelandok's eyes wink, so he thought that he really was 
asleep. The giant then touched the pelandok 's eye teeth 
saying, " Is this, this very deadly thing ? It ought not to 
be so judging from its size." 

B. iL Soc., No. 48, 19J7. 



After this the pelandok got up from his sleep and the 
giant said, " Hei Salam di Rimba, I want to sleep now." 

The giant really went to sleep, so the pelandok took some 
hot ashes and put them on the giant's paw, while he himself 
sat down a little way off. After that the giant began to hop 
about owing to his burnt hand. The pelandok pretended to 
be alarmed and said, " What has happened granpa to make 
you jump like that ? What is the matter ? " My hand got so 
tremendously hot that I started from my sleep." " Perhaps 
granpa, you interfered with my eye teeth when I was asleep 
just now." " That is true, I did just touch them." " That is 
the deadly poison of my eye teeth, I told you not to touch 
them. And now your body suffers, granpa." 

The giant became rather frightened because of Salam di 
Rimba and his many pieces of magic. The pelandok then be- 
gan to make a knot. The giant said, " What are you doing 
Salam di Rimba ? " "I want to make some medicine for all the 
illnesses of the joints and bones and all tiredness and all pains 
in any part of the body." 

The giant thought, that is true because he knows a great 
deal of magic. So he said, " Salam di Rimba, I am in 
pain, can you give me this medicine ? " "If granpa asks help, 
his grandchild will be glad to give assistance." " Apply it." 

So the pelandok took a loop and passed it round both his 
knees and his elbows and struck the knot till it was quite tight. 
Then he said, " How are you, granpa ? Try and move a little. 
Can you or not ? " " I can't move the least little bit." " Wait 
a little longer and all your illnesses will quite disappear, " I 
am going to look for the leaf of the perambas in the forest 
and also some w 7 ater from a knot of a tree." " Be quick. If 
you are late the owners of the house will all return." 

The pelandok went off into the jungle and never came back. 
A little later the men came back from the sea and found the 
giant trussed up in the house with all his joints securely tied. 
They said, " This is what has been eating our fish all this time." 
So they beat and stabbed the giant till he died. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


The pelandok went on looking for his food up stream and 
down stream. At last he met a man who was busy hollowing 
out a sampan. The pelandok said, " Perhaps you may make 
a boat : perhaps you may not." The man paid close attention 
to what the pelandok was saying and understood that the 
pelandok was making fun of him. So he took a shaving 
and thew it at the pelandok and hit him on the rump, where 
it broke. After that the pelandok went back to find his wife. 
When he reached her he said, " Hooee, hooee, this time pro- 
bably we shall be divorced." His wife replied, " Why do 
you say that ? " Her husband said, " I have been hit by that 
man, who is making a boat with a shaving. This is it on my 

After that in about ten days he died and left his wife who 
was with child. And that is why to this day every pelandok 
has a white chip on his rump. 

A Pelandok Tale. 

AlkSsah makaadalah pada zaraan dahulu kala kapada satu 
hari -raja didalam satu nSgeri itu, pergilah ia bSrburu maka b€- 
bSrapa hari sa'ekor pun tiada dapat. Maka d&ngan s&bah bhana 
bunyi orange raja bSrburu itu, maka sgkalian binatang habis 
88 mu any a bSrkalarian. Maka adalah sa'ekor p£ land ok lari juga 
ia. Didalam ia t&ngah berlarian itu. matanya mSmandang ka- 
kiri, dan ka-kanan, maka tiba-tiba sain pail ah ia kapada satu 
kolam, maka jatohlah ia ka-dalam kolam itu. Dan b&rnang-lah- 
ia ka-barat, dan ka-timor, m&nchari tSmpat h&ndak naik ka- 
atas, tiada 1 ah dapat ia hgndak naik. KSmudian didalam antara 
itu, lalu sa'ekor gajah. Dan waktu itu hari pun tfirlalu besar 
ribut sfcrta halalintar, dan kilat sabong m&nyabong sahaja. 

ft. 1. Soc., No. 48, 1907. 


KSmudian di-t&ngok oleb pfclandok itu gajah, maka kata pSlan- 
dok, " Hei Ka Sang Gajah tiadakati Ka Sang Oajah takut itu 
langit hSndak runtoh, rum ram sahaja bunyinya itu." Maka 
jawab gajah, " Jlkalau be*tul langit hgndak runtoh t£ntu aku di- 
timpanya, maka apabila di-timpanya tSntu aku raati." Maka 
kata gajah, " Apa Sal am di Rimba buat didalam tdlaga yang 
baiigat dalara itu ? " Maka jawab Sal am di Rimba, u Dua p$r- 
kara maksud aku didalam t£laga ini. Pertamauya aku lari 
d&ripada langit hSndak runtoh itu. Kaduanya aku mSlihat 
pSmainan yang sangat Sndah didalam teMaga ini, yang bSlum 
p&rnah di-lihat ojeh da toh nenek moyang munyit aku dahulu 
dahulu." Maka kata gajah, " Jika be*tul bag itu bo 1 eh la h aku, 
Salam di Rimba, m^numpang lari d&ripada langit hSndak runtoh 
s&rta me'nSngok p&mainan itu ? " Maka jawab pSbmdok, " Jika 
takut, dan h&ndak m$n£ngok pSmainan marilah b&rsama-saraa 
kita." KSmudian gajah ini pun terjuulah kadalam telaga itu. 

KSmudian lalu pula ha rim a u dSmikian juga. KSmudian 
lalu pula badak dSmikian juga. KSmudian lalu pula rusa dS- 
mikian juga. KSmudian lalu pula babi dSmikian jugra. Maka 
teMab habislah kadalam tSlaga itu, maka kata p&landok, " ilei 
kechek aku sahaja." Maka t$Uh m£ud$ngarlah harimau itu 
akan pSrkataan p&landok demikian itu, maka kata harimau, 
44 Baiklah kamu Salam di Rimba, jikalau aku 16 pas ddripada 
telaga ini te*ntu akulah makan juga kamu." K&mudian didalam 
antara itu di-ambil oleh pelandok satu kgrat kayu di-petiknya 
buah peMir gajah itu maka kata gajah, " Jangan di-pStik buah 
pelir aku itu, kamu aku sSpakkan sSkarang." Maka tiadalah 
di-fddulikan oleh pSlandok itu, dan pfctiknya juga buah pelir 
gajah itu. K&mudian di-sepakkannya gajah pelandok itu l&pas- 
lah ia ka-darats$rta kata gajah itu, '' Mampuslah kamu di-timpa 
langit" Maka kata p&landok, " Ilei akal aku sahaja. Ilfindak 
naik aku tiada lalu, aku kwtakan langit hSndak runtoh." Maka 
didalam hal yang demikian itu, ini harimau ia panjattdpi tSlaga 
itu, 1 6 pas- 1 ah juga ia ka-darat maka kata harimau itu, u Baiklah 
masihkan aku tiada bSrjumpa dSngan kamu aku hSndak makan 
juga." KSmudian ini pelandok pun pergilah ia pada orang s6r- 
ta ia khabar, katanya, u liuee inche, inche, tuan, tuan itu, 
didalam tftlaga itu, banyak-banyak binatang sudah jatoh, gajah, 
badak, babi, rusa ada disitu, boleh ^Srgi ambil." Habis itu ia 

Jour. Straits Branch 


lalu berjalan. Maka harimau itu bSrjalan ia h$ttdak mftnchari 
pSIandok itu. dan pSlandok itu berjalan juga. 

KSniudian didalam antara dua tiga hari bgrjumpa pula ia 
dgngan satu sarang tabuan yang amat bSsar, kira-kira sapuloh 
dfcpa jauhnya bunyi tabuan itu. Maka b&rjalanlah ia pdrlahan- 
lahan sSrta di-bawanya satu halei daun kayu, lalu dudok dia 
d&kat dSngan sarang tabuan itu di-kirap-kirapuya itu sarang 
tabuan. K3mudian tiada bSrapa lamanya ia dudok di-tSpi 
datanglah harimau kapadanya s&rta kata harimau itu, " Ini 
sakali t$ntulah kamu Sal am di Rimba aku makan." Maka kata 
p&landok itu, " Jangan tSrmakan-makan ; aku ini di-surohkan 
oleh raja Suleyman mSnunggu gongnya." Maka kata harimau, 
11 Yakah gong raja Suleyman yang kamu tuntrgu itu ? " Maka 
jawab p&landok, u Pekakkah t&linga angkau ? Ka Sang Hari- 
mau. choba d$ngar baik-baik. Bukankah ia bSrbunyi sSndiri 
8ahaja ? ini jikalau di-pukol tSrlalu m$rdu bunyinya. Barang- 
kali Ka Sang Harimau tiada lalu makan dan tidor kgrana lazzat 
bunyi gong ini." KSmudian kata harimau, '* Iiei Salam di Rimba 
bo I eh k ah aku hSndak m 6 rasa mSmukolnya ? Saugat aku h8n- 
dak m8nd$ngar bunyiny«." Maka jawab pSlandok, " Ka Sang 
Harimau ini sSpSrti orang gila pula bunyi chakapnya. Itu 
sftpgrti kita punya sSndiri pula rupanya. Entah, jikalau sangat 
h&ndak Ka Sang Harimau mgndSngarnya, bolehlah aku maalum- 
kan pada raja Suleyman. Jika ia bSnarkan boleh Ka Sang Hari- 
mau pukol. Maka apabila aku kata pukollah baharulah Ka San£ 
Harimau pukol. " Maka jawab harimau, " Baiklah." Maka 
p&landok pun b&rhambatlah ia pergi, sSrta sampai-lah ia sudah 
jauh katanya, 4i Ho Ka Sang Harimau, titah raja Suleyman 
pukol-lah." K3mudian di-dSngar oleh harimau ini, maka ia 
pukol dSngan tangannya. Maka sSkalian tabuan itu pun m8ng- 
gigit sSkalian badan harimau ini. Maka ia berlari-larilah ia dSngan 
kasakitannya amat sangat dfcngan sa-habis ujud ia bSrlari-lari 
itu Maka katanya harimau, " Baiklah masih aku tiada berjumpa, 
jika aku berjumpa tSntulah aku makan juga dSngan tiada boleh 

KSmudian ini pglandok pun bSrjalanlah ia dSngan kalaparan 
m&nchari maka nan. Maka antara dua tiga hari bSrjumpalah ia 
dSngan sa-ekor ular sawah yang amat bSsar, yang amat elok 

B. ▲. Sac, No. 48, 1907. 


rupa bSlang kulitnya, sa-umpama kain chindai rupanya, bfcrling- 
kar-lingkar. Maka dudok ia peMandok dSkat lingkir sawah itu. 
Dan harimau pun bgrjalanlah ia d$ngan marahnya akan p&landok 
itu. Maka didalam hal dSmikian bSrjurapalah dSngan itu pSlau- 
dok. Maka kata harimau, " Sa-kali ini sampailah bukum angkau, 
Salam di Rimba." Maka kata pglandok, " Jangan t8bukum-huk- 
um sahaja. Te*ngok dahulu, ini apa adakah, Ka Sang Hari- 
niau tahu apa namanya ?" Maka dfckatlah harimau mSnSngok- 
lah saw a. Maka kata harimau, " Hei Salam di Rimba, apa 
namanya ini ?" Maka jawab Salam di Rimba, *' Inilah aku di- 
surohkan oleh tuanku raja Suleyman mSnunggunya, namanya 
ikat bftngkong raja Suleyman, ia itu kain chindai deripada datoh 
neneknya dahulu-dahulu. Satu orang punya tiada boleh niang- 
katkan faidahnya, jika satu jam kira-kira salama-lama satu tahun. 
K&mudian fikir harimau, " Itu bStul juga barang-kali." Kata 
harimau, "Hei Salam di Rimba berilah aku m&rasa didalam satu 
jam sahaja jadi, kerana aku tiada lalu sangat mSnchari makan 
ini/* Kftmudian jawab Salam di Rimba " Liei Ka Sang Hari- 
mau choba-lah tikir, adakah layak ? Aku punya barang sa-ma- 
cham ini dSripada datoh nenek aku pun tiada p$rnah melihatnya, 
jangan mSnarob-nya sa-macham ini. Maka kain ini tuanku raja 
Suleyman punya. Dan aku di-titahkannya mSnunggunya sahaja. 
Jika Ka Sang Harimau h&ndak merasanya, nantilah aku sfirabah- 
kan pada tuanku raja Suleyman dahulu." Maka kata harimau, 
" PSrgilah Salam di Rimba lSkas.lftkas, aku ini tgrlalulah 
laparnya." Maka pSrgi.ah p8 land ok kSjar yang amat deras. 
KSmudian sa- bun tar lagi kata pglandok d£ri jauh, " Ho Ka 
Sang Harimau ikatlah, ikatlah." Maka di-ambil oleh harimau 
itu kSpala sawah itu, di-ikatkaunya pada pinggacgnya. Maka 
di-jSrut oleh sawah itu pinggang harimau sa-bagi jdrut yang 
amat kuat, maka mSnggluparlah harimau bSrhambat kasana 
ka-mari, h&ndak m$l§paskan diri d8ri jSrut sawah itu, sa- 
paroh mati. DSngan kalamaamnya te*rl8paslah dSripada sawah 
itu. Maka makin bSrtanibahlah marah harimau itu akan pSlan- 
dok itu. Maka bSrjalanlah harimau ini mSnchari makannya 
s£rta m$ngintai-intai pelandok itu. Dan p&landok itu pun b$r- 
jalan pula dSripada tSmpat. Adalah kira-kira lima anam hari 
antaranya, maka Wrjuinpa pula d£ngan harimau itu. Maka 
kata harimau itu, " Sa-hari ini baharulah sampai hukum kamu, 

Jour. Strait* Branch, 


Salara di Rimba." Maka jawab pglandok, " Apa boleh buat? 
TStapi aku bSndak berpSsan sSdikit." Maka jawab harimau, 
" Apa kamu hSndak r^san itu?" Maka jawab pSlandok, 
" Jikalau Ka S*ng Harimau hendak makan aku, hSndaklah di- 
tSlan sahaja, jangan di-kunyah. Apabila di-kunyah aku hidop. 
Apabila di-tfclan aku mati. Dan-lagi hSndak di-dabulukaa 
kfcpala. Apabila di-dahulukan ekor tSntu aku hidop. Apabila 
di-dahulukan kSpala tentu aku mati." Maka kata harimau. 
"Baiklah." KSmudian di-t81anlah dan di-dahulukan kSpala 
p£landok itu. Maka apabila sudah di-t81an lalulah pSlandok ini 
kSluar k$p*lanya sa-k6rat tersSmbor di-lobang burit harimau 
ini Maka baharulah kuat hati harimau ini. 

K&mudian ini harimau bSrjalanlah ia hSndak m£nchari 
makan ny a, dan berjumpa dSngan sa-ekor babi. Maka ini hari- 
mau pun mSngSndap, m8ngSndap-lah ia. Maka tahu oleh 
pftlandok ini harimau mgngSudap babi. Maka kata pSlandok 
*' lio. babi, babi, pSrgilah angkau lari. Ini harimau hSndak 
mSnerkam angkau." KSmudian di-d8ngar babi d&mikian itu 
bunyinya, maka ia pun laiilah. Maka kata harimau, " Ini pung- 
goog chSlaka ini, bSrbunyi pula sa-hari-hari. Tiada p&rnah 
dSmikian itu pula." Maka di-chari satu tunggul di-gunyah- 
gunjahnya akan punggongnya itu, lalu luka berdarah. Maka 
sa-lama ini harimau mSnSlan pelandok beUum pSrnah ia mSnda- 
pat sSdikit makan, dan tSrlalu laparnya, dfingan bfcrapa hari 
sudah tiada dapat makan. Maka bSrjalanlah harimau ini d$n^an 
kalaparannya, pSrgi mSndapatkan orang tSngah mSnSbas ladang. 
Makam£ng£ndap,endaplah iahSdakmSnangkap orang itu tSngah 
m£n£bas ladang. Maka di-katahui oleh pSlandok ini akan 
harimau iui bSndak mSnangkap orang tSngah mSuSbas itu 
Maka kata pSlandok " II o orang tgngah mSnebas, pSrgilah, 
angkau lari, ini harimau hSndak mSnangkap angkau." SSrta 
di-d£ngar oleh orang itu suara yang dgmikian itu, maka ia pun 
larilah. Maka ini harimau tSrlalulah ia bairan akan punggong- 
nya bdrchakap itu, s&rta sangat marahnya akan punggongnya 
itu, lilu ia 5ental-s8ntal-kan punggonyang itu kapada sSgala 
kayu dSngan berdarah -da rah. Maka dSngan kalamaannya ini 
punggong* harimau Wrulat-ulatlah dSngan bSrapa ulat amat 
banyak. Dan harimau ini pun lamanya sudah tiada dapat makan 
lagi maka tiada 1 ah lalu ia bdrjalan lagi lalu ialah mati- mati. 

E. A. 8oc., No. 48, 1907. 


Maka ini pSlandok pun sangatlah laparlah dftngan bfcrapa 
lama tiada bSrjumpa makanan dttngan sangat dahaga. Maka 
k&luarilab lalu bSrjalan ka-sana ka-sini tbda dapat makan, dan 
minum. Maka pSrgilah ia ka-tgpi sungai lalu minum, maka 
t&rpandang akan pgmakanannya. KSmudian t$ruj£nong ia sa- 
k&jap (ikir ia, " Apalah bal aku hgndak mfinySbSrang tiada lalu 
kgrana badan aku sangat IStihnya. " Didalam hal itu dapat ia 
akal sSdikit, '• Baik aku panggil kakak Sang Garagi, Utah tuanku 
raja Su ley man m$nnyurohkau timbul, aku di-titahkan mSmbi- 
langkannya, b£rapa banyak yang ada di-sungai ini." KSroudian, 
maka di- timbul buaya bSkalian yang ada di-dalam sungai itu. 
Maka kata p£landok, " Kakak Sang Garagi bSrsusunlah kgpala 
bfttul-bStul, supaya s$nang aku mSmbilangkannya." KSinudian 
bersusunlah buaya dSri t&pi s6b8rang disini hingga sampai ditftpi 
sftbSrang sana. KSmudian mSlompatlah p&landok ini ka-atas 
kdpala buaya itu, s&rta raemHIangkan katanya, u Satu, dua, tiga, 
ampat, lima, anam, tujoh, lapan, sfcmbilan, sapuloh." DSmikian 
hingga sampai sSbSrang. Maka apa^ila tiba ia ka-s$b£rang 
m&lorapatlah ia ka-darat sSrta katanya, " Hei akal aku sahaja aku 
bSndak m$ny8b8iang tiada-lah lalu, aku katakan titab raja 
Suleyraan." KSmudian ia pun makanlah. Maka kata buaya, 
" Baiklah angkau tiada turuu minum, aku tangkap juga, baharu 
puas hati aku." Maka derigan bSrapa lamanya ini, pSlandok 
dfingan bSrjalan mSnchari makan kapada satu hari sangatlah ia 
dahaga hSndak minum. KSmudiau turunlah ia kn-tfcpi sungai 
lalu ia minum. KSmudian datang buaya tangkap ini pdlandok, 
maka kata p&landok, " Pada fikiran Kakak Sang Garagi tan y an 
akukah angkau tangkap itu ? Bukankah ranting kayu yang angkau 
tangkap?" Maka fikiran buaya, " Barangkali juga, kSrana tiada 
b&rasa d aging hanylah sSpfcrti rasa ranting kayu." Maka didalam 
hal, maka di-fepaskan oleh buaya ini p£landok, jadi mSlompatlah 
ia ka-darat sSrta kata pSlandok, u Hei akal aku sahaja, tangan 
bdtul angkau tangkap aku katakan ranting kayu." 

KSmudian pglandok ini bSrjalan pula ia ka-t$pi laut pada 
bagan orang mSnjfcrmal. Maka dSkat pula ia dSngan bagan itu, 
maka di-d8ngar-nya orang, orang bagan itu gSmpar akan habis 
hilang ikannya, di-makan bin a tang tiap-tiap hari bagitu. Maka 
fikir pfclandok, ini apa pula yang mSmakan ikan ini orang. Maka 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


satu hari Drang pun sudah habis pSiyi ka-lautdatang ia kabawah 
rum ah bagan itu, dudok ia mSnq^ndap, sa-buntar datang nenek 
gergasi ka-rumah bagan itu, mSmakan sSgala ikan, ikan orang 
sfimua-s&mua didalam bagan itu. Maka fikir pglandok, u Rupa 
gSrgasi ch&laka ini yang mSinakan ikan orang ini." Maka kata- 
nya, " Baik Ssok boleh aku bSri ubat kapadanya." Kgmudian 
balik, bali k lab orang, orang bagan itu, de*ri laut di-tengokDya 
ikannya sudah habis juga. Maka kata orang, " Siapa juga yang 
m&makan ikan aku ini ? Jika aku tahu tSntu aku bunoh akan dia." 
KSmudian Ssok hari pergi pula orang itu ka-laut, maka ini 
pS I and ok datanglah ia lain naik bagan itu, dan di-charinya rotan 
di-pSrouatnya satu simpai. Maka tSngah ia mgnip&rbuat simpai 
itu, datanglah nenek gergasi he*ndak mSraakan itu ikan, bSrjumpa 
pula dengan pSlandok tSngah mSmbuat simpai itu. Maka kata 
nenek gergasi itu, " Hei Salam di Rimba apa angkau buat itu ? " 
Maka jawab pglandok, " Sail y a ini nenek, t&ngah bSramalkan 
almu yang di-ajerkan oieh guru sahya dahulu." Maka kata ggr- 
gasi itu, •' Apa almu Salam di Rimba yang di-anialkan itu ? " 
Maka . jawab pdlandok, ** Dua pSrkara sahaja : yang pertama 
mSndatangkan bisa genih sahya ini, ka-duanya ubat lengoh sSgala 
sSndi tulang-tulang." KSmudian kata pSlandok, '* Nenek sahaya 
h$ndak tidor sa-kejap, tStapi jangan sahaya nenek usik-usik." 
Maka jawab ggrgasi " Baik." " Maka tanda sahya tidor chelek 
mata sahya." " Dan tanda sahya jika, pejam mata sahya." Maka 
pSlandok pun merSbahkan dirinya sSrta dengan pe* jam matanya. 
Maka fikir ggrgasi, " Salam di Rimba, jika lagi sabuntar chelek 
matanya/' Maka di-t$ngok gSrgasi matanya chelek itu, ,fikiran- 
nya ini pglandok sudah tidor. Maka di-rasa oleh nenek gergasi 
ggnihnya itu katanya, " Inilah rupanya yang bisa sangat ! Tiada 
patut dSngan bSsarnya." Habis ini p^ I and ok pun bangkit de*ri- 
pada tidornya. Maka kata gergasi, " Hei Salam di Rimba aku 
pula hSndak tidor." Maka tidorlah nenek ini d$ngan sa-bSnar, 
b$narnya. Maka di-ambil pSlandok bara api, di-bubohnya di-atas 
tangan ggrgasi. Maka ia dudok jaub-jauh. KSmudian mSnglu- 
porfah gergasi itu kahangataunya dSngan tangannya. Maka 
pura-pura terkejutlah pglandok ini kata, " Apa ke*na nenek 
mdnglupor sahaja ? apa sSbabnya ? " Maka kata nenek," TSrlalu 
haqgat tangan aku ini, hingga terk&jutlah aku dSripada tidor." 
Maka kata p&landok, " Barangkali ada nenek usik g8nih sahya, 

E. A. Soc., No, 48, 1007. 


waktu sabya t&ogah tidor tadi." "Maka jawab nenek, " B6tnl ada 
aku usik sSdikit." Maka kata pSlandok, " Itulah rasa bisa gSnih 
sahyaitu, maka sabya khabarkan pada nenek jangandi-usik, nenek 
usek jugH ; jadi, mSnanggong badan nenek." Maka ini nenek 
ge*rgasi b&rasalah takut didalam hatinya akan Salara di Rimba 
kg r ana ia orang yan^ banyak almunya. Maka ini pelandok 
mau buat simpai. K3mudian kata nenek gergasi, " Apa Salam 
<ii Rimba buat itu?" Maka jawab Salam di Rimba, " Sahya 
bSndak buat ubat pSnyakit yang k8na didalam sSndi dan tulang 
dan lSugoh luinpoh sSkilian badan." Fikir nenek be*tul juga 
kSrana ia orang yang banyak almu. Maka kata nenek, " Salam 
di Rimba aku ini didalam k8na penyakit itu, boleh Salam di 
Rimba kSnakan ubat itu kapada aku ? " Maki jawab Salam 
di Rimba, "Jika nenek minta tolong boleh cbuchu toloug." 
Maka kata nenek, u Ke*nakanlah." . Maka lalu di kSnakan 
pSlandok itu simpai kapada kadua lutut dan kadua siku 
nenek itu, di-pukol kStat-ketat. KSraudian kata pSlaniok, 
" Apa khabar nenek? (Jhoba g8rak-g8rak. Lalukah atau 
tidak." Maka jawab nenek, " Tiada sa-kali-kali lalu aku b$r- 
ggrak sgdikit juapun." Maka kata pSlandok, "Nantilah sSdikit 
lagi, sSkalian penyakit nenek sSmuanya habis hilang nanti sabya 
p8rgi cbari daun kayu perambas didalam hutan dan ayer buku 
kayu." Maka kata nenek, " PSrgilah lSkas-lSkas. Jikalau 
lambat nanti tuan rumah ini tiba pula. Maka pelandok pSrgi- 
lah ia masok butan, tiada balik lagi. Maka sa-buntar juga tiba 
orang dSri laut, di-libatnya t&rjerabun sahaja ggrgasi di-atas 
rumahnya sSrta sudah kfcna simpai s&ndinya. Maka kata oran^ 
itu. " Inilah yang inSmakan ikan aku salama ini." Maka ia pukol 
dan tikamlah lalu mati gSrgasi ini. 

Maka pelandok pun berjalanlah ia pergi m8nchari makanan- 
nya ka-hulu dan ka-hilir. KSmadian tiba berjumpa pula 
ia dSngan orang t&ngah berbahan sampan. Maka kata pelandok, 
"Ini olah-olah jong, olah-olah ngin." * Maka di-amat-amati 
orang itu perkataan pSlandok. Maka hfcrti-lah orang itu, pe>- 
kataan pelandok mfinjejib-jejih dia,dandi-ambilnyasa-kepingtatal 

* "Ini olah-olah jong, olah-olah ngin." No good explantion can 
be had of these words, the best translation seems to be " Perhaps, per- 
haps not." The phrase is said to be unintelligible except to the best 
educated Perak Malays. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


di-lotarkannya pglandok itu, kSna pada pungrgongnya lalu pa tab. 
Kftraudian ini pglandok pun balik ia mendapkatan p£r8mpuan- 
nya. Maka s$rta sampai kapada p$r£inpuannya. katanya, u Hui, 
hoi, sa-kali iui barangkali kita bSrchSrailah." Maka jawab 
p£r8mpuannya, " Apa sSbab mika bgrkata bagitu ?" Maka kata 
pglandok jantan ini, " TSman sudah kena l&mpar oleh orang 
bgrbahan d$ngan tatalnya. Inilah tatalnya 18kat pada pung- 
gong t£man ini." KSmudian adalah antara sapuloh hari p&landok 
jantan pun lalu matidan pgrSmpuan tinggal didalam ia bunting. 
Maka d&ngan katurunan itu lab juga sampai sSkarang tiap, tiap 
sa-ekor pSlandok adalah tatal pada panggongnya itu. Tamat. 

B. A. 80c, No. 48, 1007 

The Pfelandok, His Adopted Son 
and Pa' Si Bago'- * 

The story is told that once on a time in the olden days a 
certain man was busy digging a well when a pelandok passed 
by. The pelandok said, ' What is the use of this man making 
a well ! He is only tiring himself." The man then got out 
to throw things at the pelandok, but he missed. The pelandok 
ran off. After the well was done the man went away home 
to his house. The pelandok too came strolling back to the 
edge of the well, when quite unexpectedly he happened to 
tumble right down into it. He tried to get out and could not. 
While in this fix a wild pig passed by. The pelandok called 

" Ho Ka Sang Babi, where are you going to ? " 

The pig said, " Salam di Rimba, what are you doing 
there ? " 

" I am sitting here playing and amusing myself, for as long 
I can ever remember I can never recollect a pleasure like this." 

May I too come in ? " 

If you want to come in you may. But are you willing 
to promise ? '' 

" Promise what ? " 
Don't be long : you must only be a very short time." 
Very well," 
Jump down." 

And the pig then sprang right down into the well. 

Afterwards a rhinoceros passe J by on whom the same trick 
was played. Then a barking deer, then a sambhur deer. 

* This story is told by I'enghulu that Noordin of Kota Stia, who 
learnt it from the Lekah binti Jainan, who was of genuiue Perak 

*W Straits Brnncli, B. A. Soc., No. 48, 1097. 





Last of all a bull elephant passed by, to whom Salam di Bimba 

" Ho elephant ! elephant ! ! are you not afraid the sky is 
going to topple over? ". 

For at this time it looked very like a great rain storm with 
thunder and thunderbolts. The elephant answered, " Is that 
time ? " 

Salam di Bimba said, " Of course it is true. Just look : 
all of us have run and huddled together here. Why ? We fear 
that the sky will fall in." 

The elephant said, " If that is so, I had better come down 

The pelandok said, " Come down quickly." So the ele- 
phant came down and entered into the well. As soon as he 
was right in the pelandok took a piece of wood and began to 
tease the elephant. The elephant said, " Stop that. Look 
out, or I will kick you up outside where you will certainly 
perish struck by the fall of the sky." But the pelandok paid 
no attention and went on teasing, so the elephant became very 
angry indeed and at last he kicked the pelandok, hurling him 
right up outside. Salam di Bimba was very glad when he 
found himself outside, and said, 

" Hei, I fooled you nicely that time. I fell into that well, 
and could not climb out, so I said that the sky would fall in." 

Just then the noise of a drum being beaten in a neighbour- 
ing village was heard, so Salam di Bimba went to the drum 
beater. On arriving he found that he was making pre- 
parations for the marriage of his daughter. Salam di Bimba 
said, " Ho gentlemen and lords, if you happen to want 
to eat barking deer or sambhur deer, just go and get them 
in that well over there." The people simply fell over one 
another in their rush to see that well. When they got 
there they saw that what Salam di Bimba said was quite 
true. So they killed the elephant and the other animals, 
while they cut the throats of the sambhur deer and the bark- 
ing deer. And they made a feast of the deer. When all the 

Jour. Straits Branch 


men and all the women were in the middle of the feast Salam 
di Rimba went up into the house and began to upset the 
ceremonial rice and eggs and to eat them. At once an uproar 
arose in the house and some said, " The pelandok has come 
to attack us, we had better catch and kill him." When they 
chased him he took up a small pillow and got on to the ridge 
pole of the house. When they beat up stream he seemed ta 
be down stream : when they beat down stream he seemed to 
be up stream. While this was going on he let the pillow fall 
to the ground. They all thought that this was the pelandok 
so they all stabbed at it, while he slipped down on the other 
side and got away. So they all went up into the house again. 

After that Salam di Eimba took a large piece of clotted 
rice from a big pot and taking it to the river embarked in it 
and paddled away. After some time he reached another 
village where he met a boy. Salam di Rimba said, " What 
are you doing here ? " The boy replied, " Nothing in parti- 
cular." Salam di Rimba said, " If that is so, come and let us 
sail away together." The boy said, " Very well." So both of 
them got into the boat and sailed away. 

At last they came to a certain reach where they stopped 
for a time. And there they met a Pa' Si Bago\ * that is a big 
solitary monkey (brok). Salam di Rimba said to him, " Pa, 
Si Bago\ what are you doing here?" Pa' Si Bago' replied, 
" I am doing nothing just now." Salam di Rimba said, " If 
you are doing nothing, come along with us." Pa' Si Bago' 
replied, M All right, let the three of us sail away together." 

Now after some time they arrived at a certain country 
which had been laid waste by a tiger. Few and sparse were 
the people of the land. One morning Salam di Rimba met a 
man, an inhabitant of the land, who was dawdling along. 
Salam di Rimba said to him, 

* Pak si Bajok, ia itu berok tunggal. There is only one other story 
known to Mat Noordin about P.-ik si Bajok (see p. 66 of Journal No. 
47) Nor is there any farther adventure of Pak si Bajok that he can 
relate in this tale. 

It. A. Soc., No. 48, 1907. 


" Ho sir, why is this country so silent ? " 

The man replied, " It has been laid waste by a tiger." 

Salam di Bimba said, " Yon can tell your king that it is 
not very hard to kill that tiger." 

So the man went and told the king what Salam di Rimba 
had said. Then he went to call Salam di Rimba, for the king 
had said, " Go and call this Salam di Rimba." So he went to 
call him. When he found him he told him of the King's com- 
mand. Salam di Rimba replied, " Very well." So they went 
away together. When they arrived, the king said, " Is it true 
that you have said to this man that you can kill the tiger ? " 

Salam di Rimba replied, "With the aid of your Majesty's 
effluence, God willing, your slave will slay the tiger. But 
prithee bestow on your slave a vessel full of bird lime and two 
bags of cotton." 

The king ordered the bird lime and the cotton to be pro- 
duced. When they had both been brought they were given 
to Salam di Rimba, who said, 

" Pardon my lord, a thousand thousand pardons, peradven- 
ture the tiger will die, what will be the reward of your slave ? " 

The king said, " If the tiger dies, I will give you my 
daughter in marriage." Salam di Rimba replied, ' Very well." 

He enquired from what direction and at what time the 
tiger came. He was told that it was at evening. People 
bearing the jar of bird lime and the cotton went along with 
him to show him the place. When he arrived there he sat 
down and ordered the people who had brought the bird lime 
and the cotton to return to their homes. A short time after 
the tiger came along and met him. Salam di Rimba said, 
" Ka Sang Rimau, where are you going ? " 




I am going to attack this country." 

How long have you been waging war upon this land ? " 

About three months." 

Jour. Straits Branch, 



" Why have you been so long without running riot through 
the country and subduing it ? Perhaps you have no magic. 
For if perchance you had the proper magic you must inevit- 
ably subdue this country." 

" Teach me this magic, so that I may be enabled to subdue 
this country." 

Perhaps if I teach you, you will not believe me." 


If you teach me I will certainly believe you." While 
they were talking thus the tiger observed the jar of bird lime 
and the cotton, and said, " What is this, Salam di Bimba ? " 

Salam di Bimba answered, " This is it, this is the great 
magic. If you apply this to your body, your body must ine- 
vitably increase in strength and your courage will also become 

The tiger said, " Please apply it to my body." 

So Salam di Bimba spread the bird lime all over his body 
and face and eyes. Afterwards he did the same with the 
cotton. Then when this work was all finished and the tiger 
had been blinded he called the people all together and ordered 
them to set fire to all the lalang grass in that place- So the 
people fired the grass. The tiger hurled himself upstream and 
downstream, but the fire caught him and devoured him and he 
forthwith died. After that the people went to tell the king. 
And the king rejoiced greatly at the news that the tiger had 
died. Salam di Bimba went before the king and made obei- 
sance saying, 

"Pardon my lord, the tiger has been safely destroyed, 
and now your slave would claim the fulfilment of your former 
promise." The king said, 

" When I am ready I will fulfil my promise." 

So the king made great preparations for the marriage of 
his daughter with the pelandok. Salam di Bimba said, 

" Please do not marry her to your slave, for your slave is 
only an animal. Let my lord marry her to my ad&pted son." 

B. A. Soc, No. 43, 1907 



The king was glad for a man had been substituted for an 
animal. Seven days and seven nights were spent in prepara- 
tions and then the king's daughter was married to Salam di 
Bimba's adopted son. 

After many days the king's son-in-law urged Salam di 
Bimba to return because he wanted to see his mother once 
more. Salam di Bimba approved, and so the boy abandoned 
his wife and the two of them set off together. 

At last they reached their own country, and the boy once 
more met his mother. His mother wept for joy for she 
thought that he was dead. They lived there a long time. One 
day Salam di Bimba met his adopted son and said to him, 

" Why has your mother lived so long as a widow ? In 
my opinion the blade is all the better for a haft." 

The boy replied, "lam afraid that she will be angry 
with me." 

Salam di Bimba said, " Don't speak to her about this 
when she is busy, nor when she is hungry." 

The boy replied, " All right." 

So one day when his mother was reclining after dinner he 
went close to her and said, " Mother the blade is the better 
for the haft." 

His mother replied and said, " I want no husband, I had 
better live alone." 

The boy made no answer. 

Five or six days after the boy once more met Salam di 
Bimba who said to him, " I think that you ought to coax 
your mother. What has she done that she should live solitary 
like this? People who see will say that it is not proper. 
Even if we really do what is right, they will say that we do 

When the boy heard what Salam di Bimba said, he saw 
that he wan right. So he coaxed his mother. At last his 
mother came to think so too. Thus in the end Salam di 
Bimba married the boy's mother. They lived happily there. 

Jour. Strait* Branch, 


But after some time Salam di Bimba wanted to return to his 
own country and urged his adopted son to go with him. The 
boy agreed and so they both went off together. They went 
into forests and out of forests, up mountains and down moun- 
tains, on to plains and across plains. At last they reached a 
densely populated country. When they got there Salam di 
Bimba became a man, for he was the king of that country. 
He lived there very happily with his wife and his child. The 
king married his own daughter to his adopted son, and both 
the king and his wife were very happy over it. 

The Pelandok, His Adopted Son and Pa* Si Bago\ 

Alkg?ah maka adalah pada masa zaman dahulu kala, ada 
suatu bari ada satu orang t$n?ah mSngorek p§rigi, maka da tang 
sa'ekor pglandok, maka kata \ Slandok, " Apalah gunanya orang 
ini buat pSrigi, buat p&nat sabaja ! " Maka naiklah orang itu 
lalu di-lotar itu pelandok, tiada kSna, maka iapuu lari. Maka 
pSrigi pun sudah, ia orang pun balik, balik ka-rumabnya. Maka 
ini pSlandok pun da tang pula bSrjalan jalan pada t&pi p$rigi itu. 
Maka tiba-tiba lalu jatoh pula ia ka-dalam pSrigi itu. Maka ia 
h&ndak naik tiada boleh. 

Maka didalam antara itu lalu pula sa'ekor babi. Maka 
kata pSlandok itu, u II ei Ka Sang Babi, hSndak kamana itu?" 
Maka jawab babi, " Tiada kamana, aku hSndak mSncbari 
makan." Maka kata babi " £alam di Rimba, apa di-buat itu ? " 
Maka jawab Salam di Rimba, " Aku ini dudo' bermainmain 
bfirsSnang diri dan bSrsuka, kSrana bSlum pSrnah aku mSrasa 
d&ripuda zaman dato' nenek aku suka machara ini." Maka kata 
babi, " Bolehkab aku mSnumpang sa-orang ? " Maka kata 
Salam di Rimba, " Jika hSndak rasa bolah juua, tdtapi maukah 
berjanji?" Maka kata babi, " Apa janjinya ? " Maka jawab 
Salam di Rimba, •• Janganlah lama, biar sa bun tar sabaja. " 
Maka kata babi, " Baiklah." Maka kata Salam di Rimba, 

E. A. Soc., No. 4«, 1907. 


" Turunlah ! " Maka babi pun lalu tdrjunlah ka-dalam pSrigi 
itu. K&mudian lalu pula sa'ekor bidak, dSmikian juga. KSmu- 
dian lalu pula sa'ekor kijangr. dSmikian jaga. KSmudian lalu 
pula sa'ekor rusa, demikian juga. 

K£mudian lalu pula sa'ekor gajah jantan, maka kata Salam 
di Rimba, "Ho, gajah! gajah!! tiadakah takut lan/it h$ndak 
runtoh ? " KSrana waktu itu. hari h$ndak hujan sSrta halalin- 
tar dan pStir. Maka jawab gajah, '' ttetulkah ? " Maka kata 
Salam di Rimba, " Apakah pula tiada betul ? Chubalah tengo' ; 
kami iui sudah bSrhimpun lari s&muanya kamari takut akan 
langit itu h&ndak runtoh ! " Maka kata gajah, " Jikalau bagitu, 
m£numpanglah aku sama-sama Saiam di Rimba di sini?" Maka 
jawab Salam di; Rimba, "Turunlah lSkas ! " Maka gajah itu 
pun turunlah, masok ka-dalam perigi itu. Maka di-ambil oleh 
Salam di Rimba satu k£rat kayu, maka di pfctiknyalah buah pfclir 
gajah itu. Maka kata gajah, " Jangan di-pdtik buah pe*lir aku 
ini, kamu sSkarang nanti aku sepakkan ka-darat itu, t&ntulah 
kamu mati di-tirapa langit ! " Maka tiada juga di-f$dulikan 
oleh Salam di Rimba. di-petiknya juga. Maka sangat sakit hati 
gajah itu lalu di-sepakkannya terpalantin ka-darat. Maka suka 
hati Salam di Rimba ia sudah I Spas ka-atas, maka kata Salam 
di Rimba, " Uei kechek aku sahaja, aku sudah t£rjatoh ka-dalam 
perigi itu, payah aku hSndak naik, aku katakan langit hendak 

Maka wakfa itu tSrdSngarlab bunyi gSndang orang di- 
dalam kampong itu, maka balam di Rimba pergilah ia \ ada 
orang yang m&mukol gSndang itu, tiba-tiba orang itu t&ngah 
dudok kfirja h$ndak mSnikthkan anaknya. Maka kata Salam di 
Rimba. " lio, inche-inche, tuan-tuan, jika hfindak makan rusa 
dan kijang. pgrgilah ambil didalam pgrigi disablah darat itu." 
Maka bdrhambatlah se^ala oranar-orang uiglihat p€rigi itu, 
maka sfirta tiba dilihat orang-orang sSmuanya bStul sdpSrti 
chrtkap Salam di Rimba itu. Maka di-bunoh orang sSgala gajah 
dan lainnya, dan di-sSnibSieh oranglah rusa dan kijang, maka 
di-khaudurikan oranglah itu rusa dan kijang. 

Maka apabila bgrhimpun orang laki-laki dan pSrSmpuan 
tSngah makan, maka naik Salam dl Rimba ka-rumah itu di- 
kacnaunyalah nasi tioggi dan tSlor pada nasi tinggi itu, di- 

Jour, Siraiti Branch, 


makannya. Maka gadohlah orang di-dalam rumah itu, maka 
kata sa-t$ngahnya, " Pglandok sudab datang mSlanggar kita, 
baiklab kita tan^kap bun oh akan dia." Maka di-hambatlah 
orang akan dia. Maka sudab hambat oleh orang akan dia, maka 
di ambilnya satu biji bantal, di-bawa naik ka-atas tulang bum- 
bong. Di-hauibat orang ka-hulu, dia ka-hilir, dan di-hambat 
ka-hilir dia ka-hulu. Maka di-dalam antara itu di-jatohkanuya 
ini bantal ka-tanah Maka mSuyangka se^ala orang itulah 
Poland ok itu. KSmudian di-t6rka-iilah oranglah kapada tSmpat 
bantal itu. Maka in pun tgrjunlah kapada lain tSmpat, maka 
ldpaslah ia dSripada di-hambat orang itu. Ma pa sdmua orang 
naik ka-rumab. 

Kdraudian datang ia Salamdi Rimba. di-ambilnya * krak di- 
dalam satu kawah besar, maka dibawanya ka-sungai, maka 
berkayohlah ia didalam krak itu. Maka tiba satu kampong 
yang lain pula bgrjumpa ia den^an satu orang budak. Maka 
kata Salara di Rimba, u Apa kamu buat p£k£rjaan di-sini ? " 
Maka jawab budak itu u Tid'apa." Maka kata Sal am di 
Rimba, " Kalau ba^itu, marilah kita bglayar." Maka kata 
budak itu *• Baiklab." Maka kaduanya turunlah ka-dalam krak 
itu, bSlayarlah dia. Maka tiba pula satu telo* singgab pula ia. 
Maka b&rjuuipa pula dSngan sa'ekor Pa' Si Bago', iaitu brok 
ttmggal. Maka kata Salam di Rimba, '■ Pa' Si Bago, ini apa 
p&k8rjaan ini ? " Maka jawab Pa' Si Bago" 4< Tiada apa aku 
buat" Maka kata Salam di Rimba, •* Jika tiada Pa' Si Bago' 
buat, baiklah kita bfclayar." Maka jawab Pa' Si Bago', " Baik- 
lab." RSUyarlah tiga-tiga di-dalam satu krak itu. 

Maka antara bdrapa lamanya, maka tibalah satu i»6g$ri 
yang lain maka di-dalam i»6g8ri itu sudah di-aUhkan oleh sa- 
ekor harimau, lSnganglah orang di-dalam n&g&ri itu. Maka 
ada satu pagi berjumpalah ini Salam di Rimba sa-orang ; orang 
di-dalam ndgSri itu, bSrjalan d$ngan pgrlahan-lahan. Maka 
kata Salam di Rimba, u Hei, orang, apatah k&nanya sunyi 
sahaja di-dalam n£g$ri ini ? " Maka jawab orang itu, " Sudab 
di-alahkan oleh sa-ekor rimau jantan." Maka kata Salam di 

Note. — * Krak. The teller declares that this is a piece of clothed 
rice from a big pot. Is it possibly the Port#use word "carrack * 
the explanatory words which follow having been added as a gloss ? 

a A. So&, No. 48, 1907. 


Kimba, " Bolehkah inche khabarkan pada raja, tiada bSrapa 
payah hSndak mSmbunoh harimau itu ? " Maka orang itu pun 
kbabarkanlab pada raja hal p$rkataan Salam di Rimba. Maka 
orang itu pun pSrgi inSraanggil Salain di Kimba. Maka Utah 
Raja, " Pergi kamu panggil itu Salam di Rimba." Maka orang 
itu pnn pe>gi mSmanggil Salam di Rimba. S6rta sampai ia, 
maka di-khabarkannya Utah raja itu. Maka jawab Salam di 
Rimba. " Baiklah." Maka iapun pSrgi bersania-sama dSngan 
orang itu. 

Maka serta sampai, maka titah raja, " Iakah Salam bercba- 
kap pada orang ini boleh Salam di Rimba ra$rnbunoh harimau 
itu ? " Maka jawab Salam di Rimba, u Jika d$ngan tinggi daulat 
duli yang maha mulia, inshallah, patek membunoh harimau itu. 
T$tapi boleh charikan patek gStah satu takar dan kabu-kabu 
dua guni." Maka raja pun b&rtitah suroh chari getali dan 
kabu-kabu. Maka dapat itu, dapatlah barang-barang itu, sSrta 
dis&rabkan pada Salam di Rimba, maka kata Salam di Rimba, 
" Ampun, tuanku, b8ribu-ribu ampun, jika sudah mati itu hari- 
mau, apa tuanku bagi hadiah pada patek ? " Maka titah raja, 
" Jika sudah mati itu harimau aku nikahkan kamu de*ngan anak 
aku." Maka kata Salam di Rimba, u Baiklah." 

Maka ia bSrtanya pada mana maso* itu harimau dan apa 
waktunya ia maso' itu. Maka pSrgilah orang itu roSnunjokkan 
tSmpat maso' harimau itu, dan waktunya pStang-pStang sSrta 
mfimbawa takar gfitah dan kabu-kabu. Maka Salam di Rimba 
p£rgilah sama-sama. Maka sa-telah sampai pada t$mpat itu, 
maka iapun dado' dan takar g$tah dan guni kabu-kabu dan 
orang itu di-surobkannya balek ka rumahnya. Maka tiada 
bSrapa lamanya datanglah harimau itu bgrjunipalah djBngan 
Salam di Rimba. Maka kata Salam di Riraba, '*Ka' Sang Hari- 
mau iui hgudak kamana ? " Maka jawab harimau, " Aku bSudak 
p&rgi niSlanjrgar ka-dalam n8g&ri iui." Maka kata Salam di 
Rimba, " BSrapa lamanya sudah Ka' Sang Harimau p&rbuat 
p£k£rjaan ini ? " Maka jawab harimau, " Adalah Ifibeb kurang 
didalam Ufa bulan sudah." Maka kata fcalam di Rimba, " M8ng- 
apa sampai bagitu lamanya tiada di-amok Ka' Sang Harimau 
lalu mfcngalahkan. Barangkali tiada Ka' Sang Harimau 
mtfnaroh bikmat, barangkali jika sa-kiranya ada mSnaroh hik- 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


mat, ngschaya dfcngan sa-kiranya boleh di-alahkan ini nggSri." 
Maka kata Ka' Sang Harimau, u Ajarkanlah aku hikmat supaya 
boleb alabkan ini nSgeri dgngan sSgeranya." Maka kata 
Salam di Rimba, " Barangkali jika aku ajarkan Ka' Sang Ilari- 
mau tiada perchaya." Maka jawab harimau, " Jika kamu mau 
mSngajar akandaku tSntu aku p&rchaya." Maka didalam b€r- 
cbakap-cbakap, maka terpandanglah pada takar getah dan guni 
kabu-kabu, maka kata harimau, ** Ini apa Salam di Rimba ? " 
Maka jawab Salam di Rimba, " Ini lab dia, hikmat yang sangat 
b£sar. Jika di-k$nakan ini hikmat pada badan, uSschaya ber- 
tambah kuat badan dan mgnarubabkan da tang bgrani." Maka 
kata harimau, " KSnakanlah pada badan aku." Maka Salam di 
Rimba pun mSnyapukan gStahlah pada badan dan rnuka dan 
mata harimau itu. Owudian di-sapunya pula dfingan kabu- 
kabu. Maka sa-t£lah sudah pfckerjaan itu kSmudian di-pauggil- 
nya orang-orang sSmuanya, di-surohnya bakar lalang pada 
t$mpat harimau itu dan orang-orang itu pun mSmakar lalang. 
Maka harimau itu ii&hgbginpaskan dirinya ka-hulu ka-hilir. 
Maka sampailah api kapadanya lalu di-makan api ini harimau 
langsong mati. 

KSmudian orang-orang pun bgrkhabar kapada raja. Maka 
raja pun sang at suka chita mSnSngarkan harimau sudah mati 
itu. Maka Salam di Rimba pun p$rgi mgngadap raja. Maka 
sSmbabnya, " Ampun tuanku, adapun sSperti harimau itu s$la- 
mat sudah mati ia, maka s&karang patek hSndak menuntut p£r- 
janjian kita dahulu sahaja lagi." Maka titah raja, *' TSlah aku 
8$mp$makan perjanjian aku itu." Maka raja b&rsiap-siaplah 
hdodak nikahkannya anaknya dSngan pSlandok. Maka kata 
Salam di Rimba, u Ta' usahalah di-nikabkannya dSngan patek, 
kSrana patek sa-ekor binatang. Tuanku nikahkannya dSngan 
anak angkat patek." Maka raja pun suka lab ia kerana bertukar 
d Sri pada binatang dSngan manusia. Maka dudo* bSkgrja itu 
tujoh hari tujoh ma lam berjaga. Maka di-nikahkannya anak 
raja itu ddngan anak angkat Salam di Rimba itu. 

Maka antara b£rapa lamanya, maka ini mSnantu raja 
m&ngajak Salam di Rimba balik h&ndak bSrjumpa d$ngan ma- 
nya. Maka Salam di Rimba pun sukalah ia. Maka istSrinya 
tinggalkaunya, ia b&rdua sahaja hfcndak balik. Antara berapa 

B. A. Soc., No. 48, 1807. 


hari ia kaduanya sampailah pada nSgerinya dan b&rjumpa budak 
ini d&ngan Ma'-nya. Maka me*nangislab ma'-nya oleh pada 
sangkanya sudah mati. Dan dudoklab berapa hari. Maka 
satu hari bSrjumpalah Salam di Kimba dSngan anak angkatnya 
itu, maka kata Salam di Rimba, u Apalab sudahtiya ma' kamu 
itu dudo' bnjang sa-orang diri sahaja ? Fikirlah aku dSripada 
* putin baiklah berhulu ! " Maka jawab budak itu," Takut 
sahaya di-marah oleh Ma'." Maka kata Salam di Rimba, 
" Jangan kamu bSrchakap itu waktu ia tSngah lapar, dan jangan 
waktu ia t$ngah b£rkgrja ? " Maka kat \ buda itu, u Baik." Maka 
satu hari lSpas deYipada makan dau tSngah ia baring-baring, 
maka dfikat budak ini pada ma'-nja katanya, " Ma/ dfcripada 
putin baiklah bSrhulu." Maka hal ma'-nya akan dia, katanya, 
'* Tiada aku mau berlaki, baiklah aku dudo' sa-orang-orang." 
Maka diam budak itu. KSmudian antara lima 8nam hari bSr- 
jumpa pula budak ini dSngan Salam di Rimba, maka katanya, 
" Aku tikir baiklah pujok ma' kamu itu, apatah sud*hnya dudok 
bujang sa-orang diri itu ; tiada elok di-te*ngok orang. Jika 
bftnar buat baik sangka orang kita buat tiada baik juga." Sa- 
tdlah didSngar oleh budak itu per kata an Salam di Rimba itu 
bdnarlah pada ha tiny a. Maka di-pujok oleh budak itu ma'-nya, 
maka masoklah fikiran itu pada hati Ma'-nya itu jadi di-nikab- 
kanyalah dSngan Salam di Rimba itu d&ngan Ma'-nya. Maka 
dudoklab bfcrsuka ia. 

Maka antara b&rapa lamanya, maka ini Salam di Rimba 
hSndak balik ka-n$gdrinya, maka ia ajak anak angkatnya ber- 
sama-sama d$ngan dia pergi itu. Maka sukalah hati anaknya 
tu, maka pergi-lah bgrjalan bSrdua-dua, masok butan kSluar 
hutan, masok gunong k&luar gunong, maka masok padang 
kSluar padang. Maka tiba-tiba bSrjumpa dSngan sabuab 
neggri t&rlalu rameinya. Maka tiba ini Salam di Rimba m£n- 
jadi manusia, dia-lab raja didalam negSri itu. Maka dudoklah ia 
be*rsuka-8uka dBngan anak istBrinya. Maka di-mkahkan oleh 
raja itu anaknya itu dftngan anak angkatnya, maka bSrsukaan- 
lah laki istdri. 

* Putin seems to be a variant of puting. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 

The Story of the Five Men 
Who Stole the King's Daughter. 

The story is told that once on a time in the olden days 
there lived a certain king in a certain country who wanted to 
marry his daughter to the son of a noble in that country. So 
he made preparations for forty days and forty nights. The 
days were like the nights and the nights like the days. While 
this was going on the news was bruited abroad in other coun- 

TheVe was a certain robber who wished to go and rob the 
King's house. So he set off by himself. On the way he met 
with another man, who said to him, " Where- are you going 

The robber, who is Number One, replied, " I am off to 
rob the house of the king, who is busy making all these 

Number Two said, " Can I go with you V " 

What can you do ? " 

If you get anything that you want to steal, I can carry 
it for you." 

Number One said very good. So they set off together. 
A little while after they met another man who also spoke to 

This man said, " Where are you off to ? " 

Number One replied, " We are off to rob tHe house of 
this king who is making all these preparations." 

Then said Number Three, " Can I come with you? " 

" What can you do ? " 

• A etory by Penghulu Mohamed Noordin bin Joftar of Kota Stia 
Lower Perak. Source unknown. 

B. A. &>€., No. 48, 1907. 





" No matter how deep a thing may be in the sea I can 
dive for it." 

So all three went on together. It was not very long 
before they met another man who also spoke to them. 
" Where are you three going ? " 

Number One answered, " We three are going to rob the 
house of the king who is making all these preparations? " 

Number Four said, " Oan I come with you ? " 

What can you do ? " 

What I can do is this : no matter how high a thing may 
be, I can hit it with my bow and arrow." 

After this the four of them went on together. A little 
while after they met another man who said to them, " Where 
are you four men going to ? " 

Number One answered, " We want to rob the king's 
house who is making all these preparations." 

Number Five said, " Oan I come with you ? " 

What can you do ? " 

Even if a person has been dead for one or two days, I 
can resuscitate him." 

Number One said very good. So the five of them went 
on together. At last they reached the king's house about 
midnight. Then Number One applied his magic and the eyes 
of all the people in the king's fort fell fast asleep. So Number 
One went into the king's house lifted all the goldware and 
the silver and also took the king's daughter who was to be 
married. Then he gave them to Number Two, who carried all 
the stuff and also the king's daughter. The five went off into 
jungles and out of jungles, up mountains and down mountains,' 
on to plains and across plains, and at last when it. was day 
they halted. The king's daughter was still asleep. They 
then boiled enough rice for a meal. When it wa6 ready they 
aroused the king's daughter. She started from her sleep and 
glanced to the right and to the left, in front and behind. Then 
she became very frightened and began to cry, she could eat no 

Jour. Straits Branca* 




food. But they all ate and were all very tired and very 
sleepy. At last they all fell asleep except the king's daughter 
who could not. 

The story goes on to say that the king of the country who 
had lost his daughter and his property was very sorrowful. 
So too were his nobles. The nobles spread the news in all the 
countries round about. While this was going on the son of 
the Chief Vizier of one country who knew that the king's 
daughter had been lost, mado a gigantic roc on which he flew 
off to a very great height. In a short while he noticed at the 
edge of a plain some small heaps. He went in that direction 
and when he got near he saw that this was the king's lost 
daughter. So he snatched her up and flew away. Number 
One started from his sleep and looked right and left behind 
and before, but he could see nothing of the king's daughter. 
Then he looked above and noticed a very large bird flying 
away. Then he woke up Number Four and said, 

" The king's daughter has disappeared. Perhaps she has 
been pounced upon and earned off by that bird flying there. 
Now is the time for you to use your bow." 

So Number Four took his bow and shot and hit the bird 
which fell into the sea. 

Then Number One said, " This is the time for you to 

Number three said, " Very well." So he walked on till 
he walked into the sea then ho dived right down into it. 
After a long time he found the king's daughter and brought her 
back to the place where his friends were waiting. But when 
he laid her down she was dead. 

Then . Number One said to Number Five, " This is the 
time for you to resuscitate the king's daughter and make her 
as she wafc before." 

So Number Five stroked her face. In a little while the 
king's daughter sneezed and revived. Then they gave her a 
seat. But she began to cry once more. While this was going 
on Number One began to plan a division of the plunder. 

B. A. 8oc. f No. 48, 1907. 


Number One said, " Never mind about giving mo a share of 
the booty. Give me the king's daughter and that will be 
plenty." But Number Two said the same, and Number Three 
said the same, and Number Four said the same, and Number 
Five said the same. 

Then Number One said, " If that is so, we had better find 
a just king." 

All of them were delighted by this plan and so the six of 
them travelled on together. But all the booty and the king's 
daughter were carried by Number Two. At last they reached 
a certain country where the king was very wise. There they 
lodged in a small house. Then the five of them went before 
the king to state their difficulty and to prefer their request. 
And Number One said, " Pardon your majesty, a thousand 
thousand be the pardons accorded to your five slaves prostrate 
here. Now your five slaves went to rob a king's house and 
they took away all the goldware and all the silver and also 
his child at the same time. Now when your servant wished 
to divide up the property, your servant said, ' Never mind me, 
let me have the king's daughter only.' Then Number Two, 
who is the bearer, said the same thing, and Number Three, 
who is the diver, said the same thing, and Number Four, 
who is the bow man, said the same thing, and Number Five, who 
is the life given said the same thing. So we could not settle 
the matter. Thus it is that your five slaves have come before 
your most illustrious majesty, peradventure your majesty will 
give us a just decision." 

The king said, " This is a very easy matter to decide." 

When the king said that the five men made obeisance and 
became silent to hear the king's judgment/ 

The king said, " The man who first wanted to comtpit the 
robbery cannot get the king's daughter, for he is as it were 
her father, for the child first of all comes from her father. 

* At this point the narrator insists they all hit hearers shall 
give their opinion as to who ought to marry the princess. He then 
gives the king's verdict, after which ho tells them how their oboiee 
has revealed their own character. 

Jour. Straits 




Number Two, that is the bearer of the king's daughter, tie is 
just like her nurse, lie cannot get her. And as to Number 
Three, he is the one to get her in marriage, because he has known 
her both in public and in private. Now Number Four, that is the 
bow man, he has been very loyal indeed to her, he cannot have 
her, for he has been jusl like a brother to her. As to Number 
Five, he cannot have her, for he has been just like a mother to 
her ; for every child that has no mother to suokle it, how can 
it be and live? " 

Thus did the king gave judgment by a parable. And so 
as regards those who thought that Number One should get the 
princess we can all learn that those people who so think will 
want in all their work to he at the head of it, and as to those 
who thought that Number Two should get her, we learn that 
they like doing other people's work. And if any one thought 
that Number Three should get her, we know that whatever 
they may wish, they will seldom fail of it, and that their words 
will always fall true. And as to those who thought that 
Number Four should get her we learn that they are very loyal 
to their friends. And if anyone thought that Number Five 
should get her, then that man is a great lover of mankind. 
This is the moral of the story. 

The Story of the Five Men who Stole 
the King's Daughter. 

Alkijsah rnaka adalah pada rnasa zamari dahulu kala mska 
adalab utn raja didalam satu n&gfiri itu bSndak mBkhawhikan 
anaknya yang pSrfimpuan dgngau anak raj* didataiu nSgfiri itu 
Of*. Maka dndoklab bBrjaga-jaga ampat puloh hari ampat 
pulob U»l*m, slang suupa malara, tnalam sarupm siang. Maka 
didalsm bat itu WrdSu ab 1 ani p»da Iain-Iain negeri. 

g pi lak gi raSccburi didalam 

an aa'oraug dirinya. 
maka kata oraog 


itu, "Mika iui hfindak kamana?" Jawab p^nchuri itu, yang 
number satu, "Teman h&ndak pergi mfinchuri ka-rumah raja 
tdngah dudok kerja itu." Kemudian kata orang yang number 
dua itu, " Adakah boleh teman sama pergi?" Maka jawab 
number satu, * 4 Apa-apa mika boleh buat ? " Maka kata number 
dua, " Jikalau mika dapat barang jang hSndak di-cburi itu, 
teman boleh bawa." Keinudian kata number satu, ** Baiklah." 
Maka berjalanlah ia bSrdua dua. Kemudian tiada be r a pa lama 
antara, maka bSrjumpa pula dengan sa-orang lain pula, maka 
bertanya pula iui orang, katanya, (4 Mika berjalan-jalan bfirdua 
ini hfindak kamana ? " Maka jawab number satu, " T^man ma* 
ini hSodak pergi m^ncburi ka-rumah raja yang dudok kerja itu." 
Maka kata orang yang number tiga, " Adakah boleh teman sama 
pergi ? " Maka jawab number satu, " Apa-apa mika boleh 
buat ? " Maka kata number tiga " Jikalau b$rb&rapa didalam 
laut sa-kali-pun, teman boleh sSlam." Kemudian berjalanlah ia 
tiga-tiga orang. 

Maka tiada berapa lama antara bSrjumpa pula dSngan 
sa'orang lain maka bertanya pula ia, maka kata-nya, 44 Mika ma 
tiga orang ini hendak kamana." Maka jawab number satu, 
"Teman ma* tiga orang ini hfindak pergi mdnchuri ka-rumah 
raja tSngah dudok kerja itu." Maka jawab number ampat, 
44 Adakah boleh teman sama pergi?" Maka jawab number 
satu, " Apa-apa mika boleh buat?" Maka kata number ampat, 
44 Teman boleh buat, jikalau be berapa tingginya sa-kali-pun to* man 
boleh panah, tentu kena." Habis itu berjalanlah ia ampat 
orang sakali. Kemudian tiada berapa lamanya pula berjumpa 
ddngan sa'orang lain, maka kata ini orang, " Mika ma bdrjalan 
ampat orang ini hSndak kamana? " Maka jawab number satu, 
4 Teman ma hendak mSnchuri ka-rumah raja tSngah dudok 
kerja itu." Maka kata number lima, " Adakah boleh teman 
sama?" Maka jawab number satu, *• Apa-apa mika boleh 
buat? " Maka kata number limn, 44 Jikalau ada orang mati satu 
dua hari lamanya, teman boleh hidopkan balik." Maka kata 
number satu, baiklah. Jadi berjalanlah ia lima-lima orang sakali. 

Kemudian serta sampailah ka-rumah raja itu 16beh kurang 
tengah roalam, maka di-kSnakan oleh number satu hikmat, mata 

* Ma ini ma tiga we all, all three. 

Jour. StnuU Branch, 


s&kalian orang-orang didalam rumah, dan didalam kota raja 
s8mua-b£muanya habis tidor. Maka naik number satu kadalam 
rumah raja itu, maka di-angkatnya s&kalian barang-barang mas 
dan perak serta d$ugan anak raja yang hendak khawin itu. Maka 
di-b£rikannya orang yang number dua. Maka number dua pun 
tawalah sfi^ala harta-harta itu dSngan anak raja. Maka ber- 
jalan Hum orang itu masok hutan kSluar hutan, naik gunong 
turun gunong, masok padang kSluar padang, kgmudian hari 
pun siang, maka bdrbSutilah s£uiua-s£muanya orang itu, dan 
anak raja itu pun tidor juga. KSmudian bSrtanak, makanlah 
ggraua-sSmuanya itu orang. Maka apabila ia hSndak makau 
di-jagakannya anak raja itu. Maka tSrkeJutlah anak raja itu 
dSripada tidornya, kfimudian di-tulihnya ka-kanan dan ka-kiri, 
ka-hacapan dan ka-bSlakang. Tiba-tiba anak raja itu tfcrkejut- 
lah ia lalu mdnangis tiada ia lalu makan. Dan sSmua-sSuiua itu 
makanlah ia dan sSmua-sfiinua orang itu ka-letehan dan sangat 
hgndak tidor. Maka s$mua-$5muanya tidor, maka itu tinggal 
anak raja yang tiada man. 

KSinudiau tfirsSbut kfisah raja didalam nSgSri kahilangan 
anak dan harta-harta. Maka duka-chitalah raja dan orang 
b&*ar-b£sar, maka mSmberi khabar s£gala orang l>$sar-b£sar 
kapada eSgala n£g$ri yaug dSkat-dSkat. Maka didalaai antara 
itu,adalah sa'orang anak m£ntri yang bSsar didalam n$g&ri, ia 
katahui anak raja sudah hilang. Maka ia mSnjadikan sa*ekor 
burong ^gruda dan tSrbanglah ia dSngan berapa tingginya. 
Maka tiada b£rapa laina-nya t$rlibatlah kapudanya di-t&pi 
padang berlonggok-longgok, maka ia tujulah kapada tdmpat itu 
s$rta d£kat di-iiiiatuya LStul anak raja didalam ndgerinya, yang 
sudah hilang itu. Maka di-sambarnya lalu di-bawanya t£ri>ang. 
Kfcinudian terkgjutlah number satu di-t&ugoknya ka-kanan dan 
ka-kiri, ka-hadapan dan ka-beMakang, tiada lagi anak raja itu. 
Maka tftrpandanglah ia ka-atas, maka tampaklah sa'ekor burong 
tftrbang tgrlalu bSsarnya. KSmudiau di-jagakannya orang 
yang number ampat, kata number satu, " Anak raja sudah 
hilang. Itulah bar ang kali di sambar burong yang tSrbang itu. 
Maka inilah inasa mika berkSrja boieh panah." KSinudian num- 
ber ampat amhil panah, lalu di panahnya. Maka kSualah 
burong lalu jatoh kadalam laut. KSuiudian kata number satu 
" Jadilah masanya mika bSrkfcrja." Maka kata number tiga, 

B. A. Soc., No. 48, 1907* 


" Baiklah." Maka ia pun bSrjalanlah lalu raasok but m£ny8lam 
didalam laut itu. Kfcmudian b£rapa lamanya tSrjumpalah anak 
raja itu lalu di-bawanya balik ka-t&mpat kawannya tinggal itu. 
Maka s$rta satnpai di-l$takkannya anak raja itu sudah mati. 
KSmudian kata number satu, u Inilah masanya nrika b£rk$rja 
boleh nrika hidopkan sa- inula ini anak raja." Maka number 
lima pun mSnyapu muka anak raja itu, maka tiada bdrapa 
lamanya bSrsinlah ini anak raja. Maka * anak raja itu pun 
mSuangis pula. 

Maka didalam antara itu, ini number satu mSsbuarat 
hSndak mSmbagi sSgala harta-harta itu. Maka kata number 
satu, "Tfiman ini usah'lah di-bhagi harta-harta itu. Boleh 
t&man dapat anak raja ini chukoplah." K&mudian kata number 
dua, dSmikiau juga, dan kuta number tiga dSmikiau juga, dan 
kata number a in pat dSmikian juga, dan kata number lima dSnii- 
kian juga. Kemudian kata number satu, u Jikalau bagitu, 
baiklah kita p£rgi chart raja yang adil," II a bis itu s8mua- 
sSniua kawannya suka bSlaka. Jadi jalanlah mereka itu anam 
orang, dan sSgala herta dan anak raja s£mua-s£muanya di- 
bawanya oleh number dua. 

KSmudian didalam b$rapa hari, tiba-tiba pada satu n£g$ri 
masoklah ia didalam n£g£ri itu, maka raja didalam n$g£ri 
sangatlah bijaksana. Maka dudoklah ia mfcnumpang pada satu 
rumah kSchil. KSmudian pergilah liina-Hina orang m$ngadap 
raja, mSngadukan hal bichara dan inaksudnya. Serta sampai 
m&ngadap raja, maka kata number satu, " Ainpun tuanku 
bfiribu-ribu ampun sSmbah patek kalima orang ini. Maka 
adalah patek lima orang ini pdrgi menchuri ka- rumah raja 
mgngambil sSgala harta mas-mas dan perak s£rta dSngan anak- 
nya sakali. Maka patek hendak bhagi harta itu. Maka kata 
patek pada kawan-kawan patek, " Teman usah'lah namanya 
dapat harta, t$man dapat anak raja ini pun sahaja." Kdmu- 
dian kata number dua, iaitu si pSinbawa, dSraikian itu juga, dan 
kata number tiga, iaitu si penyglam dSmikian juga, dan kata 
number ampat, si pSinanah, dSmikian itu juga, dan kata number 
lima, iaitu si pSinidop, dSiuikian juga. Maka ti adalah dapat 
kat&ntuannya. Maka inilah, patek kalima, datang mSngadap 
kabawah kaus duli yang maha mulia, mudah-mudahan yang 
maha mulia boleh m&hukumkan dengan ka-adilannya." 

Jour. Straiti Braaeh, 


K&mudian titah raja itu, u Fasal banyak sSnang hukuman- 
nya." Maka titah mShukumlah raja itu, maka orang yang lima 
ini tunddk bftrdiam dirinya, masing-masing m£nd&ngarkan 
hulfum raja ini. Maka titah raja. 

'» Orang yang mula-mula bSndak m&nchuri itu tiada boleh 
dap»( j}nak raja itu. Adalah sa-umpamanya tiap-tiap anak itu 
asajnjft d&ripada bap* datangnya. Dan number dua, iaitu orang 
yang mfcmbawa anak raja, itu umpamanya s8p£rti pengasoh 
aimS rtja, tiada boleh dapat padanya. Dan number tiga, iaitu 
orang yang m&nySlam, ialah boleh dapat b$rkhawin dSngan 
Hn^k ntja itu kfcrana ia sudah mSngtahui thahir dan batinnya. 
Dan number ampat, iaitu p£manab, maka flu orang sangat s&tia 
akan *nak raja itu. Maka ini orang tiada boleh dapat kapada- 
nya. Adalah umpamanya sdpSrti saudara anak raja itu. Dan 
number lima itu, iaitu yang mSngidop, maka adalah ini orang 
thuja boleh dapat kapadanya. Adalah umpamanya s£p£rti mak 
anak raja itu. Tiap-tiap budak tiada maknya s&p&rti mSmbfcri 
au*u, tf#d«v boleh budak ada dan hidop." 

Plmikianlah di-ibaratkan oleb raja hukuman ini, maka h8n- 
dakl*t) kita ambil katahui tiap-tiap orang yang ampunya fikiran 
mtncjtypat kapada number satu, maka itu orang hatinya apa-apa 
pf kirjjaan, dia hfcndak mdnjadi kftpala juga. Dan jika mSndapat 
kapaot number dua, maka itu orang suka mSngSrjakan pdkdjaan 
orang*orang. Dan jika siapa-siapa mSndapat pada number tiga 
maka Itu orang apa-apa Gkiran dia, yang hSndak di-pSrbuatnya 
jarftfiglah tiada jadi, s£lalu b£tul pgrkataannya, Dan maka 
aiapa-afapa mSndapat kapada number ampat maka itu orang 
sangat sStia dSngan kawannya. Dan jika siapa-siapa mSndapat 
pad* p umber lima, maka ini orang sangat pdngasih dan d&nya- 
boqg akan manusia. Hal inilah ibarat ch£rita ini adanya. 

ft. A. fof.. No. 41, 1»07. 


Mat Janin.* 

The tale is told that once upon a time there was a man 
called S&mordan, who lived in a coconut plantation that he had 
made, and, thanks to God, he lived at his ease, he and his 
children eating of the foison of his plantation. 

Now one day he was walking with his children in the 
garden and he saw that many of the nuts were ripe. Just at 
that time SSmordan met a man who was a past master in the 
art of climbing coconuts and whose name was Mat Janin. 
Semordan said to him, " Hai Mat Janin, do you want to earn 
wages by climbing coconuts ? " 

Mat Janin said, " If the pay is right I would like it. 
What do you want to pay a tree ? " 

Seraordan answered, "Two nuts, and the number of the 
trees is about twenty five." 

Mat Janin said, "Very well then." 

Ho he began to climb one of the coconuts, and while he 
was half way up he began to think on this wise : "lam going 
to climb these twenty five trees, that means fifty nuts. 
Now I can sell those nuts for a cent apiece, that means 
half a dollar. Then I shall buy some cheap nuts and I shall 
get sixty. Then I will boil them and extract the oil. 
After that I will sell the oil and get ten cents profit. That is 
my money has become seven times ten cents. After that I 
will buy fowls, one cock and one hen, for thirty cents the pair 
of them. That leaves forty cents. Then I can buy ten 
gantangs of rice for their food. That will be fifteen cents and 
will leave me a quarter of a dollar. That will do for my expenses 
in taking care of the fowls. In time the fowl will lay eggs and 
hatch chickens. I will take care of those chickens too. Then 
in time they too will hatch other chickens. And the mother 

* A short tale by Penghulu Mohamed Noordin bin Jaffar of 
Kota Sti* Lower Perak. No. special source oan be assigned. The 
moral is the old one : do not connt your chicken before they are 

J#»r. 8traita Brunei, R. A. 8©c., No. 48, 1907. 


will also still be laying. So my fowls will become many in 
number. Then I will sell them all. After that I will buy 
ducks. And rice too for their food. In time they will hatch 
ducklings. Again after a time those young ducks in their turn 
will hatch other ducklings, and the old ones will still be laying. 
So I will have a lot of ducks. They will go upstream and they 
will go downstream all quacking, * ka ka.' Then people will 
say, ' Whose ducks are those ? ' and others will answer, 
f Those are Met Janin's ' and in response the others will say, 
* Mat Janin seems to be rich. 9 

Then I will sell the whole of my ducks and will buy two 
she-goats and one he goat. In time they will have kids, and 
those kids when they grow will get other kids, and the others 
will not be sterile. So that in time I will have many goats 
and they will wander up stream and down stream, people will 
say, ' Whose goats are these ? ' and others will answer, ' Those 
are Mat Janin's goats.' 

Then I will sell all those goats and I will buy a buffalo 
bull and a buffalo cow. In time they will get calves and those 
calves will after a time get other calves of their own and the 
mother will still go on bearing. So I will get a lot of buffaloes. 
They will wander up stream and down stream and they will 
low ' wa wa ' up stream and 'wawa' down stream. People 
will say, ' Whose buffaloes are those ? ' And others will answer, 
1 Those are Mat Janin's.' And the others will reply, * Verily 
this Mat Janin seems to be indeed rich.' 

After that I will sell all my buffaloes and I will buy a 
bull elephant and a cow elephant. In time they will breed 
and after a farther time their children too will breed and the 
old mother will go on breeding. So that I will have a lot of 

Then I will sell all those elephants and get a lot of money. 
After that I will buy a ship complete with her cargo. Then I 
will go to some other country and there I will marry the 
daughter of the king of that country, who is very beautiful. I 
will be very happy there and I will play with my wife and 
fondle her. At daybreak I will go to the royal hall to play 

Jour. Straits Brftncb, 


chess with the king's children. Then when I am busy playing 
chess the priucess will call me to go in. One of her maids will 
oome and say, 'The princess invites my lord to go in and 
partake of some slight refreshment.' But I will think, ( I 
don't know whether it is really to partake of some refreshment 
or whether she wants me to fondle her again. Anyhow I won't 
worry about her.' A little while after the princess herself will 
come and will say, ' This fellow was invited to come in but he 
never paid the slightest attention. Very well we shall see. 1 
Still I will pay no attention to her. In a little while she will 
come near me. Then the king's son will say, Mate.' ' Is 
that really so? I will say' * Mate,' says the king's sou 
again. ' Come along and have your food now,' she will say. 
But I will say, * Wait a bit, I have been beaten.' While this 
is going on the princess will dig me in the ribs on the right 
side but I will twist away to the left. Then she will poke me 
on the left hand side but I will dodge to the right.' 

In the meanwhile Mat Janin was acting this piece of by- 
play, and failed to notice that his grip of the coconut leaf was 
loosened. 80 he fell right down to the ground and was killed 
outright. Semordan was very sorrowful to see the death Mat 
Janin died. 

Mat Janin. 

A1k$sah maka adalah pada masa zaman dahulu kala maka 
ada satu orang nama 56mordan dudok ia pgrbuat satu kftbun 
nyiur, maka disSbabkan Allah, s$nanglah ia dudok makan anak 
bSranak dapat khazanah d&ripada k&bunnya itu. M«ka pada 
satu hari bfcrjalanlah ia anak bgranak didalam kSbunnya itu, 
maka dit$ngohnya banyak sudah masak buah nyiur-nya itu. 
Maka pada waktu itu bgrjumpalah ini SSmordan dengan satu 
orang yang tSrlalu biasa dan pandai mSmanjat nyiur, namanya 
Mat Janin. Maka kata S&mordau, " Iiay Mat Janin, adakab 
mika malm m&ngambil upah mSmanjat nyiur ? " Maka kata 

B. A. 80c., No. 48, 19U7. 


Mat Janin, "Jikalau betuMStul dengan upah-nya mahulah 
teman. B&rapalah mika hendak upab didalam satu pokok ?" 
Maka jawab Senior dan, " Dua biji, dan banyak pokok adalab 
lebih kurang didalam dua puloh lima pokok." Maka kata Mat 
Janin, baiklab. Maka iapun raSmanjatlah satu pokok nyiur itu, 
maka didalam ia tSngah mSmanjat itu timbullah fikirannya 
didalam hatinya. 

u Aku m^manjat ini didalam 25 pokok dapatlah aku lima 
puloh biji, maka aku jual nyiur itu, dSngan barga satu duit sa- 
biji, dapatlah aku duit lima kupang. K£mudian aku bSlikan 
pula nyiur yang murah harganya dapat pula 6 nam puloh biji. 
Kgmudian aku tanak minyak. KSmudian aku jual itu minyak 
dapatlah aku untong sakupang, sudah jadi duit aku itu tujob 
kupang. KSmudian aku b&tikan ayam pula sa'ekor jantan sa'ekor 
b$tina dSngan harga tiga kupang kaduanya. Tinggal duit aku 
ampat kupang. K&mudian aku bfclikan padi sapuloh gantang 
barga t$ugah dua kupang, akan makanan ayam ini, dan tinggal 
duit aku lagi satu suku. Maka jadilah duit ini akan bfclanja aku 
mSnielibara itu ayam. K$mudian ini ayam lama-lama ia b£r- 
telor bSranak. Maka aku bfcla juga itu anak lama-lama anak itu 
pun beranak dan ma-nya pun b&ruak jadi banyaklah ayam aku 

Kemudian aku juallah habis-habis. Maka aku beli pula itSk 
dan aku beli pula padi akan makanannya. Lama-lama beranak 
pula aku be la juga. Lama-lama dengan kalama'an-nya anak pun 
beranak, dan ma-nya, pun b£ranak, jadi banyaklah itek aku. 
Berjalanlah ia ka-hulu dan ka-hilir sSrta ia bfcrbunyi, " Ka-ka." 
Maka kata orang " Itek siapa itu? " Maka kata orang yang 
lain pul«, " Itfck Si Mat Janin." Maka kata orang itu, u Kay a 
sudah rupanya Si Mat Janin itu." 

KSmudian aku jual pula ini itek habis-habis, maka aku 
belikan pula kambing dua ekor bfctina dan sa'ekor jantan. 
Lama-lama d$ngan kalama'annya beranak pula. Maka ini pun 
b£sar lalu ia beranak dan ma-nya pun beranak. Lama- lama 
jadi banyaklah kambing aku berjalanlah ia ka-hulu ka-hilir, 
maka kata orang, u Kambing siapakah itu ? " Maka kata orang 
yang lain pula, " ltulah kambing Si Mat Janin." 

Kemudian aku jual pula ini kambing habis. Maka aku 
MHikan pula kerbau sa'ekor jantan sa'ekor bStina. Lama-lama 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


Wranak pula ini kgrbau. Maka lama-lama dSngan kalama'an- 
nya, anak pun bgranak dan ma-nya pun bSranak, jadi banyak- 
lab kSrbau aku. BSrjalanlah ia ka-hulu dan ka-bilir sSrta b£r- 
bunyi " Wa-wa" ka-hulu, " Wa-wa," ka-bilir. Kata orang, 
" KSrbau siapa itu ? " Maka kata orang yang lain pula, u Itu- 
lah kSrbau Si Mat Janin." Maka kata orang itu, " Kaya sung- 
gohlah Mat Janin ini rupanya." KSmudian aku jual pula ini 
bSrbau habis, maka aku bSlikan pula gajab sa'ekor jantan 
ka'ekor bStina. Lama-lama b$ranak pula ini gajab. Lama 
dSngan kalamalannya anak pun bgranak dan ma-nya pun 
s$ranak, jadi banyaklah gajab aku. 

Maka aku juaikan pula ini gajab habis-habis, maka banyak 
pulah aku dapat duit. K$mudian aku belikan pula satu buab 
kapal chukop dSngan muatannya, maka pgrgilah aku kapada 
sa'buah n$g$ri. KSmudian mSminang pula aku kapada anak 
raja yang didalam nfcgSri itu yang sangat eloknya. Maka aku 
pun sangatlah suka bati aku dSngan bSrgumol b&rgalutlah aku 
d$ngan pSrerapuan aku itu. Apabila siang hari aku pun p$rgi 
ka-balai bgrmain chator dgngan segala anak raja-raja. KSmu- 
dian tSngah aku main chator, di-pauggil oleb tuan put£ri aku 
masok kadalam. Da tang sa'orang dayang-dayang mSmanggil itu, 
katanya," Tuan di-panggil ol eh tuan putgri masok kadalam ia 
bSndak santap." Fikiran aku pula, Sntahkan b$ndak santap £ntah- 
kan Wrgumol bgrgalot dengan aku, tiada juga aku fShdulikan. 
Sabuntar lagi datangtab pula tuan put£ri sSndiri, katanya, 
u Orang ini kita memanggil dia, haram tiada di-f8hdulikannya, 
baiklah." Maka tiada juga aku biraukan. Lama-lama datang 
ia dftkat aku. Maka kata anak raja- raja itu " Mat." Maka 
"Sah?" pula kata aku. "Mat," kata anak raja-raja pula. 
Lama-lama, " Marilab kita raakan." Maka kata aku, u Nantilah 
dahulu, aku sudab kalah." Antara bagitu di-cbuchok tuan 
putdri pinggang aku di-sablah kanan, aku gelSkkan ka-kiri dan 
di-chuchoknya di-sablah kiri, aku gelSkkan ka-sablah kanan. 

Maka ini Mat Janin tSngah mglakukan kalakuan yang d$uii- 
kian ini, tiada s8dar tangannya t£rl8pas d&ripada p&]$pah nyiur 
itu, lalu jatoh kabawah langsong mati. Maka SSinordan sangat- 
lah susah hatinya inSlihatkan hal kamatian Mat Janin itu. 

B. A. Soc n No. 48, 19U7. 


Pa' Pandir.* 


Once on a time a certain woman named Ma' Andih 
married a man called Pa 1 Pandir. "In course of time they had 
a daughter. When she was about six months old Ma 1 Andih 
went out to receive her wages as a reaper. She left the child 
with Pa' Pandir. 

She said, " I leave the child with you, Pa ' Padir. You 
must bathe her in hot water, but take care that it is only flesh 
warm (lit : as hot as your finger nail)." 

Pa' Pandir said, " All right." Afterwards while Ma' Andih 
was away getting her pay, Pa' Pandir put a lot of water in a 
big pot and when it was boiling over he dipped the child right 
into it. The child died at once. Its teeth remained wide 
apart. When Pa' Pandir saw its teeth like that, he said, 
" How the child likes the hot water." 

Not long after Ma" Andih came back from getting her 
pay and when she saw her dead child in the pot she burBt into 
weeping and with profuse lamentations said, " Woe is me child, 
child of my heart, we have been for ever separated by this 
accursed Pa' Pandir, may his death be sudden." 

Pa' Pandir said, •• Why are you weeping like that ? " 

•• Are you blind ? Don't you see that my own child it 
dead, murdered by you ? " 

" I never thought that she was dead for she was busy 
eating that broken rice." 

" Are you blind ? The child's mouth is full of flies and 
you say it is eating broken rice. But since it is dead we must 
bury it." 

So they buried the child. Three days after Ma' Andih 
said, " Pa' Pandir, I want to give a feast, let me make ready." 

This tale is told by Peughulu Mohamed Noordin bin Jaffar of 
KoU Stia Lower Perak. He cannot give the source from which he 
learned it.— The huruour is in places unfortunately pre-Shakespear- 
can in its breadth. 

Jomr. Strait* Branch, B. A. Soc., No. 48, 1907. 


So she made ready as well as she could all sorts of 
eatables. Then she sent Pa' Pandir out to call the Uajis and 
Lebais and the common people. 

Pa* Pandir said, " What is a Haji like ? What is a Lebai 
like ? How shall I know the common people ? " 

Ma' Andih answered, " Wherever you find anyone with 
a white head that is a Haji, wherever you find anyone with 
a beard that is a Lebai, and all those with parti-coloured 
clothes are the common people." 

So Pa' Pandir went to call them. After walking for a 
little way he met a flock of sparrows with white heads. So 
he said, 

" Gentlemen Hajis, Ma' Andih invites you to the feast 
that she has prepared in honour of her child who died three 
days ago." 

" Wee wee wee," piped the sparrows as they flew away. 

" The house is not wee " replied Pa* Pandir. But the 
birds only flew on. So he pursued after them with all his might 
until he caught one. 

After that he went on again. A little later he met with 
a flock of goats. He saw at once that they had beards so he 

" Oh sirs and lebais, you are invited by Ma' Andih to her 
feast, for her child has now been dead three days.'' 

" Bah bah bah " bleated the goats as they ran away. 

" How dare you say bah to Ma* Andih's cooking ? " Said 
Pa' Pandir. So he ran after them industriously until he caught 
one, which he earned slung across the nape of its neck. 

Afterwards Pa 1 Pandir went on to look for the common 
people who wore varicoloured clothes. He went on into the 
jungle. Almost at once he met with a large male tiger. Pa : 
Pandir said, " Ho man of the common folk, Ma' Andih invites 
you to her feast which she has made in honour of her child who 
died just three days ago." But the tiger ran away. So Pa' 

Jour. Straits Bmneb, 


Pandir chased it with all his might. At last he got the tiger and 
dragged it home with him by the ear. 

When he reached home and Ma' And ill saw the white 
headed sparrow and the old he goat with the long beard and 
the tiger with his striped fur, she said, " Where are the hajis 
and the lebais and the common people ? *' 

And Pa' Pandir replied, u This with a white head isahaji, 
this with the beard is a lebai, and this in the striped jacket is 
one of the common people : for that is what you said." 

Then Ma 1 Ahdih exclaimed, " 111 starred Pa* Pandir, 
accursed Pa' Pandir, may you die an evil death. You call a 
white headed sparrow a haji and an old he goat a lebai and a 
tiger a common man/' 

Pa' Pandir said, " Really I never thought that that was a 
sparrow or that a goat or that a tiger." 

Then Ma' Andili ordered him to let them all go. So Pa* 
Pandir set them all free. The result was that Ma' Andili had 
to call the people herself and only then were they able to have 
the feast. 

Afterwards when the seventh day had arrived Ma' Andili 
planned another feast. Ma' Andih said, '* It is now seven 
days siuce our child died we ought to make a feast. We must 
get a buffalo this time in order that wc may make a proper feast 
to our child." 

Pa Pandir replied, " I will carry out just whatever you 
think is right." 

So Ma' Andih said, "Go and look for a buffalo." 

Pa' Pandir replied, " Very well." Then he said, u What 
is a buffalo like ? " 

Ma' Andih replied, " Whatever you find eating grass, is a 
buffalo." He went off towards the rice field. There he found 
a man busy using a tajak, (a heavy weeding hoc) whose sharp 
edge ate into the grass. When Pa' Pandir got up to him, he 
said, " Ho sir, will you sell this buffalo ? " 

The man replied, "This is not a buffalo." 

B. A. 80c, No, 48, 1907, 


Pa 1 Pandir said, " I am only following what Ma' Andih 
said : ' Whatever jou find eating into the grass, is a buffalo." 

The owner of the rice field then said, " If Ma' Andih said 
so I will sell. The price of my buffalo is twelve dollars." 

So Pa' Pandir paid what the owner of the buffalo asked and 
dragged the buffalo away. But the hoe kept jumping about 
behind him as it was pulled along until at last it caught him on 
the tendon of Achilles and drew blood. Then Pa' Pandir said, 
" This is an ill starred buffalo. This tendon of mine is 
very sore indeed. And look there is blood on the beast's horns 
too.' 1 But he went on dragging it until he reached his own 
house. When he arrived he fastened it securely to the stem 
of a betel-nut tree and went upstairs. 

Ma' Andih said, " Pa' Pandir. Where is the buffalo ? '» 

" I have fastened it to the betel-nut tree over there. But 
don't go too near, for my heel is very sore having been pierced 
by the brute's horns." 

" I will only look at it from a distance." 

So she went to see it. She looked to the right and to the 
left but she could see nothing. Then she called out, " Pa' 
Pandir, Pa' Pandir, where is the buffalo ? Has it got loose ?" 

" It is there. I tied it very securely to the stem of 
that betel-nut." 

" Am I blind? I can not see any buffalo here." 

So Pa' Pandir tumbled down from the house to look for 
the buffalo. When he got there he said, " This is the buffalo 
that I have bought." And he pointed out the hoe to Ma' 

Ma' Andih gave a scream, wheu she saw the hoc, saying, 
" Accursed Pa' Pandir, cursed Pa' Pandir. May your death 
be speedy. You call a hoe a buffalo." 

So they got another buffalo, a real one, and then they had 
the feast 

Some four or five days after this when he and Ma' Andih 
were both out reaping their rice it came on to rain and they 

Jour. Straiti Branch, 


both took shelter under a tree. Pa' Pandir said, " Ma Andih, 
Ma' Andih, com' gimme 'nana." But Ma' Andih paid no 
attention to him. After two or three times however she took 
a banana and smeared it with charcoal and gave it to him. 

Pa 1 Pandir tore the banana in two and said, " Ma' Andih 
Ma' Andih r * 'is 'nana 'ot not cook' wa' 'appen' ? " 

Ma' Andih replied, " You wanted it in a hurry, so that is 
how it is like that." 

After that they both went home and stayed there. 

About ten days later Pa' Pandir became very ill and at 
last died. Ma' Andih wept over Pa' Pandir with varied 
weeping* and went to call the Hajis and Lebais to bury Pa 1 
Pandir. The Hajis and Lebais came, and after having washed 
the body and held a service they buried him at the head of the 
rice mortar. For so Pa' Pandir had ordered and Ma' Andih 
carefully carried out all that he had ordered. After that Ma 1 
Andih made a feast on the third day and on the seventh day 
and again on the hundredth day, («c, after Pa' Pandir 's death) . 

Pa' Pandir. 

Alkesah maka adalah pada masa zaman dahulu kala ada 
satu oran£ perSmpuan bernama Ma' Andih berkhawin d$ngan 
9atu oran£ laki-laki nama Pa' Pandir. Kemudian btiranak sa- 
orang pSrempuan, ada-lah kira-kira umornya anam bulan, maka 
ini Ma' Andih headak pdrgi mengambil upah menu a, maka di- 
tinggalkannya ini budak pada Pa 9 Pandir, maka kata Ma' Andih, 
44 Budak ini tinggal pada Pa' Pandir, tStapi sekarang boleh Pa* 
Pandir mandikan dgngan ayer hangat: biar p£sam-p£sam kuku." 
Maka jawab Pa 9 Pandir, " Baiklah." 

Kemadian sap£ninggal Ma' Andih p£rgi mfingambil upah 
mSnue itu. maka Pa' Pandir masokkan ayex dUdakm- Mtir kuali 
bSsar, maka sudah menggelfcgak itu ayer, maka di masokkannya 
budak itu ka-dalam kuali lalu mati tSrjSrangin giginya. Maka 
di-lihat oleh Pa' Pandir gigi budak itu t&rj&anffin katanya, 
44 Suka sangat anak aku ini inSrasa ayer hangat ini.*' K&mudian 

B. A. Hoc., No. 48, 1907. 


tiada b&rapa lama-nya dibalah Ma' Andih dSripada m&ngambil 
upah tue itu, maka tiba-tiba ditSngo'nya anak-nya didilam kuali 
sudab mati. Maka mSnangislah Ma' Andih m&lihatkan anak-nya 
audah roati dSngan bSrbagai-bagai tangisnya katanya, " Wahai 
anakku, dan buah hatiku, dan jantong lipaku, dan buah batiku, 
urut rambut batu kSpalaku, bSrcherei langsong rupanya kita 
anak bSranak di-buat Pa' Pandir te*lukup, Pa' Pandir teTmgkap, 
Pa' Pandir kuto', Pa' Pandir mati bangat." 

MakakataPa' Paddir, "Apa yang Ma' Andih tan giskan 
itu ? " Maka kata Ma' Andih, •' Butakah mata angkatf, tiada 
m$lihat aku punya anak sudah mati angkau bunoh ? " Maka 
jawab Pa' Pandir, " Tiada sakali aku sangka anak kitn itu sudah 
mati k$rana ia t&ngah makan m&lukut itu." Maka kata Ma' 
Andih, " Butakah mata angkau, mulutnya budak itu p£noh di- 
isi b&rBnga di-katakannya budak itu tengah makan mSlukut. 
Maka jikalau bag itu baik-lah kita tanaui." Maka ia pun lalu 
menanam budak itu. 

Hata sa-tfclah sampailah tiga hari, kata Ma' Andih, " Pa' 
Pandir aku h&ndak khanduri, biarlab ku siapkan." Maka ia 
pun siaplah atas kadarnya s£gala makananuya, maka di-suroh- 
nya Pa' Pandir roSmanggil haji dan lebai dan orang ka-banyak- 
kan. Maka kata Pa' Pandir, ( ' Bagimana rupa haji, dan bagi- 
mana rupa 18bai, dan bagimana rupa orang kabanyakkan ? " 
Maka jawab Ma' Andih, " Mana-mana yang puteh kfcpalanya 
itu-lah haji, dan mana mana yang bSrjanggut, itu-lah 
ebai, dan mana-mana yang bSrchorak kainnya, itulah orang 
kabanyakkan." Maka Pa' Pandir, pun pergilah mSmanggil itu. 
fCSmudian bfcrjalanlah ia sabuntar, bSrjumpalah dfcngan sa- 
kawan burong pipit uban puteh kSpalanya, maka kata Pa' 
Pandir, " Tuan haji, di-panggil oleh Ma' Andih, ia hSndak khan- 
durikan anaknya sudah mati tiga hari sudah. Maka burong itu 
t&rbanglah ia serta bSrdfcmikian bunyinya" Pit-pit-pit." Maka 
kata Pa' Pandir, " Rumah Ma' Andih tiada sgmpit." Maka itu 
burong pun tSrbanglah ia lalu di-hambat oleh Pa' Pandir dengan 
bgrsunggoh-sunggoh hati-nya, maka dapatlah satu ekor. Kdmu- 
dian b&rjalanlah pula Pa' Pandir, sa bun tar lagi b&rjuuipa dengan 
sa-kawan kainbing, dan di-lihatnya bSrjanggut semuanya, maka 
katnya, " Tuan lfcbai di-panggil oleh Ma' Andih, ia hSndak 

Jour. Strait* Brantb 

PA' PAND1R. 79 

khanduri akan anaknya sudah mati tiga hari lalu, u Maka kam- 
bing itu pun lari sSrta bfcrbunyi dSmikian bunyinya, u Beh-beh- 
beh" Maka kata Pa' Pandir, " Nasi Ma' Andih, tiada ISmbek," 
K&mudian di-hambat oleb Pa* Pandir, dSngan bfcrsunggoh- 
sunggoh hatinya dapat satu ekor di-pikulnya diatas tSngkoknya. 
KSmudian pSrgi pula Pa' Pandir, mSnchari orang kabanyakkan, 
yang bSrchorak kain pakaienya. 

Maka masok Pa' Pandir kadalam butan, sa-buntar bSrjalan 
bSrjumpalah dfcngan sa'ekor barimau jantan, maka kata Pa* 
Pandir, " Ilai orang kabanyakkan, Ma' Andih mSmanggil ka- 
rumahnya, ia hfcndak khanduri akan anaknya sudah mati tiga 
hari lalu." Maka harimau itu pun lari, lalu di-hambatnya 
dSngan bSisunggoh hatinya, maka dapatlah harimau itu di- 
tareknya bawa pulang. 

KSmudian sSrta sampai ka-rumahnya di-lihatnya oleh Ma 
Andih s'ekor burong pipit uban, dan s'ekor kambing jantan 
panjang janggutnya, dan s'ekor harimau jantan bSrb&lang hulu- 
nya. Maka kata Ma' Andih, '* Manatah tuan haji, dan manatah 
tuan 18bai, dan manatah orang kabanyakkan ? " Maka jawab 
Pa' Pandir, •' Yang puteh kSpalanya ini tuan haji, dan yang 
b£rjanggut inilah tuan l£bai, dan yang bSrchorak-chorak kain 
pakaiennya inilah orang kabanyakkan, kSrana kata Ma' Andih 
bagitu." Maka kata Ma' Andih, " Pa' Pandir chelaka, Pa' 
Pandir t$lukup, Pa' Pandir mati dibunoh. Burong pipit uban 
di-katakannya haji, dan kambing jantan di-katakannya 16bai 
dan harimau jantan di-katakannya orang kabanyakkan." Maka 
kata Pa' Pandir, " liaram sakali-kali aku tiada sangkakan 
burong pipit dan kambing dan harimau." Maka di-suroh oleh 
Ma' Andih ltipaskan sgmua-sSmua-nya, maka Pa' Pandir 
l&paskanlah s$inua-s$inuanya-lah. Jadi Ma' Andih panggil 
sfcndiri orang babarulah ia khanduri. 

KSmudian sampailah sudah tujoh hari meshuarat Ma' Anidh 
htindak khanduri pula, maka kata Ma' Andih, " Ini anak kita 
pudah sampai tujoh hari, patutlah kita khanduri ini, mau chari 
sa'ekor k&rbau supaya kita khanduri akan anak kita itu." Maka 
jawab Pa' Pandir, "Mana-mana yang elok pada Ma' Andih aku 
mengikut sahaja." Kgumdian kata Ma' Andih, *» Pergilah Pa' 
Pandir chari sa'ekor kerbau." Maka jawab Pa' Pandir, " Baik- 
lah," Maka katanya, u Bagimana rupa k&rbau itu ? " Maka 

R. A. *?oc., No. 48, 1907. 


jawab Ma' Andih, "Mana-raana yang makan riimput itulah 
kSrbau." K&mudian Pa' Pandir pun p£rgilah pnla m&nchari 
k&rbau lalu ia mSnuju b&ndang, Maka b&rjumpalah pula ddngan 
sa'orang tSngah mSnajak, di-dapatkannya orang itu, maka 
katanya, u Huai inche' di-jualkah kferbau ini ? " Maka jawab 
orang itu, " Ini bukannya kerbau." Maka kata Pa' Pandir, 
" Sabaya mSngikut kata Ma' Andih, mana-mana yang makan 
rumput itulah kerbau." "Maka jika bagitu p&san Ma* Andiah, 
sahaya juallah." Maka kata orang bSndangitu, u Harga kfirbau 
sahaya ini dua bfclas ringgit? " Maka di-bayar oleh Pa' Pandir, 
sa-banyak pSrkataan tuan kerbau itu, maka di-tarek oleh Pa' 
Pandir, itu kftrbau, Maka tajak itupun tnSlompat-lompat dfcri 
bfclakangnya hingga lukalah k$ting Pa' Pandir itu di-makan 
oleh tajak itu. Maka kata Pa' Pandir. " Kdrbau chelaka ini 
bSngkin sangat keting kita, pula b&rdarah di-tandoknya." Maka 
ia tarek juga, tiada b&rapa lamanya tibalah ka-rumahnya lalu di- 
tambatkannya di-pangkal pinang lalu ia naik ka-rumahnya. 
Maka kata Ma' Andih, " Mana kSrbau itu Pa' Pandir ? " Maka 
jawab Pa' Pandir itu, " Dia aku tafhbatkan di-pangkal pinang 
itu, jangan Ma' Andih ddkat kerbau itu k$rana itu kSrbau 
t£rlalu b$ngkingnya luka k$ting aku di-tandoknya?" Maka 
kata Ma' Andih, " Aku bgndak tSngok deri jauh sahaja." 

Maka p&rgilah mSlihat kSrbau itu, di-t$ngoknya ka-kiri 
dan ka-kanan apa pun tidak. Maka kata Ma' Andih, " Pa f 
Pandir, Pa' Pandir mana kSrbau itu, sudah ISpaskah ? " Maka 
kata Pa' Pandir, " Ada disitu, aku tambatkan di-pangkal pinang 
itu kuat sa-kali." Maka kata Ma' Andih, *' Buta mata aku tiada 
aku mdlihat kSrbau disini ?" Maka Pa' Pandir pun b&rk&jar pfcrpi 
mSlihat kdrbau itu, maka tiba, " Ini la h kSrbau yang aku bfcli 
itu." Di-tunjokkannya tajak itu kapada Ma' Andih. Serta 
di-t&ngok oleh Ma' Andih tajak itu, maka m$njSrit Ma' Andih 
ka-atasnya, u Pa' Pandir kutok, Pa' Pandir t&lingkap.* Pa* 
Pandir tdlukup, Pa' Pandir mati di-bunoh, Pa' Pandir mati 
bangat, tajak di-katakannya kfcrbau." Maka di-charinya pula 
yang lain k$rbau b&tul, baharu-lah ia khanduri. 

*Teluknp Telingkap. Both used in Perak,— especially as a 
swear-word among "gembala gajah " — in the sense of 'damned." 
Binatang telingkap Teluknp binatang damned brute. 

W. G. M. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


Maka salama-lama Ma' Andih kamatian anak itu, maka ia 
pun raSnaroh duka chita salama-lamanya, maka b&rfikirlah Ma* 
Andih, s8rta mupakatlah ia d£ngan Pa' Pandir, * 4 Baiklah kita 
pindah dSripada t&mpat ini, kgrana ini tSmpat chSlaka anak aku 
sudah mati." Maka jawab Pa* Pandir, " Maka mana-mana suka 
Ma' Andih-lah aku mfcngikut sahaja." Maka kata Ma* Andih, 
u Baik kita chart tSmpat yang boleh bfcrladang." Maka Pa* 
Pandir pun mSnchari t&mpat bSrladang, dan tSmpat itupun 
elok pada fikirannya, maka ia t&bas tSbanglab, maka apabila 
sudah siap tanah itu ia buattah rum ah dan ia pun turun m&n- 
dapat Ma Andih mSngajak pindah, dan Ma* Andih pun bSrsiap- 
lah sfcjala pgkakasnya berangkat pSrgi pada dan^or yang di- 
buatnya Pa* Pandir di-ladang itu, dan Pa* Pandir dudok diarn 

K8mudian ada satu kali ada tinggal satu biji bakul barang 
yang kfcchil didalam bakul itu, kSmudian Ma* Andiah p8rgi mar.di. 
Maka Pa' Pandir masok didalam bakul itu mafca tiba-tiba Ma' 
Andih d8ri mandi itu ia angkat itu bakul di-naikkannya ka-atas 
kSpalanya dan di-junjongnyalah itu bakul dandi-rasa Ma' Andih 
bSrat bakul itu, " Apa pula bakul ini be rat ? Tadi tiada bSrat" 
Maka b&rkata itu sambil bSrjalan. KSmudian tiba sa-t$ngah 
jalan di-kftnching oleh Pa* Pandir dalam bakul itu dan basablah 
k£pala Ma* Andih, maka bSrungut-rungut Ma' Andih katanya, 
44 Sudahnya rupanya balang bdkas minyak aku pSchah tiadalah 
boleh aku m8r8ndangkan pSmakan Pa' Pandir." KSmudian 
sSrta sarapai ka-dangor itu di-b8mpaskan Ma' Andih bakul 
itu maka mBnjSritlah didalam bakul itu. KSraudian tfcrkSjut- 
lah Ma' Andiah katanya, " Pa' Pandir rupanya didalam bakul 
ini : patutlah b&rat. Pa* Pandir t$lukup, Pa' Pandir tSIingkap, 
Pa' Pandir mati di-bunoh, Pa' Pandir mati bangat, Pa' Pandir 
mati di-sula, Tidaklah ia kasihan kapada aku rupanya baginilah 
kita pSnat ? " K&mudian Pa' Pandir k&luarlah dSridalam bakul 

Maka dudoklah bfcrkSrja ladaug dudok disitu, antara b8- 
bSrapa bulan fikiran Pa' Pandir, 4( Baik aku pSrgi bSlayar, biar 
tinggal Ma' Andih kerja ladang." KSmudian satu hari bSrcha- 
kaplah Pa' Pandir dSngan Ma' Andih, katanya, •' Ma' Andih 
aku hgfldak bSlayar, Ma' Andih tinggal kgrja ladang, buatkan- 
lah aku lampin-lampin bSkal." Maka kata Ma' Andih, 

B. A. Soc., No. 48, 1907. 


u Baiklah." KSmudian Ma 9 Andih pun mSmbuatlah lampin- 
lampin itu, antara dua hari sSmua-sSmua lampin sudah siap ia 
taroh didalam satu bakul adalah kira-kira didalara dua tiga 
gantang, maka itu hari juga Ma' Andih p$rgi bSrjalan. 
KSmudian Pa' Pandir tSngok lampin-lampin sudah siap maka 
di-ambilnya kain-kain burok dan di-bawanya lampin-lampin itu 
ka-ata3 para lalu di-makannya habis s$mua-s$mua-nya dan 
lobang buritnya di-sumbatnya dSngan kain burok itu serta ia 
baring di-bawah kawah. Habis itu Ma' Andih pun balik dSri 
jalan, di-tengoknya Pa' Pandir sudah tiada dan t&mpat lampin- 
lampin pun tiada jua maka sangka Ma' Andih Pa' Pandir sudah 
p£rgi bSlayar, maka bSrchakaplah Ma' Andih sa-orang-orang' 
u Wahai Pa' Pandir bSlayar haram tiada ia b&rkhabar kapada 
aku." Habis itulah adalah sSlang lima anam hari fikirlah Ma' 
Andih dSkatlah sudah h&ndak balik, maka ia bSrsiap didalam 
rumah itu mgmbuang sampah-sampah dan sarang-sarang di- 
bawah dan diatas. K8mudian adalah tSrjumbai jumbai sSdikit 
kain pfcnyumbat lobang burit Pa' Pandir. Maka di-tarik oleh 
Ma' Andih, maka sSrta di-tarik Ma' Andih itu kain terchabutlah 
d&ripada lobang burit Pa' Pandir maka kSluar sdgala tahi dan 
cheret d8ri burit Pa' Pandir itu habis kfcna kSpala Ma' Andih 
maka terkSjutlah Ma' Andih maka kata Ma' Andih, u Inilah rupa 
Pa' Pandir, aku sangkakan ia pergi bSlayar, rupanya dia buat 
lampin-lampin buat bSkal tidor diatas para sahaja *b8ras 
chika b£ras batangnya sa-orang dirinya Pa' Pandir tSlukup, 
Pa' Pandir tSlingkap, Pa' Pandir mati di-bunoh, Pa' Pandir mati 
ban gat. Harap hati aku dia p&rgi bSlayar boleh ia bSlikan 
kain baju aku ini. Usahakan kain baju jangan di-beraknya 
kepala aku pun baik sangat." Habis itu ia pSrgi mandi dan 
b£rlimau b£dak mSmbuang busok tahi Pa' Pandir diatas k&pala- 
nya itu. 

KSmudian s&lang ampat lima hari adalah satu hari hujan 
rinchek-rinchek p$rgi ia m£nue bfcrdua dfcngan Ma' Andih dan 
b£rt£doh dibawah batang, maka kata Pa' Pandir, " Ma' Andih Ma' 

* Beras chika, bcras batang, (beras nanah, beras tnmbah, bcras 
chekih.) These are the coarsest words which can be applied to food, 
just as " nan tap " is the most elegant. 

Jour, b traits Branch 



Andih f nyi-nyi ini akarlah ichang awa atang ini." Maka tiada 
juga di-fSdulikan Ma' Andih dan sampai dua tiga kali di-surob 
pSrgi, Ma' Andih ambil pisang dan di-sapu-sapukannya pada 
arang jadi hitamlah pisang itu dan di-bagikannya pada Pa' 
Pandir dan di-koyak Pa' Pandir pisang itu maka kata Pa' 
Pandir, •' Ma' Andih Ma' Andih Jichang ini angus achak idak 
apa kena bagitu ? " Maka kata Ma' Andib, ** Pa' Pandir h6n- 
dakkan le*kas jadi Pa' Pandir dapatlah bagitu." Ilabis itu Pa' 
Pandir pun balik ka-rumahnya sSrta Ma' Andih dudoklah ia 
b&rdua. Maka antaralah 18beh kurang sapuloh hari maka ini 
Pa' Pandir pun sakit sangat lalu mati. Maka mSnanglislah Ma' 
Andih dtingan b£rbagai-bagai tangisnya dan Ma' Andih pun 
pSrgi m£nchari haji dan l&bai hetidak in$nanamkan Pa' Pandir ini. 

KSmudian datanglah haji dan lfcbai mSmandikan dan s8m- 
bahyangkan Pa' Pandir lalu di-tanamkan di-k6pala IfisongkSrana 
pgsan Pa' Pandir bagitu, jadi ini Ma' Andih ikut sabagimana 
pgsannya. LUbis ini Ma' Andih bSrkhandurilah ia sampai tiga 
hari dan tujoh hari dan saratus hari. Maka adalah satu hari 
maka Ma' Andih pSrgilah ia mfcnSngok kubor Pa' Pandir, k$mu- 
dian sSrta sampai pada kubor itu di-lihat Ma' Andih didalam 
kubor Pa' Pandir tSrlalu banyak turn boh chSndawan busut 
barangkali zakar Pa' Pandir itulah mSnjadi chendawan itu, 
Didalam itu pun wallah waalam 

t Pa' Pandir's baby talk for Kenyek renyek aim. B akarlah pi- 
sang bawa da tang sini. 

$ Pa' Pandir's baby talk for, Pisang ini hangus, raasak tidak, 
apa kena bagitu. 

B. A.,Soc, No. 18, 1907, 

The Pelandok and the Rotan 


Once on a time they say two rotan cutters were forwan- 
dered in a wood and had to spend the night there. Now one 
of them was a coward. Indeed he was simply wild with 
fright. The result was that his friend, the brave man, was 
greatly distressed to see his companion's state of mind. If 
he put him on the right he was frightened, and if he put bim 
on the left he was frightened too. So he put his friend's head 
between his own legs, and his own head between his friends 
legs, while he embraced his friend round the waist, telling his 
friend at the same time to grasp him in the same manner. The 
consequence was that the brave man's face was at the coward's 
back and the coward's face was at the brave man's back, while 
each embraced the other. 

It happened just at that time His Majesty Stripes, i.e., 
the tiger, was prowling round the jungle looking for his food, 
when he noticed these two forwandered friends, who seemed 
just like some strange new animal with two heads and four 
hands. He was much astonished and wished to go close, but 
was just a little frightened. So he went on. He had just got 
out of sight when he ran into a mouse deer and said to him, 
" Wahay, Wise Man of the Woods, what is the name of that 
animal there with two heads and four hands and four feet that 
thy servant has just met ? " The mouse deer, who at once 
knew that it must be men who were behaving like that, re- 
plied promptly, " Oh, Your Majesty Stripes, do you not know 
that this is what men call Sang Kinot, who is said to have 
devoured of old time all your grand -fathers, great-grand-fathers, 
great-great-grand-fathers and great-great-great-grand-fathers ?" 
Such is the story of how the mouse deer by his cleverness 
saved the two lost men from being eaten alive by the tiger. 

* A short tale by Penghuln Haji Moharaed Naiir, bin Kanda Mat 
Sen, of Hntan Melintang. Lower Perak. He is a Perak Malay. He 
cannot recollect tbe source from which he learnt it. 

Joor. Straits Branch B. A. Soc, No. 48, 1907. 


Sa-orang yang penakot dengan sa-orang 

yang beran. 

Sakali pgrSstua adalah kapada suatu raasa konon sipSrotan 
dua bfirtSnian, s&sat* didalam satu hutan, kamalaraan ia pada 
suatu tern pat dihutan itu bSrdua btirt&man. Dan yang sa'orang 
itu pBnakot. Maka sip&nakot itu tiada boleh ia tidor, mabok 
dSngan k&loh kSsah. Jadi susah hatilah tSmannya yan£ bSrani 
itu m&lihatkan hal t&mannya penakot itu. Ditarolmya disablah 
kanannya pun takot, ditaroh disablah kirinyapun takot jua. 
Dimasokkannya kSpala tSraannya yang pSnakot itu kachelah 
kangkangnya, dan kSpala ia s&ndiri, yaani kSpala sibSrani, 
dimasokkannya dichfclah kangkang t&mannya yang p&nakot itu, 
sSrta dip&loknya pinggang tSmannya yang penakot itu, dan 
t&mannya yang pSnakot itu disurohnya ra$m$lok pinggang ia- 
Jadilah muka sib&rani kabSlakang sipgnakot, dan inuka sipSnat 
kot kab$lakang si b6 rani, WrpSloklah sibfraoi dSngan sip&nako. 
itu dua b£rt8man. 

Hata pada masa itu maharaja b$lang, yaani harimau, itu 
pun lagi tfingah raSngidari hutan, akan mSncbari makannya. 
T&rlihat ia akan sSsat dua orang itu, 8&p£rti sa'ekor binatang, 
dua kftpala ampat tangan. Jadi heiranlah hatinya, hSndak pun 
dihampirinya tSrasa s£dikit takut. Lalu ia Wrjalan, lama-kala- 
ma'an, sajurus sajSnang panjang, bSrjumpa ia dSngan sa'ekor 
pSlandok katanya, " Wahai Salara di Rimba, apakah nama bina- 
tang disitu hamba bgrjumpa dua k$pala ampat tangan, dan 
ampat kaki ? " Maka dijawab pglandok d&ngan pantas, sSrta 
paham ia yang d&mikian itu kalakuan manusia, dSngan katanya, 
" Hei, maharaja b&lang, tiadalah angkau katahui itulah yang 
dikata orang bSrnama Sang Kinot, yang m&makan segala datoh 
nenek moyang moyit angkau konon dahulu ?" D&mikianlah 
chfttSranya kapandian pSlandok mSnolong mSlSpaskan s8bab 
sSsat dua bfirtfcman dfcripada dimakan harimau. 

J ear. Strait* Braata 

How the Bear Lost his Tail.* 

Once on a time on a certain day a mousedeer was in a 
hole, busy eating terong rimbang. He noticed a tiger approach- 
ing the ant heap where he was eating the terong. He thought 
that the tiger wanted to catch him. His joints and bones all 
trembled owing to his very great fear and his head was in a 
whirl. While in this state he began to chew one of the terong 
making as much noise with his mouth as he could. " Kerab 
kerab kertub kertub " went his jaws. " Ambohi," he said, 
" how delicious is this pickled tiger's eye." Then he eat another 
terong in the same way and said the same thing. And so on 
four or five times. When his majesty stripes heard that he 
began to shudder and crept away very softly. 

A short while after the tiger met with a bear and said to 
him, " Ho, Sang Beruang, hath my lord heard what manner of 
animal it is that lives in that ant heap there, and is so busy 
eating tiger's eyes ? " The bear replied, " Thy servant knoweth 
not." The tiger then said, " Come along and see." But the 
bear replied, " I dare not." The tiger said, " Never mind, come 
and let us swear fealty to each other, and let us tie our tails 
together. Then if anything happens we will both suffer." So 
they tied their tails together, and approached the mousedeer's 
ant heap very gingerly as if they were going against some very 
great enemy. 

When Salam di Bimba saw these animals he knew that 
they were badly frightened, so he shouted out, " Look at this 
accursed tiger, his father owed us a white bear and he is now 
going to pay his debt to us with a black one. Black or not, 
bring it along quickly." When the bear heard this he was 
very greatly startled " Hei," he said, " is this the trick that 
Sang Harimau is trying to play on me ? He wants me to pay 
his father's debt, does he." So the bear tugged violently. 

* A short tale by Penghulu Haji Mohamed Nasir, bin Kanda Mat 
Sen, of Hat an Melintang. Lower Perak. He is a Perak Malay. He 
cannot recollect the source from which he learnt it. 

B, A. Set* No. 48, 1907. 


And the tiger too was startled when the bear began to wrench 
like that. So he began to jump and the bear commenced to 
heave. Finally the bear's tail broke off short and both ran 
away. And that, they say, is why the bear's tail is always 
short. Such is the story of how the mouse deer's cleverness 
saved him from being eaten by the tiger. 

Sa'ekor Pel and ok Dengan Sa'ekor Harimau 

dan Beruang. 

Sakali pSrsStua kapada suatu hari adalah sa'ekor pSlandok 
dudok didalam suatu lobaog busut tfingah makan buah t&rong 
rimbang, t8rd$ngar akan sa'ekor barimau b&rjalan mSnghampir 
busut tdmpat ia dudok makan buah terong itu. Pada sangkanya 
hSndak m&nangkap ia. GSmSntarlah sSndi tulaognya d&ngan 
katakutan yang amat sangat, sSrba salah pada fikirnya. Didalam 
hal itu dimamahnya sabiji buah throng itu m^mbesarkan bunyi 
mulutnya b8rk&rab-k8rab, k8rtub-k$rtub, sSrta katanya, 
u Amboi, sSdapnya pSkasam biji mata harimau ini." KSmudian 
dimakan pula sabiji lagi bSrkata juga ia s8p&rti itu,sampai ampat 
lima kali. PidSngar oleh maharaja belang, yaani harimau kata- 
kata itu, timbullah n$g£ri s^dikit hatinya, berundorlah ia p&rla- 

Uata tiada b&rapa lama ia bSrjalan itu, bSrjumpa ia dengan 
sa'ekor beruang^ lalu harimau itu bSrkata, u Ilei, Sang B&ruang. 
Adakah tuan hamba m&nd&ngar apa binatang didalam lobang 
busut disitu tSngah 1116 makan biji mata harimau?" Dijawab 
oleh b£ruang, " Tiada hamba katahui." Rata harimau, " Chuba 
mari kita lihat?" Jawab oleh beruang, " Ilamba tiada bSrani." 
Kata harimau, u Tiada mfcngapa, mari kita berjanji tSgoh sfctia 
dan b£r tarn bat ekor. Jikalau susah apa-apa pun bSrsama-samalah 
kita kadua." Lalu bSrtambat ekorlah kaduanya serta 
mgnghampiri busut tSmpat pSlandok itu, dSngan bSringatan 
bersikap diri sa'oleh-oleh, s8p£rti mdngadap sStru yang bSsar, 
Maka dilihat oleh Salam di Rimba, yaani pSlandok, kalakuan itu, 
dikatahuinyalah, hal binatang kadua itu didalam katakutan. 
Lalu ia b£rtampek katanya, " Ini-lah machamnya, choba juga 

Jour. Strait! Branch 


lihat harimau haram ini ! Bapanya dahulu b$rhutang bSruang 

futeh pada kita, ia pula h&ndak bayar pada kita b&ruang itam. 
tam-itamlah bawa mari l$kas chSpat-chSpat" 

Dami didSngar b&ruang kata itu, ia pun terp&ranjat yang 
amat sangat. " Hei, M katanya, (i bagitu akal Sang Harimau, 
menipu aku rupanya ia h&ndak mSmbayar akan aku hutang 
bapanya." Maka mfironta-rontalah ia. Dan harimau itu 
tSrkSjut, dirintak oleh b&rnang itu, lalu harimau itu harimau itu 
mSlompat, dan b&ruang mSrintak, lalu putus ekor bSruang itu, 
lari kadua, d&ngan s8bab itu, inilah konon bSruang tiada bSrekor 
panjang. D&mikiaulah ch$t8ranya kapandian pSIandok b&rldpas 
dirinya dgripada dimakan harimau. 

B. A. Soc M No. 48, 1007. 

The Rich Man, the Poor Man and 
the Way the Pelandok Squared 

the Score.* 

The story is told that once on a time there was an extre- 
mely wealthy merchant who lived in his house in the country 
at his ease eating and drinking every day. Now quite close to 
his garden there was the house of two people, husband and 
wife. One day the wife of the poor man was chattering with 
a friend of the merchant, when she said, 

" Whenever anything is cooked in the merchant's house, 
whether it is fried or baked or stewed or broiled, then and 
then only do I eat. For whenever I smell anything being 
fried or baked or stewed or broiled in the merchant's house I 
eat with a good appetite. That is how I happen to be so 
plump, through eating thus. Whenever I want to eat I always 
make it a practice to wait till there is a smell of cooking in the 
merchant's house. Then I eat." The merchant's friend told 
him all that the poor woman had said. As soon as the rich 
man and his wife heard this, the rich man exclaimed. 

41 Of course that is why we never get stout. It seems 
that all the flavour of our frying and baking and stewing and 
broiling is quite devoured by these two poor people." The 
rich man was very angry indeed with the poor man and cursed 
and abused him up hill and down dale finally demanding that 
the poor man and his wife should pay the price of anything 
that had ever been cooked in his house. He went off and com- 
plained to the raja of the country and sued for all his expenses 
in frying and baking and stewing and broiling on the ground 
that the flavour thereof had been devoured by the poor man 
and his wife. The raja summoned the poor man and his wife 
before him. When he made enquiries the poor man replied, 

* This tale told by Penghulu Haji Mohamed Nasir bin Kanda 
Mat Sen of Hutan Melintang, who first learnt it from one Pa wan g 
Talip bin Mohamed of Menangkabau. 

Jour, Straits Branch R. A. Soc., No, 48, 1907. 


" Of a truth Your Highness, thy slave sups whenever there 
is a smell of cooking in the merchant's house." 

The king came to the conclusion that he was unable to 
give a decision and so he ordered the gong to be beaten 
throughout the whole country and a proclamation to be 

" Ho, whoever gentle or lord, can decide the plaint that 
the merchant prefers against this poor man will be made the 
vizier of the land." 

But no man replied to the proclamation. At last the 
pelandok said to the herald. " Oh herald, what is troubling 
the king of the country ? Where are his enemies breaking in ? 
Which of his soldiers has committed murder ? Where is the 
wall of the royal fort that is in need of repair? " 

" None of these. But a certain merchant has made com- 
plaint to the king, and the king has caused proclamation to be 
made that whoever will decide the plaint of the rich man 
against these two poor people, husband and wife, will be made 
the grand vizier of the land/' 

" Pray thee, inform the king that I will settle the case." 

" Very well, Salam di Rimba, come along with me to the 

When they reached the royal hall the king said to the 
herald. M Have you found any one who can settle the question 
of right and wrong between the merchant and the poor man ? " 

The herald made obeisance and replied, " May I be 
pardoned a thousandfold, Salam di Rimba hath declared that 
he can give judgment in the case between the rich man and 
the poor man, my lord." 

The king said, " Is it true that Salam di Rimba hath said 
that he can give judgment in the merchant's case ? " 

Jour. Strait* Branch 


The pelandok made obeisance and replied, " With the help 
of your highness' aid, your servant will give judgment between 
the merchant and the poor man." 

M If you are not able to, I will kill you forthwith." 

" If I am slain thy servant will die and my lord will be 
one slave the poorer." 

11 Give judgment quickly." 

The pelandok then went up on to the judgment seat and 
the merchant and the poor man were called and placed before 
him. The pelandok enquired of the rich man. ' How much 
of your money has been devoured by the poor man ? " The 
merchant replied, " Full a thousand dollars hath thy servant 
lost." The pelandok then asked the poor man " Is it true 
that you eat whenever there is any smell of frying or baking 
or stewing or boiling in the merchant's house ? '' The poor 
man replied, " Of a truth thy servant eats whenever there is 
cooking in the merchant's house, for the smell of the cooking 
reached thy servant's nostrils.'' The pelandok then enquired, 
" Have you ever gone into the merchant's house ? " " Never." 
" Have you ever gone into his garden ? " " Never." The 
pelandok then enquired of the merchant, "It is true, sir, 
that the poor man has never been inside your garden ? " 
The merchant replied, " It is true." The pelandok then went 
to the king and borrowed a thousand dollars. He gave orders 
that the state curtain should be placed in the middle of the hall 
and arranged between the merchant and the poor man. He 
then called out in his shrill voice and ordered the poor man to 
count out the thousand dollars on one side of the curtain and 
the merchant to listen very carefully on the other. So the 
poor man told the dollars thus, " One, two, three, four, five, 

six, seven, eight, nine, ten " When he completed 

the tale of the thousand, the pelandok said, " Take, sir, here- 
with a full and complete settlement of your account." The 
merchant said, " Very well, bring the dollars to me." The 
pelandok said, "Why sir, do you want the very dollars? 
You have received your account and it is all settled. The 

B. A. Soc., No. 48, 1907. 



poor man took them away by smelling and you have received 
them back by hearing/' 

Such is the tale of the pelandok's skill. 

Sa'orang saudagar dengan sa'orang miskin. 

Sakali pgrSstua adalah kapada satu masa konon ada sa'orang 
saudagar tSrlalu amat kaya dudok didalam satu kampong 
dengan b£rsuka-suka'an makan minum pada tiap-tiap hari, ada 
dSkat dengan kampongnya itu sabuah rumah miskin dudok dua 
laki bini. Maka pada satu hari p£r£mpuan si miskin itu b$r- 
chakap-chakap dengan sa'orang deripada tSman saudagar itu, 
katanya, »' Aku makan ini mamtkala tuan saudagar itu, bfcrmasak 
rSndang tumis mSnggulai patai baharu aku ra 8 makan, dapat 
m&nchium bahu sSgala rSndang tumis gulai patai tuan saudagar 
itu, kuatlah aku m§ makan, jadi sSbab itu g$mok sudah aku 
mSmakan ini. Bagitulah adat aku makan, pada tiap-tiap kali 
hendak makan, nanti bSrbahu rSndang tumis tuan saudagar 
baharu makan." Maka p&rkata'an si miskin itu dikhabarkun 
oleh t8man saudagar itu pada tuannya saudagar sSperti kata 
p£r£mpuan si miskin itu. DSmi sabaja terdSngar pada saudagar 
laki istri, pSrkhabaran itu bSrkatalah datoh saudagar itu, 
" Patutlah salama-lama ini aku dua laki istri tiada g&mok. 
Rupanya sSgala bahu-bahuan rSndang tumis aku habis dimakan 
si miskin dua laki bini itu." Maka datoh saudagar pun marah 
akan si miskin kata nustanya dSngan kinchah hamon sSranahnya 
serta mSminta harga r&udang tumis gulai patai ia yang sudah- 
sudah itu pada si miskin dua laki bini itu. Lalu saudagar itu 
mSngadu pada raja didalam n£g8ri itu, minta harga bSlanja 
r$ndang tumis gulai patai yang sudah itu, sSbab bahu dimakan 
si miskin dua laki bini itu. 

Maka dipanggil rajalah si miskin dua laki bini itu. 
Dip8r£ksa, dijawab oleh si miskin, " BStul tuanku patek aiap* 

* Wilkinson p. 63 gives Aiap an, victuals prepared for a Raja. In 
Perak santap is used to describe the royal food, and aiap is the word 
used by a subject when speaking to a raja of his (the subject's) food, 
as here. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


waktu t&ngah berbahu rSndang turais datoh saudagar ini 
tuanku." Maka b$rfikir raja itu tiada lalu ia h8ndka mShukura- 
kan, lalu raja itu nifcnyuroh niSmukol chanang didalam n£g£ri 
itu b&rtanya. " Hoi, siapa-siapa, inche, tuan-tuan, yang chakap 
mShukumkan aduan saudagar diatas si miskin ini, dijadikan 
m$nt$ri didalam n$g£ri ini." Maka sa'oran^ tiada siapa m$n- 
jawab chanang itu. Didalam itu bgrtanya p&andok pada tukang 
chanang itu, katanya, " Hei tukang chanang, apa susah raja 
diflalam nfcgSri ini, diraana musoh mglanggar yang dabS r talon - 
talon, dan dimana hulubalang yang salah bunoh, dan dimana 
pagar kota raja yang pSchah ? " Dijawab tukang chanang. 
" Satu apa pun tiada, tStapi ad a sa'orang saudagar didalam 
nSgSri ini, mSngadu pada raja minta disS'iseikan p&ngaduannya, 
inilah raja pukol chanang chari siapa yang chakap m8ny£lisei- 
kan aduan saudagar |di a tas si miskin dua laki bini, di jadikan raja 
m£nt£ri didalam nSgeri ini. 1 ' Maka kata pSlandok, " Maalum- 
kan sSmbah aku pada raja. Akulah yang chakap m$ny81iseikan 
pgngaduan saudagar itu." Jawab tukang chanang, " Baikiah 
Salam di Rimba, mari b8rsama-sama mSngadap." Kata 
pglandok, Baikiah ? " Maka sampai kabalai rong, titah raja 
pada tukang chanang, " Adakah kamu dapat orang yang chakap 
mShukumkan salah b&nar antara saudagar dSngan si miskin ini ? " 
S&mbah tukang chanang, " liarap diampun, inilah Salam di 
Rimba yang mSngaku pada patek, ia boleh m&hukumkan 
pgngaduan saudagar diatas si miskin itu tuanku ? '* Maka titah 
raja, " BSnarkah, Salam di Rimba, berchakap lalu mShukumkan 
aduan saudagar ini?" Maka s&tnbah p&landok, "DSngan 
tinggi daulat, patek I ah mghukumkan diantars saudagar dSngan 
si miskin itu tuanku." Til ah raja, " Jika Salam di Rimba, 
tiada lalu mSbukumkan sSkarang aku bunoh." SSmbah 
p£landok, " Jika dibunoh patek mati, tuanku juga kakurangan 
hamba ? " Titah raja, " Baik, hukumkan sSgSra." 

Maka pSIandok itu pun naik kaatas pgtarakna. Saudagar 
dan si miskin pun dipanggil oranglah didudokkan dihadap 
p£t$rakna itu. Maka dip£r$ksa p£landok, saudagar itu, " B8r- 
apa banyak sudah belanja datoh saudagar yang sudah habis 
bahunya dimakan si miskin ini ? " Jawab saudagar, " Ada saribu 
ringgit belanja hamba sudah habis ? " Maka dip£r£ksa pula si 

B. A. Soc., No 18, 1907. 


miskin itu, " BStulkah kamu makan waktu t$ngah b£rbahu 
masak r&ndang tumis gulai patai datoh saudagar ini ? " . Jawab 
si miskin, " BStul ada bamba makan tiap-tiap saudagar itu 
b£rmasak*masak, jadi bahu masak itu sampai pada hidong 
hamba." Dip$r8ksa pSlandok si miskin itu, " Adakah kamu 
masok didalam rumah saudagar itu ? " Jawab si miskin, 
" Tiada." " Dan masok didalam kampong saudagar itu ada 
kah?" Jawab si thiskin, " Tiada." Maka diptirgksa pdlandok 
pada saudagar, u Betulkah datoh saudagar si miskin ini tiafjla 
pgrnah masok kampong tuan hamba? Jawab saudagar, 
" B8tul." Maka pSlandok pun mSngadap raja, m£mohunkan 
saribu ringgit dan ni$nyuroh orang mglabohkan tirai tiwangga 
dit£ngah balai rong itu diantara saudagar dSngan si miskin 
itu. Maka ringgit saribu itu disuroh pglandok bilang pada si 
miskin, d$ngan mSnyaring suaranya d$ri balik tirai itu. Dan 
saugagar itu pun disurohnya m8nd£ngar baik-baik d8ri balik 
tirai itu. Si miskin bSrbilang itu dSmikian bunyinya, " Satu 
dua tiga ampat lima anam tujoh lapan sSmbilan sapuloh." 
Apabila sampai saribu bilangan ringgit itu kata pSlandok, 
"Tgrima datoh saudagar dSngan jSlasnya." Maka di-jawab 
saudagar, " Baiklah bawa mari ringgit itu, hamba t&rima." 
Kata p£landok, " Apa fasal pula datoh saudagar ini mahu itu 
ringgit ? Sudah terima, sudahlah. Si miskin mfcngambil pada 
datoh saudagar dahulu dSngan bahu sahaja. Dan datoh sauda- 
gar ru$n$rima harganya ini dSngan bunyu" Inilah ch$t£ranya, 
kapandian pSlandok itu adanya. 

our. Straits Branch 

List of Graveyards of the Late Sultans 

of the State of Perak, 

Der-Ul-Rithuan, enquired into and visited by me, 

Stia Bijaya Di Raja, 
under instructions received from the 


The names of the late Sultans and the situation of their 
respective graveyards are as follows : 

1. Paduka Sri Sultan Mothaffar Shah, the first Ruler of 
the State of Perak was the son of the late Sultan Mahmud 
Shah, of the State of Kampar, (Sumatra)- His former name 
was Raja Mothaffar Shah, and the length of time he was on the 
throne is unknown. The situation of his graveyard is at Tanah 
Abang, Ayer Mati, in the mukim of Lambor Kanan, Kuala 
Kangsar District. 

His graveyard is on a mound or platform and surrounded 
by a wall. His daughter's grave is on the right of the platform 
and that of his wife on the left ; his " Guru " (religious teacher) 
named Syed Hussein, is also on his left. Four graves are on 
the platform. His tombstones are beautifully and clearly 
engraved by Acheen people of former days. They are broken 
and cracked. If his graveyard monument is to be renewed the 
' ganti badan " stone (i.e. a stone placed over the grave, extend- 
ing from the head to the feet, to represent the body) should 
be made and his name be inscribed on this stone. His tomb- 
stones could be utilised again but the breaks and cracks should 
be mended with cement. 

2. Paduka Sri Sultan Mansur Shah, son of the late Sul- 
tan Mothaffar Shah. His former name was Raja Mansur, and 
the length of time he was on the throne is unknown. The 
situation of this Sultan's grave is at Kota Lama Kanan, Kuala 
Kangsar District. 

R. A. 8oc., No. 48, 1007. 


The graveyard of this Sultan I asked the elders of Kota 
Lama Kanan to point out to me ; they all informed me that, 
according to stories handed down by their forefathers, this 
grave is in the Kota Lama Kanan Mosque, under the pulpit. 
I could not find it at any other place. I brought this matter 
to the notice of His Highness Sultan Idris, and he told me 
that it was true that the grave of this Sultan is in the Mosque, 
as former Sultans, when visiting this grave, used to go to the 
Mosque. I think that a large tombstone with the name of 
this Sultan should be made and placed in the Mosque next to 
the pulpit. 

3. Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Shah, son of the 
late Sultan Mansur Shah. The latter was afterwards called 
" Almerhum Kota Lama Kanan." His former name was Kaja 
Ahmad, and the length of time he was on the throne is un- 
known. This Sultan died at Jolong, and was called " Almerhum 
Muda," and his grave is at Geronggong, in the mukim of Pulau 
Tiga, Lower Perak District. 

The grave of this Sultan is in the land owned by a 
Javanese named Haji Muhammad Saleh. His tombstones 
were beautifully engraved by Acheen people. One of the two 
tombstones is broken and cannot be mended and therefore both 
stones should be renewed. 

4. Paduka Sri Sultan Tajul Ariffin, son of the late Sultan 
Mansur Shah (Almerhum Kota Lama Kanan). His former 
name was Raja Ariffin, and the length of his reign is unknown. 
The grave of this Sultan is on the island of Semat, in the mu- 
kim of Senggang, Kuala Kangsar District. 

This grave is in the land owned by one Anjang Ibrahim. 
Only one tombstone remains over the grave. I do not think 
this stone could be further used and therefore both stones 
should be renewed. 

5. Paduka Sri Sultan Alla-Uddin Shah, son of the late 
Raja Kechil, and grandson of the late Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin 
(Almerhum Muda, died at Jolong, see para. 3). His former 
name was Raja Ali, and the length of his reign is unknown. 

Jour. Straits Eranch 


The grave of this Sultan is next to the grave of Almerhum 
Bongsu, at the down stream extremity of the island of Bota, 
Kuala Kangsar District. 

This grave is in the dusun land belonging to His Highness 
Sultan Idris, and neither of the tombstones remain over the 

6. Paduka Sri Sultan Mukadam Shah, grandson of the 
late Sultan Mansur Shah (see para. 2), who was called " Almer- 
hum Kota Sama Kanan." His former name was Tungku Tuha, 
and the length of his reign is unknown. The grave of this 
Sultan is in the State of Acheen. 

His Highness Sultan Idris informed me that this Sultan 
died in Acheen, where his grave is. 

7. Paduka Sri Sultan Mansur Shah II, son of the late 
Raja Kechil, and grandson of the late Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin 
Shah (see para. 3), who was called " Almerhum Muda." His 
former name was Eaja Mansur, and the length of his reign is 

The grave of this Sultan is in the State of Johor. His 
Highness Sultan Idris informed me that this Sultan sailed for 
Jobor and met his death there. 

8. Paduka Sri Sultan Mahmud Shah, grandson of the 
late Sultan Mansur Shah (see para. 2), who was called "Almer- 
hum Kota Lama Kanan." His former name was Raja Yusuf, 
and the length of his reign is unknown. 

The grave of this Sultan is at Pulau Tiga, in Lower Perak 
District. This grave is in the land owned by one Khatib 
Samat, on the down stream side of the house of the Datoh 
Paduka Raja. Not one of the tombstones remains. 

9. Paduka Sri Sultan Salehuddin, son of the late Sultan 
Mahmud. The latter was styled " Almerhum Pulau Tiga." 
His former name was Raja Kobat, and the length of his reign 
is unknown. 

It. A. Soc. No. 4ti, 19U7. 


The grave of this Sultan id in the State of Kampar, in 
Sumatra. His Highness Sultan Idris informed me that this 
Sultan, when he was on the throne, sailed to Kampar and met 
his death there. 

10. Paduka Sri Sultan Mothaffar Shah II, who was 
staled " Almerhum Jamal-AUah," son of the late Sultan Mah- 
roud, of Kampar. His former name was Raja Sulong, and tht 
length of his reign is unknown. The grave of this Sultan is at 
Ayer Mati, in the mukim of Bota, Kuala Kangsar District. 

This grave is in the land owned by Kulup Lateh, and is 
on a platform. The tombstones have disappeared. It is stiuat- 
ed about a mile inland from the Perak River. 

] 1. Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Iskandar Shah, who 
was styled " Almerhum Besar Ulia-AUah," son of the late 
Sultan Mothaffar II, whose grave is at Ayer Mati Lama, in the 
mukim of Bota. His former name was Raja Mahmud, and his 
age was 120 years. He was on the throne for 111 years. His 
grave is at Geronggong, in the mukim of Pulau Tiga, Lower 
Perak District. 

The .grave of this Sultan is in the land belonging to a 
Javanese by the name of Haji Muhammad Saleh. The tomb- 
stones are beautifully engraved, and are little broken, but can 
be mended with cement. A " ganti badan " stone should be 
made and inscribed with the name of this Sultan. The distance 
of this grave from the Perak River is about 160 yards. 

12. Paduka Sri Sultan Allauddin Rahiat Shah, son of 
the late Almerhum Sulong, of Geronggong, and grandson of 
the late Sultan Mansur Shah, of Pulau Tiga. His former 
name was Raja Radin, and he was on the throne for 20 years. 
The grave of this Sultan is at Geronggong, in the mukim of 
Pulau Tiga, Lower Perak District. 

The grave of this Sultan fell into the river some time 
back owing to the river bank being washed away. His High- 
ness Sultan Idris informed me that former Sultans when 
visiting this grave used to go to a stump of a " Sena " tree in 

Jour. .Straits Branch 


the river, as the grave of this Sultan was at the foot of this 
tree. The stump of this tree has now disappeared. 

13. Paduka Sri Sultan Mothaffar Shah III, who was 
styled " Aimer hum Hadji-Allah," son of the late Sultan 
Mansur Shah, of Pulau Tiga. His former name was Raja Inu, 
and the length of his reign in unknown. The grave of this 
Sultan is in the " selat " in Bota Mukim, Kuala Kangsar 
District. He died during the Muhammadan year 1176. 

The grave of this Sultan is in the land owned by one 
Lebai Kelantan. This grave is on a platform and both the 
tombstones have disappeared. It is situated far away inland 
from the Perak River. 

14. Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah, who was 
styled " Almerhum Amin- Allah," son of the late Sultan Mansur 
ghah, of Pulau Tiga. His former name was Raja Besnu, and 
the length of his reign is unknown. The grave of this Sultan 
is at Pulau Tiga, in Lower Perak District. 

The grave of this Sultan was in the land belonging to 
Imam Kasim, on the up-stream side of the house of the 
Datoh Paduka Raja. This grave, during the reign of the 
late Sultan Yusuf, fell into the river owing to the bank being 
washed away, and the kanipong of Imam Kasim has also 
been washed away by the river, leaving the parit (boundary 
ditch) only on the inland side. 

15. Paduka Sri Sultan Iskandar Zul Karnain, who was 
styled "Almerhum Kahar-Allah," son of the late Sultan 
Muhammad Shah (Almerhum Amin-Allah of Pulau Tiga, see 
para 14). His former name was Raja Iskandar, and he was 
on the throne for 14 years. His grave is on the Pulau 
Indra Sakti, in the mukim of Uandar, Lower Perak District. 

The grave of this Sultan is in the kampong land of Haji 

Muhammad Taib. The octagonal tombstones, which were 

beautifully made, have been broken in three parts and the 

" ganti badan " stone has been broken in two parts. These 

R. A. Soo., No 48, 1907. 


could be mended with cement, and the name of the deceased 
should be inscribed on the " ganti badan " stone. 

16. Paduka Sri Sultan Mahmud Shah, who was styled 

9 •» 

" Almerhum Muda," son of the late Sultan Muhammad Shah 
(see para. 14). His former name was Raja Samsu, and he 
was on the throne for eight years. His grave is on the Pulau 
Besar, in the mukim of Pasir Panjang Ulu, Lower Perak 

This grave, on the Pulau Besar, is in the Government 
Burial Reserve. The square tombstones, which were made 
•beautifully, have been in many parts broken, but could be 
mended with cement. There is no "ganti badan" stone over 
the grave, and I think one should be made and inscribed 
thereon with the name of this Sultan. This grave is far inland 
from the Perak River, and on the middle of the island. 

17. Paduka Sri Sultan Allnuddin Mansur Iskandar 
Muda Shah, who was styled " Paduka Almerhum," son of the 
late Sultan Muhammad Shah (see para. 14). His former name 
was Raja Allauddin, and the length of his reign is unknown. 
His grave is at Telok Memali, in the Mukim of Bandar, Lower 

This grave is in the land owned by one Alang Jaksa. It 
was formerly under a tiled roof, but the structure has since 
fallen down. His tombstones and " ganti badan " stone were 
beautifully made, but have been cracked and broken, but 
could be repaired with cement. On the " ganti badan " stone 
the name of this Sultan should be inscribed. This grave is 
about 40 yards away from the river bank and, if not removed 
before long, will be washed away by the river. 

18. Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmadin Shah, who was styled 
" Almerhum Bongsu," son of the late Sultan Muhammad Shah 
(see para. 14). His former name was Raja Chik, and the 
length of his reign is unknown. This grave is on the same 
platform as the grave of the late Sultan Allauddin (see para. 5). 

This grave is at the down .stream extremity of Pulau 
Bota, and is in the laud owned by His Highness Sultan Idris. 

Jour* Straits Branch 


It is on the same platform with the grave of the late 5th 
Sultan. It is far awav inland from the river. 

19. Paduka Sri Sultan Abdul Malek Mansur Shah, who 
was styled " Ahnei'hum Jamal- Allah," son of the late Sultan 
Ahinadin Shah (see para. 18). His former name was Raja 
Abdul Malek, and he reigned for 20 years. The grave of this 
Sultan is at Telok Memali, in the mukim of Bandar, Lower 
Perak District. 

This grave is in the land belonging to Haji Muhammad 
Arop, and is on a platform. The tombstones have dis- 

20. Paduka Sri Sultan Abdullah Moazam Shah, who was 
styled " Almerhum Khali-el-Allah," son of the late Sultan 
Abdul Malek Mansur Shah (see para. 19). His former name 
wis Raja Abdullah, and the period of his reign was 13 years. 
The grave of this Sultan is at Telok Kepayang, next to the 
grave of the late Sultan Jaffar, in the mukim of Pasir Panjang 
Ulu, Lower Perak District. 

This grave was formerly at Pasir Panjang, but when His 
Highness Sultan Idris visited ail the Royal graves after his 
installation be orderedjit to be removed to its present place, as 
it was found then that it was nearly washed away by the river. 
This grave is in the land owned by His Highness the Raja 
Muda Musa. This grave and that of the late Sultan Jaffar is 
only about three yards away. No tombstones are over the 
grave. It is far away inland from the Perak river. 

21. Paduka Sri Sultan Shahbudin Shah, who was styled 
" Almerhum Safi-el-Allah," son of the late Saleh-el-Aman, and 
grandson of the late Sultan Ahmadin Shah (see para. 18). His 
former name was Raja Chulan, and he was on the throne for 
nine years. The grave of this Sultan is at Tanjong Penanggok, 
in the mukim of Bandar, Lower Perak District. 

The grave of this Sultan is in the land belonging to 
Hitam Muhammad Yusuf. It is on a platform and all the 
tombstones have disappeared ; and is about 30 yards away 

B. A. Soc., No 48, 1907. 


fiom the river. It would be best to remove this grave to 
Pulau Indra Sakti and re-bury the body next to that of the 
late Sultan Iskandar Zulkarnain (see para. 15). 

22. Paduka Sri Sultan Abdullah Mudammad Shah, who 
was styled " Almerhum Etak&d-el-AUah," son of the late Raja 
Kechil Besar Abdul Rahman, and grandson of the late Sultan 
Ahmadin Shah (see para. 18). His former name was Raja 
Abdullah, and he reigned for 21 years. His grave is at 
Durien Sabatang, in Lower Perak District. 

The grave of this Sultan is in the land owned by Haji 
Ahmad bin Haji Muhammad Yasin. It is on a platform, next 
to the grave of the late Toh Janggot, the then Laksamana. 
All the tombstones have disappeared. 

23. Paduka Sri Sultan Jaffar Moazam Shah, who was styled 
" Almerhum Wali- Allah," son of the late Raja Kechil Tengah 
Ahmad, and grandson of the late Sultan Abdul Malek Mansur 
Shah (see para. 19). His formet name was Raja Ngah Jaffar, 
and he reigned for nine years. His grave is at Telok Kapa- 
yang, in the mukim of Pasir Panjang Ulu, Lower Perak 

The grave is in the dusun land of His Highness the Raja 
Mud a Musa, and the tumbstone remain. The " ganti badan " 
is of wood and is now rotten, and should be replaced with 
a stone. 

24. Paduka Sri Sultan Ali-el-Kamal Rahiat Shah, who 
was styled "Almerhum Nabi-Allah," son of the late Sultan 
Shahbudin Shah (see para. 20). His former name was Raja 
Ngah AH, and he was on the throne for six years. His grave 
is at Gedong Siam, in the niukim of Saiong, Kuala Kangsar 

This grave is in the Government Burial Reserve. The 
tombstones are in good condition, but the wooden "ganti 
badan " is rotten and should be replaced with a stone. 

25. Paduka Sri Sultan Ismail Moabeddin Shah, who was 
styled as "Almerhum Mangkat di-Sekudai," son of the late 

Jour. MraiU Branch 


Shiekh-el-Kheirat Sbah, and grandson of the late Raja Hussein, 
and great grandson of Almerhum Pura, the Ruler of the State 
of Siak, in Sumatra. His mother was the daughter of the late 
Sultan Ahmadin Shah ("see para 18), and the period of his 
reign was four years. His grave is at Sekudai, in Johor. 

When Sultan AH (see para 24) was on the throne, Raja 
Ismail held the post of the Raja Bendahara, and Raja Abdul- 
lah was the Raja Muda. After the death of Sultan Ali, Raja 
Ismail was installed by the upper Perak Chiefs as Sultan. The 
Chiefs in Lower Perak then proclaimed ex-Sultan Abdullah as 
Sultan. There were two Sultans in Perak when the British 
Government intervened. Ex-Sultan Abdullah was then con- 
firmed by the British Government as Ruler of the State of 
Perak, and the late Sultan Ismail was styled ex-Sultan. Not 
long afterwards the disturbances took place in Perak, and both 
the Sultans were banished. The late ex-Sultan Ismail died in 

26. Paduka Sri Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shah, son 
of the late Sultan Jaffar Moazam Shah (see para 23). His 
former name was Raja Abdullah. 

His Highness the ex-Sultan Abdullah is now in Singapore, 
where he has to stay as ordered by the British Government. 

27. Paduka Sri Sultan Yusof Sharif-el-din Mofthal Shah, 
who was styled as "Almerhum Rhafir-AUah," son of the late 
Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shah (see para 22J. His former 
name was Raja Yusuf, he reigned only for 10 months. His 
grave is at Kampong L em bah, in the Mukim of Saiong, Kuala 
Kangsar District. 

Raja Yusuf, when ex-Sultan Abdullah was proclaimed 
Ruler, was installed as the Raja Muda. After the disturbances 
were over and both the ex-Sultans Abdullah and Ismail left 
this country, the English Government recognised him as the 
Regent of Perak. When peace was established, during the 
time when Sir Hugh Low, g.c.m.g., became Resident of Perak, 
Raja Yusuf was installed as the Sultan of Perak, and Rnja 
Idris, who held the post of Chief Justice in Perak, was made 

B. A. Soc. t No. 48, 1007. 



the Raja Muda. Ten months after his installation, at 2 a.m. 
on Thursday, the 2/th, July, 1887, Sultan Yusuf expired at bis 
Astana at Saiong. 

His grave is in the Government Burial Reserve. His 
Highness Sultan Idris informed me that be wishes to remove 
this grave to the burial ground at JBukit Chandan, as the pre- 
sent situation is annually under flood, and there he wishes, at 
his own expense, to erect a suitable monument over the grave. 

Paduka Sri Sultan Sir Idris Mersid-el-Aazam Shah, o.c.M a 
son of the late Bendahara Iskandar Shah, and grandson of the 
late Raja Kechil Tengah Ahmad, and great grandson of the 
late Sultan Abdul Malek Mansur Shah (see para 19). 

His Highness first became the Sultan during the Muham- 
madan year 1305 (1888). His Highness has twice visited 
England, once before his installation and again when invited 
to attend the King's Coronation in 1903. 

The prayers of all his subjects are that Almighty God may 
grant him long life, prosperity and good health to sit upon the 
throne of the State of Perak Der-el-Rithuan. 


Slid Bijaya Di Raja. 

Christmas Island Flora— Additional 


By H. N. Ridley. 

Tri$tiriopsi8 nativitatis, Hemsl. 

Mr. Hemsley has since the publication of this report 
given a figure of this plant from specimens collected by 
me in the Icones Plantarum No. 2812, as IVistiropsis 
Ridleyx order Sapindaceae tribe Melicocceae. He says 
it almost certainly belongs to the same species as a 
specimen collected by Lister in 1887, but the leaves 
and leaflets of that were twice the size, and Lister notes 
the tree is 100 feet high and 13 feet through. I never 
saw one nearly as large as this, in the island. Flowers 
are much wanted of this 

Dendrobium pectinatum t Ridl. 

I find that this name is already occupied by another 
species, so the name must be changed to D. nativitatis. 
Dr. Christ has examined some of the ferns T sent him 
which were somewhat doubtful and gives the following 

Asplerium paradoxum, Bl. 

One specimen I got in Christmas Island proves 
to belong to this species. It is very doubtful how- 
ever how far this can be kept distinct from A. 

rieocnemia gigantea^ Hook. 

Common in the Plateau, Phosphate Hill and Flying 
Fish cave. An addition to the Flora. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. ?oc., No. 48, 1907. 


Gynmopteris variabilis (Leptochilus variabilis). 

He gives this latter name to the plant mentioned by 
me as G. Listeri Bak. 

G. heteroclita, (Leptochilus peteroclita). 

A plant collected by me on the plateau (No. 177) of 
which I have also living plants at the Botanic Gardens. 


[No. 49] 


December, 1907 

Agents f>r mi 

i i i. . ■ ■ 

[No. 49] 


of the 

Straits Branch 

of tbe 

Royal Asiatic Society 


Printed at The Methodist Publishing House 


Table of Contents 



The Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, by H. N. Ridley 1 
On Tally Sticks and Strings in Borneo, by Dr. Hose and 

*/. IZBtVttt ... ... ... ••• l 

New or Rare Malayan Plants, Series III, by H. A T . Ridley 11 

A Journey into the Interior of Borneo to Visit the Kala- 

bit Tribes, by R. S. Douglas... ... ... 53 

Notes on the Capture of a Rare Leathery Turtle in Johore 

Waters, by C. Boden Kloss ... ... 63 

Malayan Pigs, by C. Boden Kloss ... ... ... 67 

Mantra Gajah, by W. George Maxwell ... ... 71 

Malay Chess, by J. B. Elcum ... ... ... 87 

Note on the Malay Game " Jongkak," by M. Hellier ... 93 

Concerning Some Old Sanskrit, by Professor II. Kern ... 95 

Miscellaneous Notes, by George W. Maxwell ... ... 103 

Notes and Queries, by W. G. M. ... ... ... 108 

Bark Canoes among the Jakuns and Dyaks, by Dr. 

W. L. Abbott ... ... ... ... 109 

Tin and Lead Coins from Brunei, by Dr. R. Hanitsch ... Ill 


The Pagan Races of the Malay 


By W. W Skeat and 0. Blagden. 

(A Rbvibw). By H. N. Ridley. 

As the work of civilization progresses and the forests fall 
before the axe of the planter, the more primitive tribes of 
jungle folk disappear, to be replaced by the imported and more 
civilized labourer from other countries ; and should these 
old world folk themselves not actually disappear, they amal- 
gamate with the later arrivals, and adopting their ideas and 
customs, they become so changed that all that is interesting 
about them is lost. Many tribes of the human race have thus 
passed away, leaving few or no relics of their ever having exist- 
ed. One such race, indeed the makers and users of the stone 
implements known here as Batu Lintar, has vanished from 
the peninsula ; but we have still with us that simple people 
commonly known as S'akais, whose manners, customs, tradi- 
tions and language, have been long the study of Messrs. Skeat 
and Blagden. who together have published a most excellent 
record of the vanishing tribes of the jungle folk of the Malay 
Peninsula. The work in two volumes excellently illustrated 
by photographs and woodcuts is perhaps one of the most 
important of ethnological works that has appeared for some 
time. No trouble has boen spared by the authors, both well 
known officials here some years ago, to collect all possible 
evidence on all ethnological and anthropological questions con- 
cerning these races, and the extensive list of Jhe Bibliography 
of the subject shows how thorough their work has been. 

The Bibliography dates from 1800, or thereabouts, and is 
divided up into three periods. The first two from 1800 to 1850, 
and thence to 1890, though giving a good many amateur's notes 
and some amount of research work, supplied little more than 
enough knowledge to stimulate research into these interesting 

Jour. Htraiti Branch R. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 



races. The only representations of any of the tribes in those days 
were the rough sketches of profiles by Miklucho Maclay which 
were to be found in all ethnological books. Indeed till about 
1890 photographs of these races were quite unprocurable in 
Singapore. From 1890 onwards the wild men were the subject 
of study by a large number of ethnologists and antropologists. 
Several scientific men came from Germany, and many local 
residents investigated the ethnology and collected specimens of 
their handiwork, made researches into their language, and took 
photographs of the people themselves, besides securing skulls 
and skeletons. The results of this work in which Mr. Skeat 
took a very large share himself, are well represented in these 
two volumes. One of those who devoted a great deal of time to 
the wild tribes was Mr. Vaughan Stevens, a very well 
known character here for some years, who was employed by 
the Berlin and St. Petersburg Missions to collect ethno- 
graphical specimens of the Sakais, and who wandered about all 
over the peninsula in search of them. He published volumin- 
ous accounts of his researches, on some of which considerable 
doubt has been thrown. The authors have made use of his 
work while drawing attention to inaccuracies and improbabilities 
in his observations and theories. The most important of the 
anthropologists who visited the peninsula was Herr Rudolf 
Martin whose monumental work "Die Inland stamme der Malay- 
ischin Halbinsel " was the first sound and reliable work on the 

The book commences with an introductory account of the 
environment of the wild man, and his character and relations 
to it. 

The racial characters and names of the tribes and the 
problems of their origin are next dealt with. The three types 
of the tribes are the Semanys, negritos with woolly hairs 
and brachycephalic heads, the Sakais, dolichocephalic with 
wavy hair, and the southern Jakuna. brachycephalic and smooth 
haired. The relationship of the Semangs with the Andamanese 
and the Philippine negritos is certainly close. The Sakais are 
perhaps related to the Yeddahs, Australians and Tamils. They 
vary much in skin-colour and height, and their origin must 

Jour. Straits Branch 


remain at present doubtful. The Jakuns hare been stated to 
be aboriginal Malays who refused to accept Mohammedanism 
and therefore fled to the interior to avoid persecution. The 
author points out however that they are rather a composite 
group of heathen Malays mixed with Semang and Sakai, and 
this is probably the case. 

The methods of hunting, trapping and fishing, the wea- 
pons, cultivation, food, arts and crafts, social order, dealings 
with other races fill the first volume, which terminates with an 
appendix containing much important matter in measurements, 
color of hair, eyes, and skin and a large collection of Sakai 
songs chiefly collected by Mr. Skeat. Many of these are hunt- 
ing songs describing the chase and capture of about all the 
jungle animals. Most songs end with a request to give each of 
the community a portion of the prey. This is a true charac- 
teristic touch of the socialism of the Sakai community. I re- 
member once being out with some of the wild tribe of the 
Kuala Lumpur district near the well known caves. In the 
party were two men and one delightful little boy of about nine 
years of age clad as most of the men were in the simple cos- 
tume of a strip of trap bark about as broad as a bootlace, and 
an armlet of fungus. While at tea we offered the child some 
bread and jam which he took eagerly and ran off at once to 
divide it with his father. When given a cigar he would not 
take it till he had another one for his father, showing the in- 
nate socialistic tendency of the race. 

But to return to the songs after this digression. One is 
struck at first sight by the graphic descriptions of the habits of 
the animals, their appearance and cries. Some of the songs 
and charms too have an element of poetic feeling running 
through them. 

In many cases the language of the Besisi from whom the 
author has derived most of the songs and charms is a mixture 
of Malay and Sakai words, the meaning of some of the latter 
being obscure. Mr. Skeat has translated them as literally and 
carefully as may be, though perhaps it might have been better 
not to have called the Kijang, the Roedeer, or if no other 
translation was to be found, to have explained what the ani- 

B. A. Soc, No. 49, 1907. 


mal really was, but its common name of Muntjac is fairly well 
known. Here and there in the songs and charms we see words 
and names of places of quite modern origin, such as Tanjong 
Pagar, Singapore, Telasih, (the Hindu Tulsi) for the Basil plant 
known to Malay as Selasih, and this has been commented on 
by one reviewer as somewhat discrediting the songs, but such 
innovations in folk song occur in many nations, having drifted in 
later perhaps than the original song was written. 

A long list of names of people is given, many of which are 
not translated but among' them are such poetic ones as 
Blossom, Convolvulus, Earth, Wind, Star, Butterfly, and 
Father of Leaf for boys, and White, Quick, Mother of Grass, 
Little One and Handmaid for girls. 

The second volume opens with accounts of customs and 
beliefs. The Semangs acknowledge two deities, Kari and Pie 
but there seems to be no cult of these gods who are rather 
shadowy beings. The Sakais have a similar deity who however 
was probably of Malay or Arabic origin. There are however 
numerous demons and spirits, which are feared and have to 
be kept off by charms, as in all races of the world. The crea- 
tion legends seem to be mainly original. In Semang and 
Jakun mythology man multiplied so fast, being immortal, that 
the earth was overcrowded, and Kari according to the Semangs 
slew them with his fiery breath, while according to the Jakuns, 
Tuan dibawah their deity turned half of them into trees. But 
this check on the population being insufficient death was institut- 
ed as a relief. The Jakuns appear to have anticipated the 
discovery of evolution in ascribing the origin of mankind to a 
pair of white apes, which is curious, especially in view of the 
fact that the ape specified, the wawa (Hylobates) is generally 
considered the most nearly related to man of any of the apes. 
The charms, ceremonies, traditional sale*, dances, and such sub- 
jects are fully dealt with, and the last part of the book deals 
with the language, the special task of Mr. Blagden, than whom 
it would be difficult to find a better authority. A vocabulary of 
the dialects is given at the end. 

The amount of research which this work must have 
entailed has been extremely large, and the authors have spared 

Jour. Straits Branch 


no pains to get together everything that has been recorded in 
the various journals and works on the subject of these strange 
races, besides adding extensively from their own observations. 
They have collected too a very fine series of photographs of 
the different races, and added many of the weapons, houses, 
dress, traps, and other objects, so that the whole work gives 
a very full and graphic view of one of the most interesting and 
least known of the peoples of the earth. When one looks back 
for a comparatively few years ago in ethnological and 
anthropological works to see what was known about this people, 
and sees what poor and often inaccurate accounts we then had, 
and find the only existing portraits of any of tbe races were 
Miklucho Mac lay's rough sketches, one can appreciate the 
value of this work, and the immense labour of the authors in 
compiling- it, and they are heartily to be congratulated on the 

As they very pertinently point out in the introduction to 
tire work there is great need of a thorough survey of the whole 
Peninsula from both a geographical and ethnological point of 
view by the local Governments. The Governments of French 
Indo-china, the Dutch Indies and the American Philippines 
have published and are still publishing excellent works, beauti- 
fully illustrated, on the ethnology, geography, and all branches 
of science of the colonies under their control. The British 
nation with larger, richer and more important colonies, for 
some reason not very clear to anyone, has practically done 
nothing at all for the advancement of knowledge of its vast 
empire. The whole of thh work has been left to enthusiastic 
private persons who devote their time and money to such work. 
This apathy must be much regretted by all who have the 
cause of science and progress at heart. 

ft. A t &oc., No 4d, 1907. 

On Tally Sticks and Strings in Borneo. 

By Dr. Hose and J. Hewitt. 

Amongst the natives of Sarawak, notched sticks and 
strings are in common use for keeping record of contracts. To 
some of the various tribes the custom is one of antiquity whilst 
in other cases e.g. the Sea Dayaks, it is certainly a new idea 
borrowed from their neighbours. 

If a Malanau undertakes to meet another person in a 
definite number of days he ties up a piece of string into as 
many knots as there are days before the fulfilment of his 
engagement : as each day passes by he unties a knot. The 
same people often appear in the debt courts carrying a knotted 
string or rotan and explaining that each knot represents a debt 
of one pasu of lemanta (8 gallons of raw sago). On one occa- 
sion a Malanau produced in the debt court a stick notched on 
two sides : on the one side the notches corresponded to his 
debt, and on the other side he had cut a notch each time he 
had made a repayment. 

Amongst the Kenyans, Punans and other tribes of the 
interior this custom reaches its highest development. The 
string is made from bark of the tree known to Kenyahs as 
Kumut and to Sea Dayaks as Tekalong (Artocarpus sp.) As 
before, it is knotted according to the number of days before 
that of the engagement, and each party keeps a string. They 
viear it on their person tied to the unus, slender leglets of 
twisted fibre usually from the ijok palm (Arenga saccharifera). 
As each day passes by a knot is cut clean off. To such people 
a definite contract thus arranged is kept quite seriously and 
the evidence of his tally string is usually deemed quite suffi- 
cient to relieve the wearer of other conflicting duties which 
might be imposed upon him by the bead-man of the house. 

But this custom is by no means confined to men. Even 
Bali Atap, a god of the Kenyahs, wears such knotted strings 
around his neck to tell off the number of doors in the house 

Jour. 3traits Branch B. A. Soc, No. 49, 1907. 


under his care, and also to indicate the number of people under 
his protection in each house. The image of Bali Atap outside 
the door of a Madang house has a whole fringe of knotted 
strings tied round his neck. This deity (Bali — a hero, Atap — a 
spear) is the special protector of the house, and when they want 
him to take charge of a house it is necessary to kill at his altar 
a fowl or pig, the blood of the sacrifice being sprinkled over 
the head of the wooden image of the god and on those persons 
of the assembled crowd, who wish for his protection ; in some 
cases however an egg in a cleft stick has to suffice as the 
offering. To the Kenyah or Punan the tying of the knot for 
Bali Atap has a deep significance: it means to them the sealing 
of a fixed contract. They will only tie such knots whey they 
receive an omen from Bali Atap sufficiently favourable to 
justify them in assuming that the god is willing to make the 
agreement with them. The actual manner of obtaining such 
an omen is as follows : a man fixes up two vertical poles in the 
ground and on the top of these and again two feet below he 
attaches horizontal poles; then he sits down behind the square 
thus formed and looks through it to the area of sky beyond. 
At this part of the ceremony the above mentioned sacrifice is 
made. And now, after waiting perhaps for hours, if a hawk 
soars in this patch of sky in a direction from right to left, he 
knows that this hawk will carry his message to Bali Atap, and 
seeing it he waves a fire brand in the air towards the flying 
bird at the same time loudly shouting the message which is 
carried upwards in the ascending smoke to the hawk. Thus 
being assured that Bali Atap has been willing to receive and 
hence is favourable to his request he completes the ceremony by 
tying the knotted string to the image of the god as a seal to 
the agreement just made between Bali Atap and the man. 

The same idea in the tying of a knot is met with in entirely 
different ceremonies of which we may mention one example. 
It is held by Kenyans that when a person t falls sick his soul 
leaves the body and to heal the patient all that is necessary is 
the return of the soul. The witch doctor (Dayong) in charge 
of the case obtains assistance from the next world and thus is 
able to persuade the erring soul to return. In the ceremony 

Jour, otraita Branch 


theDayong affects the motioDs of a person going along journey — 
paddling a boat for instance — chanting all the time and accom- 
panied in the chorus by the people who repeat over and over 
again the words ' Bali Dayong ; ' then returning with the soul 
he with the assistance of a fowl or pig waives it back into the 
body. And now, when safely in and the fees paid, the Dayong 
knots round the patients wrist with a string of • Daun silat ' 
(leaf of a Licuala palm) and thus ties in the soul and at the same 
time completes the undertaking. During this time however 
the soul of the Dayong has been absent from his body and at 
this stage to the cries of ' Mulai Mulai ' (Come home, come home) 
from the crowd it re-enters, the man himself suddenly relapsing 
from a quivering hissing maniac into a rational being who, as 
if just awakening from a sleep, takes his seat unconcernedly 
amongst the crowd. 

Tally sticks also are very much used by Kenyahs, Punans, 
and other inland tribes (but not Kayans) who have not come in 
contact with more civilised peoples. An ordinary Kenyah tally 
stick is a strip of wood about a foot long, an inch or more 
wide, and an eighth of an inch thick : at one end is a rudely carved 
head and hands, a representation of the god. At one side of 
the stick are marks each referring to one door of the house. 
A debt incurred by the occupant of any ' door ' is recorded by 
a notch in the corresponding position on the stick. Bartering 
among these people is very limited : their objects of barter are 
few, being mainly pigs, fowls, parangs, pongs, and pieces of 
iron. For each of these different objects there are separate 
positions on the stick. Excepting in rare cases debts are not 
incurred between occupants of different houses so that one stick 
of the type just described is as a rule quite sufficient to record 
all the debts owed to one man. When a debt is paid the owner 
of the stick will just snip away the wood from either side of 
the notch so as to replace the notch by a curved depression in 
the wood. 

The tally stick is usually to be found hung up near the fire- 
place where it becomes smoked and blackened with age : such 
a stick would be accepted as evidence in case of a dispute 
respecting a debt of long standing, for it would not be eaBy to 

B. A. &OC., No. 49, 1907. 


forge an old notch. A stick which has been kept for years 
acquires quite a high value as a * lucky ' stick : it is customary 
also in disputes to swear with such sticks calling down vengeance 
on themselves if they tell a lie. Kenyahs, whose conservatism 
is not very strong, often content themselves with sticks devoid 
of carving or polish and even sometime without the image of 
the god. 

In conclusion therefore it seems to us very probable that 
in the knotted string (terbuku tali) of the more civilised and 
better known natives of Borneo and perhaps in the tally stick 
we have something which did not originate merely as a means 
of counting but which is a relic that has largely lost its original 
meaning of covenant. 

New or Rare Malayan Plants. 

Series HI. 

By H. N. Ridley. 

This is another series of novelties and notes on little 
known plants from the East. The recently published numbers 
of the Materials for the Flora of the Malay Peninsula by Dr. 
King contains the Scrophularinece, and I find in the genus 
Torenia one common species altogether omitted and two very 
distinct plants wrongly identified with two common Siamese 
plants cultivated here only. I have therefore given descriptions 
of these three plants. Some new plants obtained in Sarawak 
by Mr. Hewitt, some from Southern Siam by Mr. Down, and 
other little known or new plants from elsewhere are described. 


The small genus Neckia comprises a few species of small 
half shrubby plants belonging to the section Sauvagmacea, of 
Violacece. They are usually under a foot tall, often only a few 
inches high, with lanceolate toothed leaves, and small rose or 
white flowers. The slender woody stem seldom or never 
branches and is more or less covered with bristly hairs. The 
fruit is a small capsule containing a large number of very 
small reticulate seeds. 

The Neckias are to be found on rocks, usually sandstone 
or granitic, in the forests of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and 

N. Malayan a, u. sp. 

Whole plant 3-12 inches tall. Stem naked below 
(from the falling off of the leaves), woody slender, above 
covered densely with the bristle-like stipules red brown 
£ inch long. Leaves alternate lanceolate acuminate 
at both ends, margins biserrate but obscurely, glabrous 

Jour. Strait* Branch R. A. Soc, No. 49, 1907. 


dark green above glaucescent or pale beneath 1^ to 
7 inches long, nerves very numerous inconspicuous. 
Flowers axillary on long slender peduncles 1 inch long. 
Bract linear minute, pedicel £ inch long. Sepals 5 lan- 
ceolate acute toothed. Petals 5 rose pink ovate obtuse. 
Stamens monadelphous 10. Pistil conic, style straight 
longer than the stamens, capitate. Capsule ovoid acute 
with the style persistent longer than the sepals, seed 
obovoid punctate dark brown. 

Johor : Gunong Janeng (Lake and Kelsall), Telepak 
(C. B. Kloss), Gunong Panti (Ridley 4164); Pahang: 
Tahan river (Ridley 2264), Lingga, edge of a stream at 
200-300 feet (Hullett). 

There are two forms of this, one small to 1 foot 
tall, the leaves broadly lanceolate 2£ inches long by £ 
inch wide and more strongly toothed. This is the form 
common in Johor and Lingga. The Pahang plant has 
leaves 6 inches long and | inch wide, and might be 
made a variety under the name of angustifolia. 

N. distant, n. sp. 

Stem slender woody over a foot tall, internodes £ 
inch long. Leaves alternate stipules of dark brown 
branched hairs, persistent shorter than in the preceding. 
Leaves lanceolate acuminate narrowed gradually at the 
base, margins bidenticulate, 5 inches long j inch wide, 
scattered over the stem and not persistent only at the 
top. Flowers solitary axillary, peduncle very short less 
than | inch. Bract lanceolate acute minute, pedicel •£ 
an inch long or very much less. Sepals broadly lanceo- 
late acute striate £ inch long with a few teeth towards 
the tip. Petals shorter ovate, lanceolate blunt pink. 
Stamens shorter than in the preceding. Style shorter 
than the petals. Capsule ovoid shorter than the sepals. 

British North Borneo : Bongaya in Labuk Bay 
(Ridley 9054). 

Xeckia *crra/«,Boerlage. Ic. Bogor XXVI. may possi- 
bly be this specios. 

Jour, strait* Branch 


N. lancifolia, Hook. fil. Trans. Linn. Soc. XXIII. p. 158. 

The whole plant about 6 inches tall. Stem woody, 
internodes short ; stipules of long erect bristly brown 
hairs. Leaves crowded towards the tip broadly ob- 
lanceolate obtuse, base narrowed acuminate, edges 
stringly bidenticulate dark above rather coriaceous, 
pale beneath 4 inches' long by 1 inch broad or less. 
Flowers solitary axillary on peduncles -J inch long, 
pedicels shorter. Sepals ovate lanceolate, not or little 
toothed ribbed, longer than the capsule. Petals very 
small ovate. Capsule subglobose shorter than the 

Borneo : Sarawak on Matang (Hullett, Ridley). 

Miquel, and Boerlage and Koorders (Ic. Bogor lxxvi) 
identify Hooker's plant collected by Lobb in North 
Borneo, with Korthals' plant iV r . serrata which is des- 
cribed as four feet tall and is a native of Sumatra. I 
never saw any species of Neckia nearly as big as this. 
The plant figured in the Icones Bogorienses as iV T . serrata 
seems to be different again. It can hardly be Hooker's 
plants, for in his description the leaves are said to be 
bidenticulate whereas in the plant figured they are 
almost quite entire, remarkably so for one of the genus. 
Hooker's plant is probably the one described above, but 
his description is too short for so critical a genus. It 
can hardly be either Korthals' plant or Boerlage's. 

N. Klosbii, d, sp. 

Stem 4 or 5 inches tall woody leaves crowded up- 
wards. Stipules feiTugineous. Leaves oblanceolate, sub- 
acute, narrowed towards the base glabrous dark green 
above light greon beueath edges bidenticulate especially 
towards the tip 2£ inches long £ inch wide. Scapes very 
slender several together or solitary -J inch long. Bract 
linear very narrow. Sepals lanceolate acuminate very 
narrow, acute, with a few rather large irregular teeth on 
the edge green. Petals oblong obtuse much broader 
and a little shorter white. Staminodes very numerous 

E. A. 8oe, No. 49, 1907. 


bright yellow, linear clubbed. Stamens pale spathulate. 
Style a little longer ; fruit not seen. 

Pulau Battam (C. B. Kloss, March 1906). 

Nearly allied to N. parviflora Rid], but with extremely 
narrow sepals and oblong petals nearly as long and much 

If, parviflora, n. sp. 

Stem decumbent rooting 6-8 inches long woody, 
nude below, stipules dark red. Leaves lanceolate shortly 
acuminate blunt, narrowed a little at the base toward 
the short petiole somewhat coriaceous bidenticulate 
3 inches long £ inch wide. Flowers very small on slender 
peduncles with several bracts. Peduncles 2 or 5 in 
each axil in a tuft -J inch long with three linear entire 
bracts. Pedicel of flower very short. Flower sepals J 
inch long ovate crenulate at the edge enlarging to ovate 
denticulate in fruit nearly £ inch long and ribbed. 
Petals much smaller lanceolate ovate, anthers oblong 
ovate. Capsule much shorter than the sepals ovoid 
oblong. Seeds reticulate. 

i Sarawak : Banks at Puak (Ridley 12320.) 

Distinct in its small flowers, and numerous peduncles, 
with several bracts, linear in the flowering stage but 
becoming larger lanceolate dentate in the fruiting stage. 
The largest bracts I have seen in the genus. 

N. humilis, Hook fil. Trans. Linn, Soc. XXIII, p. 
158. Labuan. (Lobb.) 

N. serrata, Korth Ned. Eruidk. Arch. I. p. 358 Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. I. 2 p. 118. This is described as four feet 
tall, a native of Sumatra. 

I have never seen anything fitting the descriptions of 
either of these two species. 


There are a number of trees belonging to the Anacardiaoect 
commonly known to the Malays as Rengas, and all are well 

Jour. Straits Branch 


known for their poisonous properties. This poison lies in a 
black resin which is abundant in all parts of the trees, chiefly 
in the wood and fruit. Several of these Rengas trees belong 
to the genus Melanorrkoa characterised by its small fruit fur- 
nished with bright crimson wings, others belong to the genus 
Gluta in which the fruit is a larger or smaller drupe with often 
a corky brown exterior full of black resin. 

There are about ten known species of Gluta occuring in 
Cambodia, Andaman*, Tavoy, the Malay Peninsula and Islands. 

Nearly all these Rengas trees possess a very fine red tim- 
ber marked usually with black streaks of the resin and hare 
been known as Singapore mahogany. When used as furniture 
wood however they are said to exhale a certain quantity of the 
poison probably in the form of dust which is very injurious to 
those using the furniture. An article on poisoning by Renghas 
(Melanorrhea) was published by Dr. Brown in Journal 24, 83, 
(1892). Cases of poisoning among jungle folk by these plants 
are by no means rare, a drop of the juice from a broken bough 
even of a seedling falling on the face or body often producing 
serious effects. The resin is also said to be used as a poison 
with criminal intent producing violent irritation of the stomach 
and intestines. 

It is interesting to note that though the Mangiperas (Mang- 
os) are closely allied to the Gluta and contain to a lesser 
extent the same black resin, their timber is more or less of a 
yellow colour, while that of the Melanorheas and Gluts s is 

There are four species of Gluta known from the Malay 
peninsula, one of which however has not been described, and 
I have received specimens of fruit and flowers of this fine tim- 
ber tree from Mr. Burn-Murdoch. 

Gluta Benghas, Miq. 

A medium sized tree usually much branched low 
down. Leaves elliptic or obovate coriaceous with a 
fairly long petiole, and glabrous panicles of white 
flowers. The fruit brown, corky outside, with much 
black resin. This tree has only been met with by my- 

S. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


self in the Malay Peninsula on the banks of the Pahang 
liver and on the Runipin river. It occurs also in 
Sumatra, Java and Borneo, and a variety is recorded 
from Madagascar. 

0. elegant, Kurz. 

Is a smaller tree slender and tall, with rather 
long narrow elliptic leaves rather long petioled, and 
bright red calyces to the flowers. The fruit is flattened 
and rounded l£ inch across smooth and black. It 
occurs commonly in Penang, and has been met with in 
Malacca and a variety occurs in Tenasserim and the 
Andamans. Native Name " Rengas Ay am." 

G. coarctata, Hook fil. 

This I take to be the extremely common bush or 
bushy tree occurring in most tidal waters in this 
region. It never seems to attain any great size 
and is conspicuous in the water edge of the river from its 
bright red young leaves. The flowers are yellowish white 
in panicles shorter than the leaves. The fruit is subglo- 
bose, corky, light brown and very resinous. 

This is the commonest species ; very abundant in all 
our tidal rivers, and also very conspicuous in Sumatra 
and Sarawak. 

Gl. Wrayi, King. 

I have seen no type of this but I take the 
description given in the Materials of the Flora of the 
Malay Peninsula to apply to this plant, of which good 
specimens were sent to me by Mr. Burn-Murdoch, under 
the name of Rengas Kerbau Jalang or Red Rengas. It 
is a very big tree with stiff coriaceous leaves 4 to 6 
inches long elliptic acute narrowed at the base to a 
broad flat petiole, nerves about 12 pairs conspicuous 
on the lower surface, finely reticulated on both sides. 
Panicles 4 inches long with rather distant branches to 
near the base ; flowers very numerous red and white 

Jour. Straits Branch 


Panicle and flowers pubescent. Calyx half as long as 
the corolla bilobed pubescent lobes rounded. Petals 
linear oblong obtuse, back pubescent. Stamens slightly 
longer, filaments slender glabrous. Ovary rounded ovoid 
pubescent style lateral shorter than the stamens. Fruit 
oblong red brown, a large hard drupe of a laterite 
red colour 4 or 5 inches long and 3 inches thick elliptic 
smooth slightly oblique. Bindings : at Lumat (Ridley 
7974) ; Perak (Wray 2290) ; Penang : Telok JBahang 

"Rengas Kerbau Jalang " This gives a very fine 
timber known as Red Rengas according to Burn- 
Murdoch. There is a plant in the Botanic gardens raised 
from seed brought from the Dindings in 1894 which is 
now about 8 feet tall. The leaves are much larger in 
the young plant, some being 8 inches long and of 
a bright green. Compared with Sir George King's 
description this plant only differs in the leaves not 
being thickly coriaceous, though rather stiff when dry, 
and the nerves are quite visible on both surfaces and 
prominent on the underside, the petiole too is not 
channelled but distinctly flat, but there is some variation 
in the foliage. 

GL lanceolata, n. sp. 

A big tree. Leaves narrowly lanceolate obtuse 
narrowed into a long slender petiole, coriaceous 
blade 6 inches long, 2 inches wide, nerves rather 
inconspicuous about 12-14 hairs, reticulations conspi- 
cuous, petiole l^ to 3 inches long. Panicles 1 inches 
long much resembling those of GL Wrayi pubescent. 
Calyx half the length of the corolla, tubular split on one 
side, pubescent Petals linear oblong obtuse 5 back 
pubescent tip tufted with hairs, and a band of hairs 
down the centre of the inner face. Stamens considerable 
longer than the petals, filaments very slender. Ovary 
sub-globose quite glabrous, style lateral rather long. 
Fruit unripe globose glabrous black. 

B. A. Soc, No. 49, 1907. 


Penang: Balek Pulau (Ridley 9465 ). 

This differs from Wrayi in the less pubescent 
spathaceous not bilobed calyx, the pubescence on the 
inner face of the corolla lobes and the perfectly glabrous 
ovary. A specimen collected by Curtis in Penang of 
what seems to be the same plant has elliptic acuminate 
leaves very much resembling those of Gl. Wrayi but the 
flowers are exactly those of the above described species. 


In the 16th part of the Materials for a Flora of the Malay 
Peninsula Sir George King publishes the account of the Com- 
posite of the peninsula. Most of the plants of this order here 
are introduced species often of wide distribution, but a consider- 
able number have apparently not been seen by him, although 
they are thoroughly established in the country. They are 

Sparganophoru8 Yaillantii Gaertn. 

So common as to be a pest in the gardens. A herb 
with axillary balls of purple flowers, growing in damp 
spots. Common in Tanglin and elsewhere. I have 
also found it in Selangor at Batu Tiga and in Borneo at 
Lundu in Sarawak district. It is said to be a native 
of the West Indies. 

EUphantopns tomentosus L. 

This is a very much taller plant than the common 
E. scaber four or five feet tall and much more woolly 
The stems are mucji branched and the leafy shoots tall 
and very woolly. It has a very different appearance 
from the common plant and is said to be a native of 
North America. 

Johor, Roadside Castle wood, Tebrau river (Ridley). 
Conyza semipinnatijida, Wall. 

A very common weed in new clearings and waste 
ground. A tall branched plant with small heads of 
yellowish flowers, quite resembling Eriyeron linifolia in 
appearance. Clarke says in his description of it in the 

Jour. Straits branch 


Compositae Indicae that its flowers are " intense flava," 
but it is a very dull thing here. I have it from Pulau 
Ubin, Bukit Mandai (Ridley 3807) ; Johor : Batu Pahat 
(Hullett) ; Pahang : Pulau Jellam, Pa hang river, Sungei 
Ujong, Burunang (Cantley's coll) ; Selangor : Kwala 
Lumpur (Curtis) ; Penang Hill (Ridley 10205) ; Selang- 
or Caves (Ridley 8235). "A big plant 6 feet tall. 
Malacca : Bukit Asahan (R. 12586), and Perak in Cant- 
ley's Collection. 

Its Native names are " Sumbong Jantan " and " Sari 

A specimen collected by Dr. Keith in Bangtaphan is 
also in the Botanic Gardens Herbarium. 

These three species were identified at Kew. 

Xanthium strumarium. 

Occurs as a weed in Singapore Town. 

Caesulia axillaris, Roxb. 

What appears to be this plant occurs in Singapore at 
Galang (7085 of my collection), and at Dato Kramat 
in Penang (Curtis 3455). It is known as Chinkro and 
Kangkong Kerbau in Penang and is u&ed as a salad by 
Malays and as medicine by Chinese. 

Acanthospermum xanthioides, Dec. 

A prostrate herb with white flowers and spiny fruit, 
occurs in Singapore on road sides, Macpherson Road 
(8417, 624 1), Ang Mokio (2740), of my collection and was 
also collected by Hullett on Drew's road in 1884. 

Blumca spectabilis, Dec. 

A tall weedy plant growing in woods. Selangor : 
Ginting Bidai (Ridley 72 16); Kwala Lumpur (Curtis 
2350); Sungei Ujong (Cantley's Coll.). I have it also 
from Siam at Bangtaphan collected by Keith and from 
Christmas Island. It is recorded from India and 
Ceylon. The plant known as Chapur and Kupugis is 
boiled and applied in cases of Rheumatism. 

B. A. Soc, No. 49, 19U7. 


Bl. densijlora, Dec. 

I take a stout plant like BL Bahamifera but not aro- 
matic which grows on the road up the Taiping hills to 
be this plant. It is abundant on the road side at 
4000 feet alt. 

Vernonia eleagni/olia. 

Is also omitted from the Flora. It is a sarmentose 
shrub with lavender flowers. I met wich it in Pahang 
at Pekan on the riverbank near Ayer Hitam in flower 
in June (Ridley 1199). Plants brought, to the Botanic 
Gardens grow into bushes but have never flowered since. 
I have it also from Bangtapban in Siam collected by 
Dr. Keith. 


Chirita rupestris, Rid I. 

Since publishing the account of this plant in the 
Journal, I have obtained and raised plants of this spe- 
cies from a seedling which came up in a pot in Penang 
Gardens, and am able to add fuller details to my account 
of it, which was based on somewhat weak plants collect- 
ed by Curtis in the Lankawi islands in 1889. 

The plants now raised are more robust, the stems 
stouter, more or less purplish and sometimes much 
branched. The leaves are light green as are the urn- 
shaped involucres of two bracts. The flowers described 
as dark blue in Curtis field-note are light violet blue 
with a white tube and yellow throat, £ inch long, the 
limb half an inch across, the corolla lobes are rounded 
and glabrous in front, but the tube margins of the lobes, 
and mouth of the tube are covered with white hairs. The 
two stamens have short thick sinuous filaments, and 
elliptic anthers. The ovary is cylindric and hairy the 
style not much longer. The stigma is flat and linear. 

Cyrtandromaea minor, n. sp. 

Whole plant 20 inches tall, stem angled pubescent. 
Leaves opposite ovate lanceolate obtuse, base acute mar- 

Juur. Straits Branch 


gin crenulate 2£ inch loDg 1^ inch wide, scabrid hairy 
on both surfaces, petiole £ inch long hairy. Flowers in 
axillary umbels, peduncle f inch long hairy. Bracts 
lanceolate acute white hairy. Flowers 5 in an umbel, 
pedicels J inch long white hairy. Calyx £ * ncn l° n g 
campanulate pubescent, lobes 5 acute red. Corolla £ 
inch long tubular lobes rounded, pubescent firm texture, 
white or yellow. Stamens 4 didynamous. Style shorter 
than the two longer stamens stout, stigma broad sub- 
quadrate. Ovary small quadrate truncate surrounded 
by a sinuate disc. 

Sarawak : Kuching (Hewitt). 

Cyrtandra Gimltttii, n. sp. 

Stem woody brown, 4 inches tall pubescent, especially 
the young parts. Leaves obovate subacute narrowed 
gradually to the base serrate, bright green reticulate 
bullate, main nerves 6 pairs, shining above, with appress- 
ed scattered hairs, nerves beneath thickly hairy 6 inches 
long four inches wide, petiole beneath purple. Flowers 
in small tufts from the lower leaves or from axils of 
fallen leaves, 4 or 5 together sessile. Bracts small 
ovate pale whitish yellow hairy. Calyx short tubular 
deeply bilobed with two acute points hairy. Corolla 
tube £ inch long thick curved dilated upwards hairy, limb 
£ inch across upper lobes subtriangular obtuse lower 
three oblong obtuse, glabrous in front, creamy white, 
lower lip yellower, with deep purple blotching ending 
in two purple bars on the lower lip. Stamens 2, filaments 
stout sinuous purple, anthers orange elliptic pressed 
together. Pollen floury white. Stigma transversely 
oblong large green. Staminodes 2 very short sinuous 
filaments, from near the base of the tube. 

Kelantan : Kwala Lebir(Dr. Gimlette). 

This little plant was sent alive by Dr. Gimlette from 
Kelantan and flowered in the Botanic Gardens in Dec- 
ember 1906. The stamens project first after the flower 

B. A. 8oc, No. 49, 1907. 


opens, and shed the pollen on the lip. The second day 
the filaments contract and curl up and the stigma ap- 
pears at the mouth of the flower. 

Didymocarpus (§ Baopsis). 

I propose this section of Didymocarpus for a number 
of small species with the short corolla-tube and two 
short stamens with thick sigmoid filaments and sub- 
globose or elliptic anthers. The form of the flowers 
and habit of the plants is exactly like that of Saint- 
paulia, an African genus, and that genus only differs 
in the thick conic capsule. It would probably be better 
to separate the section above mentioned into a distinct 
genus, Baeopsis, but there are intermediate links with 
the long tubed /. idymocarpi. The section would include. 
D. perdita Ridl., D. pnncticulata Ridl., D. heterophylla 
Ridl., and the following new species from the island 
Pulau Buttam, south of Singapore. 

D. baltamensis, n. sp. 

Leaves elliptic obovate 2 to 3 inches long 1-J inch 
wide, apex and base rounded minutely bullate, deep 
green more or less softly hairy with a grey green central 
bar, edges crenate, beneath purple covered with pink 
hairs, nerves elevated reticulate; petiole £-2 inches 
long pink hairy. Scapes numerous slender purple 3 to 4 
inches long pubescent one-flowered. Calyx 5 lobed, lobes 
lanceolate acute purple. Corolla tube sbort campanulate 
white £ inch long, limb £ inch across very unequal, 
lobes rounded pubescent outside upper lobes 2 pale 
violet, lower larger deep violet with three darker nerves 
on each lobe, tube inside white with a bright orange 
spot on each side. Stamens 2, anthers elliptic yellowish 
white large parallel. Filaments broadly linear short 
and recurved at the tip. Style cylindric purple at the 
base, tip yellow. Stigma capitate. Capsule an inch 
long sausage shaped, terminated by the style. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


Pulau Battam, an island south of Singapore (C. B. 
Kloss), Sept. 1905. 

This species is certainly closely allied to D. per (lit a 
Ridl. but is much more hairy with shorter petioles, and 
stem and more slender fruit. It is a very pretty little 
plant but I have failed to cultivate it. 


Torenia mucronulata, Benth. Dec. Prodr. X. 410. 

A prostrate creeping herb a foot or more long, with 
slender branched hairy stems. Leaves ovate crenate 
narrowed at the base tip rounded sprinkled with hairs 
above, the nerves on both surfaces more densely hairy 
£ inch wide and as long, petiole hairy £ inch. Flowers 
axillary solitary or in pairs nearly sessile. Calyx lobes 
ovate reticulate hairy. Corolla small white with a pale 
blue bar on each lower petal. 

On paths Singapore, Garden jungle, Bukit Timah 
(Ridley 6894), Golang; Dindings, Gunong Tungul 
(Ridley 9444) ; Pahang : Pahang river Ridley) ; Penang : 
Waterfall and Government Hill (Curtis 1837) ; Trin- 
ganu, Bundi (Rostado). 

Native Names K'ra Nasi ; Gelumak Susu, Rumput 

The powdered leaves are applied in cases of snake 
bite or rheumatism. 

Hooker in Flora Brit. Ind. seems to think this but 
little distinct from T. polygonoides but in life at least it 
is extremely different in its hairiness, and quite differ- 
ently coloured flowers. It always dries black which 
T. polygcntoides does not. 

Torenia caelestis, n. sp. A slender creeping plant, the 
stem and leaves pubescent hairy. Leaves ovate dentate 
subacute base broad 1 inch long petiole £ inch long. 
Flowers solitary terminal on slender peduncles 1£ inch 
long. Calyx bilobed not winged hairy •£ inch long, lobes 

R. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


lanceolate subacute, ribbed in fruit. Corolla j inch long, 
Lobes oblong rounded, light blue. 

Johore : Kota Tiaggi and along the road to Gunong 
Pantai (Ridley 4169). 

This plant was identified in the Materials for th« 
Flora of the Malay Peninsula as the very different T. 
Benthamiana, a Cochin Chinese plant commonly culti- 
vated under the name of T. Bailloni. This plant has 
large yellow flowers with a brown centre, while T, 
cadestis has much smaller flowers of a light blue. 

Torenia atropurpurea, n. sp. 

Stems creeping and rooting slender 2 feet long or 
more, branched internodes 1 to 4 inches long. Leaves 
ovate to deltoid glabrous minutely pustular above, 
apex acute base broad or slightly cuneate margin 
crenate serrate, 1-2 inches long ^-1 inch wide, petiole 
slender £ inch long. Flowers solitary in the upper 
axils on slender 1 inch peduncles. Bracts very small 
linear. Calyx § inch long narrow tubular, lobes linear 
acute free for $ of the length of calyx. Corolla deep 
violet purple an inch long tube narrow tubiform mouth 
■£ inch across lobes rounded. Capsule oblong \ inch long 
abtuse shorter than the calyx. Seeds subquadrate. 

Perak : Maxwell's Hill (Ridley 5507), Bujong Malacca 
(at the first Waterfall Ridley 9756) without locality 
(Scortechini 2122) ; Selangor: 15th mile, Pahang track 
(Ridley 8533). On clay banks often growing in great 

This charming plant has somehow been mistaken in 
the Flora of British India for T. asiatica, a native of 
Siam commonly cultivated in the East and occasionally 
appearing is an escape from cultivation. It differs from 
this species in being a creeping perennial, instead of an 
erect annual, in its narrow linear calyx lobes and long 
narrow-tubed deep purple corolla. It is a very pretty 

Jour. Straiti Branch 


plant well worthy of cultivation but I have failod to 
succeed in establishing it. 

Microearpaa muscosa, R. Br. 

A small herb forming large tufts of a bright green 
colour under water in shallow spots. Stems one to 4 
• inches tall succulent glabrous, leaves ^ to long 
opposite oblong blunt. Flowers axillary solitary sessile 
very small. Calyx tubular five toothed, teeth acute erect, 
at length spreading pubescent. Corolla tube cylindric 
shorter pale, limb hardly projecting beyond the calyx, 
violet 5-lobed, four short acute, one longer linear oblong 
all fringed with white hairs. Stamens fertile 2 includ- 
ed, anthers 1 -celled yellow, no staminodes. Style shorter 
than the calyx with a curved lateral stigma. Capsule 
much shorter than the calyx tube oblong ovoid dehis- 
cing into two valves. Seeds oblong elliptic ocreous 

Singapore : on the edge and shallow water of the 
Reservoir. September 1906. 

This ourious little plant has not previously been re- 
ccrded from the Malay peninsula, but is known from 
India, Java and Australia, Griffith, (Notulae Asiatic© IV. 
101. Ic. PL As. t. 417. f. 2). describes a species as 
M. diandra from Bengal which Hooker in the Flora of 
British India is doubtful about because Griffith says 
that the calyx is 5- fid, Griffith's rough sketch of the 
structure of the flower is however very good as far as it 
goes, showing the curious corolla lobes, one of which is 
linear oblong and much longer than the others which 
are small and nearly equal, a point overlooked in all 
descriptions of the plant, and further he shows the 
curious processes which terminate and fringe the lobes 
of the corolla, nor is he altogether wrong about the 
calyx being deeply cleft. The sepals are indeed con- 
nate to near the tip where the five lobes are free and 
in fruit spread out starwise, but they are so slightly 

B. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


connate that they very readily separate with but little 
force used, and in one flower I found them quite free. 
In fruit they seem to be more firmly attached. The 
corolla in this plant is very much reduced, and the limb 
really almost rudimentary, suggesting that its usually 
submerged life has caused the limb so conspicuous in the 
Limnophilas to be useless and reduced to a rudiment 
still retaining however traces of the violet coloiing 
(especially conspicuous in the budj so characteristic 
of the Limnophilas. The little plant forms bright 
green masses in shallow water, and when submerged 
is usually very short little over an inch tall ; here owing 
to the drying up of the water edge it is quite free of 
the water it becomes taller and is three or four inches 


Tecoma Curtisii, n. sp. 

A slender climber with wiry stems, internodes 8 
inches long. Leaves opposite 4 inches, petiole 1 inch, 
leaflets 5 lanceolate acuminate base rounded entire 
glabrous light green shining 1£ inch long by £ inch 
wide, petiolule £ inch long. Cymes axillary and ter- 
minal on short peduncles. Flowers numerous crowded 
pedicels £ inch long. Bracts shorter linear subulate. 
Calyx cupular ^ inch long greenish purple with 5 short 
subulate processes. Corolla 2 inches long, base cylin- 
dric enlarging funnel-shaped upwards to the mouth, one 
inch across ; lobes subequal oblong rounded, base of 
tube and interior yellow, outside pinkish yellow lobes 
pinkish white. Stamens 4 included, anthers white bases 
divergent, ape\ terminated by a violet subulate process. 
Style longer. Stigma lanceolate flat white. 
Fruit unknown. 

Penang : Batu Feringhi (Curtis) ; - 

This has long been cultivated in the Botanic Gardens 
at Singapore, but it has never set fruit and I have never 

Jour* Straits Branch 


seen fruit on wild plants. It seems to be local in 
Penang, growing over trees to no great height at Batu 
Feringhi. It flowers nearly all the year round. Mr. 
Sprague of Kew proposes to call this Nyctocalos Curtisii 
as the plant is hardly a typical Tecoma, It is however 
so utterly different from any other species of this genus, 
that it will perhaps be preferable to retain it in the 
genus Tecoma till we can obtain fruit of it. 


Microttylit aurata, n. sp. * 

Stem an inch long hardly bulbous. Leaves 6-9 erect 
narrow lanceolate acuminate, inacquilateral narrow at 
base into a petiole winged to the base 6 inches long 
1 wide or narrower. Scapes 1 or 2, slender 6 inches 
lengthening with flowering to one foot, base (about 4 
inches,) nude except for a few linear bracts £ inch long, 
4 angled. Floral bracts lanceolate acuminate longer 
than the pedicels. Flowers very numerous opening one 
or two at a time about 50 sepals ovate, laterals rather 
broader than upper one £ inch long three nerved blunt. 
Petals narrower linear one nerved blunt. Lip auricles 
very large recurved red, ovate lanceolate acute, as large 
as the rest of the lip, limb obovate narrower at the 
base and enlarged into two rounded oblanceolate lobes, 
elevated veins at the base between the auricles column 
short with very short arms. Capsule elliptic oblong £ 
inch long. 

Sarawak: Quop. Fls. yellow, lateral lobes of lip red, 
(J. Hewitt). 

Siparis Downii % n. sp. 

Stem about \\ inch long. Leaves few elliptic lanceo- 
late herbaceous 3 inches long £ inch across slightly 
narrowed to the base acute at the tip. Peduncle slen- 
der terete 4 inches long. Bracts linear acuminate £ 
inch long deflexed. Flowers 5, small, ovary and pedicel 

B. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 



£ inch long. Dorsal sepal oblong linear, pale fuscous 
purple, laterals oblong decurved inacquilateral green 
with indistinct purple breaks along the outer edge 
than the lip. Petals linear narrow purple £ inch long. 
Lip fleshy shining, base broad parallel to the column. 
Apex oblong obovate decurved emaginate with very 
obscure teeth on the outer edges dull green at base 
passing into purple at the tip, calli 2 conic at the bend 
in the lip green between them and for some way on the 
blade a deep purple groove. Column acuate green 
wings short rounded base dilated. Anther green skull 

Southern Siam. Coll. St. V. B. Down, flowered in 
H. B. Singapore June 1905. 

Bulbophyllum longerepens, n. sp. 

Rhizome very long slender emitting tufts of roots 
from below the pseud o bulbs. Pseudobulbs 1 inch apart 
oblong £ inch long angled. Leaf elliptic apex rounded 
1J inch long by £ inch across, petiole £ inch long 
scapes from the internodes very short hardly £ inch, 
with ovate amplexicaul bracts. Floral bracts ovate 
acuminate longer than the pedicel. Flowers very small 
£ inch long about 5 or 6 on a scape, glabrous sepals 
lanceolate condate. Petals about half as long oblong 
subacute. Lip shorter than the petals narrowly linear 
oblong with two slightly raised veins running the whole 
length. Column stout stelidia tooth-like acute erect 
longer than the anther. 

Sarawak, Santubong (Hewitt), off 18. Java Tremb. 

Dendrobium sulphuratum, n. sp. 

Rhizome creeping £ inch through. Stems swollen 
slightly 2 inches long covered with close sheaths. 
Leaves 2 oblong coriaceous acute, 3 inches long 1 inch 
wide glabrous. Raceme subterminal with one lateral 
branch 2 inches long. Bracts ovate or lanceolate acu- 
minate J inch long. Flowers rather thick in texturt. 

Jour, Straits Br&nek 


Pedicels 1 inch long ovary elongate angled. Sepals lan- 
ceolate acuminate | inch long. Petals narrower sulphur 
yellow. Lip shorter £ inch long base rather narrow, 
lateral wings short round distinct, midlobe fleshy lan- 
ceolate acuminate acute reddish brown. 

Sarawak: Sajingkat ^Hewitt). Feb. 10. 1906. This 
belongs to the &stochilti$ section and is allied to D. 

Treacherianum. I hare not seen the old bulbs. 

Dtndrobium (Scttochilus) radicosus, n. sp. 

Rhizome very long slender with numerable wiry 
roots, pseudobulbs elliptic oblong £ inch long and as 
far apart. Older ones larger conic £ inch long. Leaves 
2 to each pseudobulb elliptic coriaceous subacute narrow- 
ed at the base 4*3 ^° cn l° n £ f i ncD across. Flowers 
solitary terminal, pedicel slender ^ inch upper sepal 
lanceolate hardly ^ inch long acute laterals slightly 
broader. Petals narrower shorter oblong obtuse. Men- 
turn short and rounded. Lip as long as sepals, three lobed 
base narrowed, lateral lobes broad oblong triangular 
truncate. Midlobe longer elliptic with 2 thickened 
papillose ridges at the tip, a number of small papillae 
on the nerves of the base of the side lobes. Column 
rather long. 

Sarawak : Tiang Lag a (J. Hewitt) : " Petals dull pale 
yellow with a rosy tinge. Lip yellow with red brown 

Coelogyne exalata, n. sp. 

Epiphytic, pseudobulbs crowded subglobose round- 
ed. Leaf solitary lanceolate petioled coriaceous 6-12 
inches long by 3 inches wide acuminate at the base 
tip mucronulate, petiole 4 inches. Raceme lateral erect, 
bearing 6 or 7 flowers, 8 inches long. Bracts convolute 
\ inch long brownish green. Pedicel as long. Sepals 
1 inch long j inch wide. Upper one spathulate lanceo- 
late acute laterals oblong acute green tinted brown or 

B. A. Soc., No. *9, 19i>7. 


light brown, spreading petals shorter spathulate lanceo- 
late acute green, appressed. 

Lip spathulate entire, sides at base convolute, tip 
acute 1 inch long with three distinct nerves and no 
crests, green. Column white •£ as long as lip dilated up- 
wards top flattened, apex broad clubshaped truncate 
Clinaudrium elevated entire, anther deeply sunk, wings 
incurved. Pol lima 4 in 2 pairs each pair on a distinct 
lanceolate disc, yellow pyriform, anther 2 celled skull- 
shaped beaked beak bifid, rostelluin lobes large 2 up- 
curved oblong rounded. 

Sarawak : on Serapi, the top of Matang end of August 
1905 (Ridley 12470;. This singular plant differs from 
any species of Caeloyyne in having a perfectly entire 
lip with no side lobes. 

Hatyclinis minor, n. sp. 

Pseudobulbs oblong void, crowded (yellow and much 
wrinkled when dry) f inch long. Leaf linear lanceolate 
blunt narrowed at the base into a petiole, 3 inches long 
I inch wide, petiole very slender 1 inch long. Peduncle 
2-3 inches long very slender flowers crowded in a 
raceme 1-3 inches long. Bracts papyraceous persis- 
tent ovate acute J inch long ribbed. Pedicels slightly 
longer than the bracts. Flowers $ inch across. Sepals 
lanceolate acuminate acute, 3 nerved, centra] nerve 
thickest. Petals shorter broader oblong slightly dilat- 
ed upwards rounded obtuse strongly 1 nerved. Lip 
pandurate base broad oblong short side lobes small 
rounded inconspicuous, midlobe elliptic obtuse 3 ribbed. 
Column narrowed at the base with large triangular 
wings acuminate, rising from near the top and projecting 
above the column, wings of clinandrium triangular. 
Anther ovate. 

Sarawak Santubong (J. Hewitt). 

Platyclinis minima, Pseudobulbs very crowded conic obtuse -j 
inch long. Loaf elliptic slightly narrowed towards the 

Jour. .Straits Branch 

flf k :iroad jaji.-wiiftir w*r»**r\ *KvniV> Vv*-,v* *K*»i* 
a 4. dijftaxti leasts i>:V»«vri£ «»1»l»» ivmn^.\ jsv^vto? i ^ 
inri jonc. Favis?** ha'T ** ^$ n^v* :* taiNys\)*iv a* «t^ 
Irau:. lYra*.* halt *>. \\»\$ «'"';pii, obtMM' i*)n 
clawed cl*ion£ *Vitir* oilalo to«atv* i!o i\y w\\w*\+*\ 
Column bare narrow i)ila!tsi *lv\o with !a«**svUto avii 
minate arms rising a hill* holow tho *ti<m* 
Sarawak: Tiang l«a\u. ^J.MowHU 

Eria (Trichotosia) (imvit, n. sp. 

Stoma rnthor aloiulor firrt IS uwlio* m mmn loll 
nearly glabrous oxoopt for u hit* uf ltd halm mi thn 
side opposite tho loaf and u rhvhi uf mmI halm ni I hi* 
mouth, (young par In Nprinhlml with tdmil n>d ptdu>M 
cence). Leaven, laii<*iMilatn li^ht. kiiw»ii im>uIi< wllh m 
brood base rather llnnhy ^labruiM Kin>iiiMim I I •••-!• Inhf 
few (lowered re 1 hairy. Hi-iint nl. Ilm britm nip hIhi|<mI 
covered with red bairn. lirn.Hu Ihim imiIhIi oI»« id 
hairy. Flower* cifinll about f# | In* li loup, i iflo'l'' 
of ovary, L'pper j-.epal |iifj<:(«/lwf< u* wU » i d hn)j / bil» j 
a!*, orate folate ;i';»mdfifi*e red lutU /, m*nhnn i> t>/i} 

i',Z m J- }'*:*.*!*. l*ht:*r 1n'}'.;iU', *,i, lit.t, * ,,$\,*n\t> *]h^t' I 

r>» . * ■ r y 

mw-m w *m m s * * f 

** ..... .... < 

..." ". --* -1 ■ : i . .- ■ * v r " .'.mi' '** fS » . ■ ■ ■ ' * '* *■ *• •* - '■ ^ . ' 

•" ' - ■ : ■ '.■ ' ** „ ' » . -, -■ » #' 


very narrow, side lobes triangular lanceate recurved 
acuminate, midlobe nearly as long as the claw lanceo- 
late obtuse fleshy pustulate, all strongly nerved the 
main nerve elevated on the disc. Column dilated up- 
wards rostellum projecting. 

Sarawak Santubong (J. Hewitt). 

This resembles Aeridoslachya Rchb. f. but has a very 
... different lip. 

Phohdota grandis, n. sp. 

Pseudobulbs several crowded elliptic or conical 
2-3 inches long, angled and ribbed. Leaves 2 to each 
pseudobulb oblong oblanceolate long petioled, acute, 
blade 12 inches long narrowed into the 13 inch petiole, 
ribbed. Raceme erect 8 inches or more from the base 
of a pseudobulb, peduncle half the length nude dull 
green spotted red. Raceme dense many flowered. Bracts 
caducous elliptic subobtuse, £ inch long, as long as the 
flowers, ovary and pedicel spreading green. Sepals 
ovate obtuse apple green. Petals smaller oblong white 
recurved. Lip base rounded saccate edge elevated un- 
dulate side lobes, broad irregularly oblong rounded, 
bifid on the outer edge white. Column short, hood very 
broad truncate retuse narrowed downwards green. 
Anther orange semiorbicular, trigibbous two celled 
stigma cordate. 

Selangor Semangko Pass. II in H.B.Singapore Aug. 

This fine Pholidota was collected by me with Caelo- 
gyne Day ana on trees in the Semangkok Pass. In habit 
it quite resembles a Caelogyne. The flower spike with 
its dense white flowers is quite attractive. 

Tainia borneensis, n. sp. 

Rhizome creeping covered with broken upsheaths. 
Leaf ovate acuminate 6 inches long 2-2£ wide. Glabrous 
petiole 1 inch long stem a foot long from the axil of a 

Jour. St rait a Branch 


leaf pubescent with three or four lanceolate bracts 
scattered about. Flowers 2 to 6, crowded at the top, 
pedicel woolly, £ inch long, bract lanceolate acuminate 
glabrous. Upper sepal lanceolate acuminate, laterals 
broader, forming a short blunt mentum at the base £ 
inch long. Petals narrower, linear acuminate. Lip 
shorter obcuneate, base oblong dilated towards the end 
into a broad truncate limb with two short side lobes 
and one small oblong median one. Column rather long 
curved, stelidia short, anther lanceolate. Pollinia ceroid 

Sarawak : Mt. Lingga (Hewitt). 

Plocoglotti* borneensis, n. sp. 

Pseudobulbs several, terete thickened slightly towards 
the base and purplish 2 inches long. Leaf solitary, 
broadly lanceolate, 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, plicate 
tapering to the winged petiole, seven-nerved dark green. 
Peduncle 12-16 inches tall pubescent arising from 
above the base of the pseudobulb. Bracts small ovate 

Flowers several. Upper sepal largest •£ inch long 
lanceolate, long acuminate-yellow base red spotted, 
laterals similar but narrower at the base, backs pubes- 
cent. Petals similar but glabrous. Lip less than ± inch 
long, quadrate, tip broad equally shortly trifid pale 
yellow. Column about as long yellow with two broad 
flat wings white with red edges and descending bar, a 
violet streak below, widened at the base. Anther cap 
thick dark yellow blunt with a strong ridge running to 
the tip. Pollinia 4 in two pairs in narrow cells of the 
anther, elliptic one slightly above the other, pedicel 
linear-pulverulent, discs oblong yellow rather large. 
Margin of clinandrium elevate subovate. Stigma large 

Common in Sarawak especially at Lundu, and Tam- 
busan, terrestrial in damp woods. Also at Bidi. 

ft. A. Soc. No. 49, 1907. 


This plant I took at first for Reichenbach's Ploco- 
glottis Lowii (Xenia Orchidacea Vol. II p. 142. pi. 154). 
But even allowing for very rough drawing this can hard- 
ly he intended for the common Sarawak species. The 
flowers of this exactly resemble those of P. moluccana 
Bl. but that is figured and described as belonging to the 
group of many leaved Plocoglottis. No ono seems to 
have seen Plocoglottis Lowii since it was first intro- 
duced. It is described as having yellow and brown flow- 
ers as large as those of cattleya luteola. By some extra- 
ordinary error Hallier has identified it with a plant 
which from his figure and description I take to be PL 
porphyrophylla Ridl. and J. J. Smith has followed this 
determination in his orchids of Amboina. No two spe- 
cies of the genus are more utterly dissimilar. PI. porphy- 
rophylla with its dull purplish flowers half an inch across, 
and most peculiar lower sepals cannot possibly be the 
plant Reichenbach intended, with flowers 2 inches across, 
bright yellow with the lower sepals quite resembling 
the upper one. 

The following are the species of the genus known. 
Some from Borneo. 

Speciss with single leave to each pseudobulb. 

PL Loicii, Rchlf. Locality unknown said to be Bornean. 

PL borneensis, Ridl. Sarawak. 

PL porphyrophylla, Ridl. (PL Lowii Hallier not Reichen- 
bach) recorded from Borneo by Hallier. 

PL parviflora % Ridl. 

Species with leafy stems. 

PL dilatata, Bl. Sarawak, Mt, Kowa. Braang (Haviland 76) 
on limestone rocks. 

Jour. Straiti Branch 


PI. parviflora. 

Leaves lanceolate acuminate 2 glabrous thin 5 nerved 
narrowed to a long petiole 12-16 inches long 1£ inch 
wide. Scape lateral from the rhizome, rather stout 2 
feet long, scurfy pubescent, flowers distant few, small. 

Pedicel and ovary \ inch long. Closely scurfily 
pubescent. Sepals narrow linear oblong cuspidate T 3 7 
inch long. Petals subspathulate narrower. Lip base 
oblong, limb broader ovate oblong cuspidate, with two 
short linear ridges on the limb. Column tall, anther 
cordate in outline, top fleshy retuse. 

Sarawak : Mt. Lingga (Hewitt). 

Allied to PL Porphyrophylla, Ridl. but the flowers 
are much smaller and the lip of a different shape. 

Saccolabinm aureum, n. sp. 

Stem about 2 inches long. Leaves crowded lorate 3 
inches long little more than £ inch wide thick, apex very 
unequally bilobed, tops rounded. Racemes 1 inch long 
dense flowered. Bracts lanceolate acuminate £ the length 
of the pedicel and ovary. Flowers £ inch long pale 
greenish yellow or golden yellow, spur white. Upper 
sepal ovate acute, laterals ovate oblong mucronulate. 
Petals as long oblong obtuse narrower. Lip ovate 
rather longer than the sepals, sides elevated rounded 
(lateral lobes) terminal lobe narrower half the length of 
the hypochil, linear oblong, ending in a fleshy rounded 
callus spur as long as the lip nearly as long as the pedi- 
cel stout cylindric obtuse upcurved. Column very short 
with two much longer erect horns acute. Anther skull- 
shaped with a very large oblong truncate beak. Polli- 
nia 2 globose small on an oblong linear pedicel with a 
much larger oblong truncate disc bearing a short process 
beyond the point where the pedicel adheres. 

Sarawak : Kuching (J. Hewitt). 

This curious species is most nearly allied to S. $ecundi- 
florum, Ridley. 

B.A.Soc. No. 49, 1907. 


S. brachyslachys, n. sp. 

Stem short, 4 inches long very thick. Leaves lorate 
coriaceous, thick 8 inches long, \\ inch wide, deep green, 
apex bluntly unequally lobed. Panicles short 3 branch- 
ed, branches 1 inch long many flowered. Bracts very 
short ovate acute. Sepals oblong obtuse £ inch long. 
Petals shorter narrower linear, all yellow with a central 
reddish bar. Lip, side lobes large oblong ending in a 
cusp, midlobe ovate obtuse violet, spur short rounded 
Bcrotiform white, a broad oblong fleshy bar over the 
mouth of the spur, and a short conic boss in the centre 
of the lip between the side lobes. Column thick, wings 
incurved white, anther broad long-beaked. Pollinia 
elliptic curved, on a long linear pedicel with a small disc. 

Sarawak : Tambusan, fl. H. B. S. 1905. 

This plant is not rarely brought from Sarawak by 
native collectors. 

S. validum. 

Roots copious thick corky, stem stout 4 inches long £ 
inch through. Leaves coriaceous lorate 6 inches long | 
inch through unequally bilobed. Panicles from lower 
axils 9 inches long slender, peduncle 3 inches long, 
branches 2, upper one longest. Flowers numerous but 
remote. Bracts ovate acute small. Pedicels £ inch 
long. Sepals lanceolate subacute. Petals much small- 
er, dull yellow, with reddish purple blotching in centre. 
Lip shorter, spur nearly as long as the ovary straight 
cylindric blunt, side lobes short oblong rhomboid blunt, 
midlode longer, short ovate fleshy callus in mouth of 
spur fleshy quadrate large decurved. No septum in 
spur or callus. Column short, anther 4 celled ovate. 
Pollinia transversly bilobed, pedicel oblong linear, disc 
oblong truncate column wings short incurved. Rostei- 
lum arms horizontal oblong truncate with a minute pro- 
cess at the upper edge. 

Perak : Kamuning (Machado) July 10, 1905. 

Certainly allied to S. pallidus. 

Jour. Stralta Branch 


S- fisticorSy n. sp. 

Stem 4 or 5 inches long. Leaves linear oblong round- 
ed emarginate at the lip 4-5 inches long 1 inch across 
rather thickly coriaceous. Raceme 10 inches long very 
slender, peduncle 6 inches long purple. Bracts very 
small ovate. Flowers rather distant small. Rachis 
faintly black scurfy. Occasionally one branch near the 
base. Pedicel and ovary \ inch Ions; bright yellow 
green. Sepals ovate oblong, ^\ inch long blunt dark 
red brown. Petals narrower linear similarly colored. 
Lip side lobes small erect truncate yellowish, midlobe 
cordate acute, notched on either side, violet with centre 
and edges white. Spur nearly as long as the pedicel 
parallel to it or deflexed cylindric slightly flatened, 
violet, an oblong recurved fleshy lamina truncate in the 
mouth, spur not divided. Column rather tall violet, 
wings obscure. Anther white scull shaped truncate 
emarginate in fruit. Poliinia flattened globose orbicular, 
2 bilobed, pedicel, flat, narrowed above and below, 
slightly dilate in the middle, disc very small oblong. 
Rostellom lobes short oblong truncate with deflexed 
points. Stigma cordate. 

Perak : Kamuning (A. D. Machado). Flowered 
Singapore Botanic Gardens 1906, December. 

This is near 6*. ScorUchinii, but has the habit of 
Spevsile, Ridl. 

Trichoglotti8 punctata, n. sp. 

Stem slender branched 18 inches long, sheaths ribbed 
1 inch long, leaves narrowly lanceolate acuminate 4 
inches long J-£ inch wide, narrowed at the base. 
Racemes £ inch long few flowered, 1 or 2. Flower \ inch 
fleshy, upper sepal oblong obtuse, laterals deltoid tri- 
angular. Petals oblong obtuse. Lip adnate to the column 
at the base, very fleshy, shorter than the sepals, base 
oblong channelled hardly spur-like, but excavate, below 
the column a linear flat lamina obtuse entire, apex 

B. A. Soc., >'o. to, 1907. 

■ **'. 


bilobed dilate lobes rounded with obscure fleshy process- 
es projecting from the tip, behind two horn like side 
processes, all glabrous column thick, anther skull-shaped 
shortly beaked in front. Stelidia thick subtriangular, 
rostellum very Bhort and indistinct. Pollinia not seen. 
" Flowers yellow with red brown spots on the inside 
and reddish edging outside." 

Sarawak : Lingga (J. Hewitt). 

Only one specimen with a single flower seen. 

Near Tr. lanceolaria, Bl. but the spur is less develop- 
ed, the lip is distinctly bifid at the tip. 

Sarcochilus fragrans, n. sp. 

Stem 3 inches long. Leaves 9 linear lanceolate sub- 
falcate narrowed at the base 6 inches long one inch 
wide, dull green coriaceous. Scape 5 inches long, sub- 
terete winged. Bracts persistent ovate J inch long 
green. Flowers open three at a time. Pedicels \ inch 
long. Upper sepal orbicular obovate, lo*rer ones much 
larger £ inch long orbicular ovate. Petals small \ inch 
long spathulate all white with a transverse line of one 
or 2 ocreous blotches. Lip | inch long, side lobes 
oblong rounded, spur shoe-shaped narrowed to a blunt 
point, with a raised boss or tooth in the upper face, calli 
in the mouth three, 2 longer than the median one short 
blunt tooth-like. Lip all white except an ocre blotch 
below the mouth. Column short, with a long foot, 
white with an indian red bar on each side of the foot 
running up and meeting behind the column. Anther 
broad and 'flat, thin ovate shortly beaked. Pollinia 2 
globular bilobed, pedicel very short, disc oblong lanceo- 
late small. Clinandrium shallow. Rostellum bifid of 
two linear processes, column wings incurved. This pretty 
and deliciously fragrant orchid was found on a coffee- 
bush on Matang estate. It is allied to S. unguiculatu6, 
but very distinct. 

Jour. btr*iti Branch 


S. ittllatus, n. sp. 

Stem thick 3 inches long. Leaves 6 oblong obtuse 
unequally bilobed 4 inches long and one inch across, 
thick and stiff. Racemes £ inch long. Bracts small 
orate. Flowers expanded, ovary and pedicel £ inch 
long, sepals ^ inch long spreading oblong acute pale 
greenish yellow. Petals smaller linear oblong acute. 
Lip £ inch long, side lobe oblong rounded broad yellow- 
ish, with dull Indian red and ovate markings inside, 
spur short blunt white, a large rounded callus just below 
the lobes white with 2 violet spots. Column longer 
than the foot £inch long yellow, anther thin ovate acute, 
with a bar-shaped rib across the top. Pollinia semilinear 
yellow, pedicel linear short, disc small oblong. Clinan- 
drium very shallow. Rostellum lobes short broad 
triangular. Capsule sessile oblong an inch long. 

Sarawak: cult, in Bifchop Hose's Garden exactlocality 
uncertain, Sept. 1905. A pretty little plant with its 
green starlike flowers. The pollinia curl forward and 
hang into the stigma. The plant appears to be thus 
regularly self-fertilized. 

Dendrocolla fimbriate, n. sp. 

Stems 1^-1 inch long forming large tufts. Leaves 
lorate 3 inches long £ inch wide pale green. Scapes 2 
inches long, rachis thickened. Flowers white. Sepals 
lanceolate, lower ones oblong lanceolate acute with a 
process at the base. Petals lanceolate spathu- 
late smaller. Lip convolute acute pubescent, side lobes 
distinct rounded, median linear obtuse all white and 
fringed with hairs, a callus short oblong truncate in the 
centre of the lip maroon edged with yellow a tuft of 
hairs behind it, an orange spot in the spur. Column 
short white, broad belly dcpiessed in the centre, foot 
short. Clinandrium not raised. Anther skull-shaped 
retuse in front broad. Pollinia pale yellow oblong on 
a short triangular disc, no pedicel. Rostellum short 

B A Hoc., No. 19, 1007 


Sarawak, on trees near the race course Sept. 1905 
(Ridley and Hewitt). 

Allied to 3. trichoglottie, Hook. fil. which occurs there 
too, conspicuously different 'in its white flowers, and 
the lobed lip. A very pretty little plant, and fragrant. 

Goodyera roitrala, n. sp. 

Stem a foot tall. Leaves narrowly lanceolate slightly 
falcate acuminate at both ends and distinctly petiolate, 
5 inches long including the petiole (1 inch) sheaths 
short papery. 

Raceme (in bud only) rather crowded. Bracts \ inch 
long lanceolate acuminate. Pedicel hairy short. 

Sepals hairy red, upper one lanceolate, base gibbous, 
adnate to the thin pale petals, laterals connate ovate 
hairy blunt red. Lip shorter, base thin saccate equall- 
ing the rather long curved beak, red, glabrous inside 
with no calli. 

Column short with small rounded side wings. Anther 
very long beaked. Anther cells gibbous. Beak curved 
cylindric acute longer than the sepals. 

Rostellum entire large spathulate, truncate, base 
narrowed dilated upwards into broad wings, shorter 
than the anther, minutely pustular with a strong rib up 
the centre. 

Sarawak : Lingga, (J. Hewitt). 

Differs from Grubens Bl. in the long beaked lip and 
entire broad winged labellum, and narrow leaves. 

Uabenaria pelorioides, Rchb. fil. Trans. Linn. Soc. XXX. p. 139. 
Tab. 27. 

This plant was described from a specimen, obtained 
in Amherst, Tenasserim by Parish. The specimen, 
in Herb. Kew seems to be very ill-preserved, and it is 
suggested that it is an abnormal form, of some other 
species. Mr. Micholitz has recovered what appears to 
be the identical species in Tonkin. It was he says 
abundant and I have three good specimens. In habit 

Jour, tttraita BroucU 


foliage and perianth it is absolutely identical with 
Reihenbach's figure except that it has a short distinct 
conical spur to the lip, pendant, about half the length 
of the petal. The column however differs. From the 
side of the anther projects a triangular flap, about half 
its length at the base, behind this is a papillose stigma. 
The rostellar lobes are broad inflexed fleshy truncate as 
long as the anther processes. The pollinia are more 
pyriform with long narrow pedicels widest at the apex 
and narrowing to a terete-portion ending in a small 
rounded disc. The flowers are white. The plant was 
obtained from Tonkin. 

The species seems to be a good and distinct one, and 
I see nothing to suggest it is a monstrosity. The spur 
varies very much in length in the various flowers, and in 
some I cannot see any. In others very short not a 
quarter of the length of the petal. The minute ciliation 
of the lip and petals by Reichenbach is really a very 
minute denticulation. 

//. geniculate*,, Don. this fine white Habenaria was 
also brought by Mr. Micholitz from the same locality. 

Habenaria borneemis, n. sp. 

Whole plant 6 inches to a foot tall, tubers subcylin- 
dric. Leaves crowded at the base of the stem, lanceolate 
acuminate 3 inches long \ inch wide glabrous bright 
green drying black. Raceme 9 inches or less, floriferous 
nearly to the base. Flowers very numerous crowded 
green. Bracts narrow lanceolate acuminate with a long 
point, keeled and the lowest 3 nerved, lower ones longer, 
much longer than the flowers. Sepals upper ovate lan- 
ceolate obtuse I inch long, lower narrower lanceolate. 
Petals broader ovate obtuse. Lip trifld, central lobe 
linear fleshy obtuse as long as the petals lateral lobes 
filiform more than three times as long with a broad flat 
base, spur thick cylindric about as long as the petals, 
tip bilobed. Column small. Anther short. Arms very 
small. Ovary ^ inch long, narrow. 

R. A. Soc. No. 49, 1907. 


Sarawak : Matang. In clay banks in the coffee estate 
and on the path up the hill, Aug. 1905. (No 12475). 

Habenaria roseata, n. sp. 

Stem slender 2 feet tall. Leaves distant few, linear 
acute 3 inches long £-£ inch wide dull glaucous green 
sheathing at the base, upper one narrower and more 
acuminate. Raceme lax about 8 flowered. Bracts \ inch 
long lanceolate acuminate. Ovary and pedicel £ inch, not 
twisted, ovary narrowed upwards. Flower reversed. 
Upper sepals ovate obtuse boat-shaped forming a gaba 
with the oblong petals £ inch long pale pink. Lateral 
sepals oblique ovate obtuse strongly 3 ribbed spreading. 
Lip tufted to the base lobes narrow linear white median 
longest \ inch long. Spur £ inch long slender obtuse 
geniculate in the middle. Anther hooded nearly as long 
as the petals, arms rather long abruptly upcurred. 
Pollinia pyriform small with a very long slender pedicel. 
Stigmatic processes on the side of the anther distinct 
pustular. Stigmas porrect thick fleshy clubbed flat on 
the inner face. Rostellum trilobed erect, side lobes very 
short, midlobe linear pustular. 

Siam at Trang (Cult. H. B. Penang, 1906). 

This slender plant with pale rose flowers is allied to 
//. Vidua Parx. Rchb. f. a native of Tenasserim figured 
Trans. Linn. Soc. XXX. t. 27 B. The structure of the 
rostellum and stigmas is however different and the 
leaves are much narrower. 


Globbajnsectifera, n. sp. 

Stem slender 14 inches tall, with cylindric pubescent 
sheaths lower ones reddish, 3 inches long, upper two 
with very small green lanceolate acute laminas nearly £ 
inch long £ inch wide. Panicle of a few short, inch- 
long branches. Bracts minute green oblong obtuse de- 
ciduous. Flowers sessile, ovary short oblong pubescent. 
Calyx tube £ inch long pubescent equally 3 toothed 

Jour* Straits Branch 


tubular. Petals narrow linear, staminodes large and 
conspicuous rounded ovate oblong £ an inch long, £ inch 
across bright yellow. 

Lip small very narrow linear bifid at the tip for 
about i its length, yellow. Filament long slender, 
inther orange with 4 equal triangular acuminate spurs. 

Shan States, (Coll. Micholitz). 

This very curious Globba came up in a plant of 
Cypripedium bellatalum cultivated in the Botanic Gar- 
dens. It is remarkable not only for its almost leafless 
habit, which is seen in some others of the species from 
this region, but especially from its very large staminode, 
the most conspicuous part of the flower. The flowers 
resemble some small yellow butterfly. 

G. glandulosa, n. sp. 

Stem 18 inches tall. Leaves lanceolate acuminate 
caudate hispid 44 inches long, j inch wide narrowed at 
base, sheath and ligule hairy. Panicle 2 inches long 
slender with few short branches. Bracts ovate oblong 
cuspidate glandular, £ inch long. Calyx funnel-shaped 
with three equal lanceolate cuspidate leaves { of an inch 
long glandular corolla-tube twice as long shortly pubes- 
cent dilate upwards, lobes ovate obtuse dotted all over 
with glands. Staminodes linear much shorter. Lip short 
and broad half as long as the petals, bilobed lobes 
broad rounded. Filament rather stout. Anther with a 
single rather thick horn from near the base on each 
side, ovary glabrous ribbed. 

Sarawak : Mt. Lingga (Hewitt). 

Flowers light purple or red. Leaves with a red brown 
tinge on the under surface. The most curious thing 
about this species is the glandular dotting of the whole 
of the perianth, petals staminodes lip and filament. 
The hairy leaves and very short broad lip are also pecu- 
liar point 8. 

B. A. 8oc, No. 49, 1907. 


Camptandra ovata, n. sp. 

Stems solitary 3-6 inches long the base covered 
with oblong lanceolate sheaths 1-2 inches long cuspi- 
date. Leaves 2-3 ovate peltate acuminate inaequilater- 
al, base rounded, l£-3£ inches long f-2 inches wide, 
petiole slender 1-1 £ inch long, sheath less than half 
the length. Peduncle £-1 inch long subterminal erect. 
Bract £-1 inch long urnshaped with a recurved tip 
orbicular when spread out and an inch across. Flowers 
2-3, nearly sessile. Calyx tubular dilated upwards 
shortly 3 lobed lobes blunt £ inch long. Corolla tube 
slightly longer than the bract, lobes pale blue or white 
4 inch long blunt. Capsule oblong f inch long grey 
thin walled punctate and blotched brown, seeds several 
fusiform obtuse dark grey with a thin white fimbriate 

Selangor : Hulu Semangkok at about 4000 feet eleva- 
tion, first collected by Mr. Burn Murdoch in February 
and later by myself in August 1904. 

This is a much smaller plant than C. latifolia which 
in general form it resembles. 

II. licmeres, n. sp. 

Stem apparently tall. Leaves oblong lanceolate cus- 
pidate narrowed to the base 20 inches long 2£ inches 
wide, glabrous, ligule oblong rounded on the top J inch 

Bracts papery linear acute, tips pubescent, 1£ inch 
long | inch wide. Inner bracts spathaceous narrow, 
tip pubescent. Calyx, tube narrow-spathaceous 2 
inches long, tips of lobes silky hairy. Corolla, tube 
little longer, lobes linear obtuse red, about an inch long. 
Lip much shorter a^out I inch long, lateral lobes erect 
convolute, midlobe with u narrow claw ending in a 
broader triangular bi-lobcil or hastate thicker limb. 
Anther not distinctly crested. 

Sarawak : Kuching (Hewitt}. 

Jour. Straitt Branth 


Tacca borneetms, n. sp. 

A large tufted plant with the habit of T. cristaia. 
Leaves ovate acuminate, petiole 6 inches or more long, 
blade 24 inches long, 9 inches across glabrous nerves 
about 9 pairs primary distant ascending one intramar- 
ginal running to the tip, margin undulate. Scape stout 
6 inches long. Involucral bracts 4, subequal and similar, 
ovate sessile obtuse opposite pubescent on the back 2£ 
inches long 1£ inch wide, the two inner ones shortly 
petioled. Filamentous bracts rather short. 

Flowers smaller than those of T. cristata purple. Sepals 
oblong slightly narrowed at the base apex rounded. 
Petals ovate acute mucronate, \ inch long. Stamens, with 
very short but distinct filament, anthers ovate base 
retuse, stigma, too-much crushed. Ovary and pedicel ^ 

Borneo : Sarawak on Matang, (Ridley.) 

The broad ovate leaves of this plant would be quite 
sufficient to distinguish it from T. cristata. The involu- 
cral bracts too are very distinct, the outer ones broadly 
ovate, the inner ones narrowed slightly at the base, and 
all minutely and scantily pubescent. The flowers are 
smaller and the stamens more distinctly stalked. 

T. laevis var. minor. 

Differs from the description of the type in its gener- 
ally smaller size. It has an erect cylindric stem 1£ 
inches long, leaves elliptic acuminate bright green 6 
inches long 4 inches wide, petiole as long. Scape 6 
inches or less deflexed or hardly ascending. Involucral 
bracts outer ones lanceolate acuminate an inch long, 
wide, inner ones ovate acuminate as long but much 
wider all olive green. Bracteoles filiform 5 inches long 
dusky tips paler flowers few pedicels thick purplish | 
inch long. Perianth J inch across. Petals oblong tri- 
angular acuminate brownish green, spreading. Sepals 
erect about half the width. Stamens purple 6. 

R. A. Soc., No. 40, 1007. 


Fruit 1 J inch long green, 3 keeled to the sepals a 
ridge representing each petal. 

Kelantan : Kwala Lebir (Dr. Gimlet te.) 

T. vespertilio, n. sp. 

Stem short as in T. cristata, leaves numerous elliptic 
lanceolate long petioled, petiole sheathing 2 inches 6-8 
inches long stout smooth lamina 12 inches long or less 
6 inches across base rounded, usually unequal, one side 
further decurrent on the petiole than the other, tip 
acuminate margin minutely wavy, bright polished 
green above paler beneath, nerves conspicuous elevated 
beneath. Scape over a foot long smooth. Involucral 
bracts, 2 outer ones short lanceolate acuminate 1£ inch 
long by £ inch purple tipped green, 2 inner ones sessile 
ovate at right angles to the others brown purple 2 
inches long 1£ inch wide, margins wavy all glabrous. 
Flowers few 3-5. Filiform bracts 7 inches long about 
12, base purple tips white Pedicels stout purple 1 inch 
long. Perianth tube campanulate purple £ inch. Sepals 
lanceolate acute purplish -\ inch. Petals broader 
oblong ovate obtuse. Stamens shortly pedicelled fila- 
ments short but distinct. Anther conic, retuse at base 
lobes excurved. Stigma peltate with three lobes retuse, 
plaits more deeply cut than in T. cristata. 

Perak : Kamuning (Machado) fl. H. B. S. November. 

This has flowered twice in the Botanic Gardens and 
is a very distinct plant in the matter of the large bracts, 
the two inner ones much larger than the outer ones and 
spreading like the wings of a bat. 


Chlorophytum longissimum, n. sp. 

Rhizome stout short 2-3 inches long. Leaves tufted, 
lanceolate acuminate narrowed at the base subpetiolate 
7 inches long 1£ inch wide glabrous dark green. Raceme 
deflexed at first 8 inches long terete, with distant alter- 
on?. Straits Branch 


nate flowers l£ inch apart. Bracts lanceolate acuminate 
1 inch long narrow. Pedicel shorter. Flower about 1 
inch across, sepals and petals widely spreading similar 
lanceolate oblong narrow acute, pure white. Stamens 
connivent, filaments terete acuminate white longer than 
the anthers Ovary 3 lobed yellow, style as long as the 
anthers, stigma minute, white. After producing a few 
flowers the receme elongates to about 6 feet trailing on 
the ground, and bears bulbils. 

Siam : Trang (St. V. B. Down, and Penan g Gardens 


Criptocoryne striolata var. covdifolia. 

In streams on Siul hill near Ruching (Sept. 1905). 
I believe this is a variety of C. striolata but the leaves 
are ovate blunt, more deeply cordate, almost auricled. 
The flower spathe was purple. It grew with Cr. grandis 
Ridl. which has a yellow spathe. 

JIapaline appendiculata, n. sp. 

Leaves one or more, always few, erect ovate acute 
hastate, lower lobes lanceolate, sinus narrow, light green 
with curved ascending nerves 4 inches long, 2 inches 
across of which the lobes are 1 inch long petiole white 
1£ inch long. Spadices several, entirely pure white, 
peduncle slender 1£ inch long white. Spathe linear 
acuminate 1 inch long very narrow hardly J inch across 
at the base, base convolute round the base of the 
spadix. Base of spadix adnate to the tube of the 
spathe, with 3 flask-shaped shortly stalked pistils on 
the opposite side. Stigma capitate yellowish. Male 
flowers few very irregular in shape the lowest oblong 
the others smaller, rounded. Appendage long filiform 
acuminate slender longer than the spathe. 

Sarawak : at Puak, in woods. (H. N. Ridley). 

B. A. Soc., No. 40, 1907. 


This very curious little plant is the first species of 
the genus recorded from Borneo, the other two species 
being natives of Nepal and Kedah. This little plant 
is remarkable for possessing a very narrow spathe and 
a long slender appendage with no trace of flowers on it, 
and only a few irregular male flowers on the base. In 
the other species the male flowers occur to the top or 
• nearly to the top of the spadix and the appendage is 

very short. The slender white spadices are usually 
deflexed and lie on the ground, looking like whitw roots. 

A locaBia Villeneuvei. 

This aroid is very common in Sarawak especially on 
the hills of Matang and elsewhere, and the plants 
often attain a large size. The flowers of it have never 
been described. I was fortunate in finding it well in 
flower in August 1905. The peduncle of the inflor- 
escence is 6 inches or more tall but deeply sunk in the 
petiole sheaths, it is pale green in colour. The spathe 
is pure white, the swollen part of the base H inch long 
and nearly an inch in diameter. The ovate lanceolate 
acute and cuspidate limb is 2£ inches long and 1£ inch 
wide white. The spadix is sessile 4 inches long. The 
pistils subglobose with the stigmas on a short thick 
distinct style. They are round, oblong or ovate|aud wide 
white. There are no abortive flowers mixed with them 
as is often the case in other species. Above them are 
some abortive female flowers. The male portion 
appears above the tube, it is only half an inch long 
the flowers close packed crenulate. The appendix is 
cylindric and obtuse reticulate, cream colored. The 
fruiting spadices are white. The spadices shortly after 
opening were found to be swarming with dipterous 
larvae. In large plants the inflorescences are numerous. 

Alocnsia Beccarii, Engler. 

Is an anomalous species in many ways, in its 
creeping rhizome and entire leaves. I found it as 
before on Serapi, the top of Mt. Matang. It was in 

Jour. Straits Branch 


fruit, and I observed that instead of the tubular portion 
of the spathe, covering the fruit, disrupting irregularly 
as is usual in Alocasias, the top of it came off whole 
in the shape of a small conical cap, exposing the orange 
red fruit standing in a regular cap. In A. denudata 
the spathe base disrupts irregularly, 

Homalomena Linden i, Alocatda Lindeni, 111. Hort. 1886 p. 111, 

This plant was originally described (I.e.) under the 
name of Alocasia Lindeni having been introduced from 
" Papouasia " by Linden, who suggests that it may be a 

A plant obtained from Rangoon this year llowered in 
the Botanic Gardens Singapore, and proved to be a 
species of Ilomalomena. The leaves are ovate cordate 
6 inches long and as wide, deep green with yellow veins, 
petiole 1 1 inches long sheathing for 3 inches, white. 
The plant when cut or broken exhales a strong scent of 

The spathes are produced several together each on 
a greenish white peduncle 3-4 inches long, \ inch 
thick. Spathe cylindrical 2£ inches long tightly 
fitting the spadix, pale green darker towards the tip 
where it ends in a mucro \ inch long. The spadix barely 
longer sessile. Female portion 1 inch long, rachis 
thick and white, pistils very numerous, cyliudric 
rounded, green, stigma round flat capitate, broader than 
the ovary, white, no abortive flowers. The male 
portion cylindric slightly tapering at the tip, white, 
flowers oblong, very numerous. 

Ilomalomena multinervia, n. sp. 

Leaves elliptic acuminate, slightly oblique, base 
cuneate 8 inches long 3 J wide, nerves primary very 
numerous, about 50 pairs, hardly distinct from the 
secondary ones, petiole rather slender 4-5 inches long. 
Spathes thick 3 inches long constricted above the 

E. A. Soc, No. 49, 1907. 



female portion with a long slender mucro, J- J inch 
long, peduncle 3 inches long.. Spadix little shorter 
than the spathe. Female portion an inch long. Pistils 
numerous globose, no abortive flowers visible. Spadix 

Sarawak : Lundu (Ridley Sept. 1905). 

The very close nervation of the leaves, which are also 
thickly dotted with dark colored dots, and the large 
constricted spadix distinguish this from allied species. 

Homalomena Griffithii v&r.falcata. 

Stem stout 2-3 inches long. Leaves long petiolcd 
ovate with a broad base, apex falcate acute, nerves about 
7 pairs 6 inches long 4 incties wide. Spathes several, 
on slender red peduncles 1£ inch long; curved cyliudric 
acuminate £ inch long, male and female portions of the 
spadix equal. Female tlowcrs in 4 spirals. 

Kuching: (Ridley 12417). 

Schismatoglottia multijlora var. lati/olia. 

Mr. Hewitt sends from the Sarawak Museum a speci- 
men of a plant collected on Matang by Mr. Bartlett 
July 21, 1895, which resembles *SV//. multiflora except 
in the leaves which are much broader elliptic euneate 
at the base, tip acuminate, 8 inches long 3 inches wide. 
The flowers ill-preserved seem identical with those of 
Sch. multijlora. I propose the variety lati/olia for it. 

Sch. nervosa, n. sp. 

Stem stout erect 2 inches long. Leaves ovate obtuso 
cordate, lobes rounded, 7 inches long by 4 inches wide 
dark shining green, nerves about 26 pairs conspicuous 
gradually ascending, midrib channelled, above thick 
elevated beneath, back of leaf pale, petiole 6 inches long 
smooth green channelled above, sheathing for 3 inches, 
sheath pale tapering upwards, thin spathe very shortly 
£ inch, thickly peduncled, with a lanccate bract keeled, 
2 inches long mucronate subtending it. Spathe green 3 

jour. Htrailf Branch 


inches, limb lanceolate cuspidate as lung as the tube, 
tube swollen at the Imsc then narrowed, Spadix 3 inches 
long, male portion cylindric acute Ij inch long white 
flowers similar to the tip. Below a narrowed portion, 
female portion ^ inch cylindric dilated towards l«se, on 
a stout short peduncle. Pistils very numerous small 
cylindric oblong narrow in 13 spirals dilated above with 
a small pulvinate stigma, no sterile flowers intci mixed. 
Sarawak: Bau (Ridley). This plant brought alive 
from Sarawak flowered in the Botanic Gardens in 
Januarv 1907. 

ISjttu&jHttJui rctnif'ot'htiii. n. sp. 

Stein short suberect. Leaves narrowly elliptic, tip 
rounded cuspidate, base cuneate 3 inches loner i inch 
wide, nerves about five pail's ascending rather inconspi- 
cuous, blade dark green minutely pustular, petiole 
slender 2 inches long, sheathing about half an inch. 
Peduncle 1 .J inches long, spathc absent. Fruiting spathe 
turbinate \ inch long. 

Sarawak : Mt. Lingga (.1. Hewitt') (July a single speci- 
men was collected of this plant, and that only fruiting. 
It seems however a distinct little species in its foliage, 
though it must be admitted that as in most other aroids 
the foliage of this genus is apt to vary very much. The 
leaves in outline resemble a native boat-paddle. 

Rii]*hvh»phufii ijfmi'Hfi n. sp. 

Stem very long and stout over an inch through. 
Leaves of climbing stem ovate obtuse cordate 4 inches 
long 3 inches wide, shining light green, very closely im- 
bricate. Leaves adult of free part of stem very large, 
the blade 18 inches long 9 inches across or more, pinnati- 
tid with subalternute lobes I to 3 nerved truncate broad- 
ly, lower ones acute at the upper margin, secondary 
nerves o to 9 between each pair of main nerves, trans- 
verse nervules conspicuous when dry numerous undulate 
petiole woody 6 inches or more long } \ inch through, 

R. A. **., No. 49. W07. 


knee short. Spatbe peduncle stout woody 6 inches or 
more long £ inch through, spadix sessile 6 inches long 
\ inch through cylindric. Pistils oblong longer tban 
broad. Stigma linear stamens projecting. Anther 
cells ovoid. 

Sarawak on big trees at Tambusan Sept. 1905. (Ridley 

A fine plant either with its neat creeping stem, with 
its overlapping oval leaves, or with its fine Monstera- 
like full grown foliage. 

R. clliptica, n. sp. 

Stem slender woody branched, nodes an inch long, £ 
inch through when dry. Leaves remote elliptic inae- 
quilateral narrowed at the base, acuminate rather 
abruptly, glabrous thinly coriaceous drying black 4 to 
9 inches long l-2£ inch wide, petiole slender 2-3^ inches 
long. Spadix on a peduncle f inch long. Spathe 
oblong acuminate boat-shaped 1£ inch long coriaceous. 
Spadix sessile obtuse cylindric 1 inch long, £ inch 
through. Pistils rounded hardly angled. Stigma 
round-pul vinate. 

Sarawak: Kuching (Hewitt) Oct. 3, 1905. 

A Journey into the Interior of Borneo 
to visit the Kalabit tribes. 

By R. S. Douglas. 

I propose to give a short account of a journey I recently 
made to visit the Kalabits, a people who had only quite re- 
cently acknowledged allegiance to the Sarawak Government, 
and are quite one of the most uncivilized in Borneo. 

The Kalabits, who are scientifically I believe of the 
Indonesian race, are an agricultural people inhabiting the 
large tableland in the centre of Borneo from which spring the 
Baram, Tutau, Limbang, Trusan and Padas Rivers on the 
West Coast and the Bahau River on the East Coast. They 
are very industrious and are one of the few tribes who farm by 
irrigation, and are therefore able to obtain two crops of paddy 
in the year. They are practically the same race of people at 
are known as Muruts in the Tzusan and Padas Districts. 

In build they are above the average height of Bomean 
natives and are well made. They are tremendous walkers (a 
fact which is impressed on one by the size of their feet) and it 
is said by Kayans that they are capable of walking in one day 
what other people would take two days to accomplish. This 
I can quite believe, as all getting about having to take place 
on foot they are naturally very adept and hardy at this 
method of progress. They have however absolutely no idea of 
paddling or using a boat, and when they were first brought 
down to the Government station at Claudetown, and saw the 
Baram River, they sat down in the bottom of the Kayan canoes 
and burst out crying, having never seen such an enormous 
volume of water before. 

As a lot of these people had just moved into the head of 
the Tutau River I determined to proceed by this route, although 
it meant crossing the Mulu Range of hills. 

On the third day of my departure from the Government 
Station at Claudetown I picked up Dyau Blawing, the Kenyan 

joar. Straits Branch B. A. Soc, No. 49, 19U7. 


chief who was going to escort me on my journey. After 
leaving his house, we proceeded on up the Tutau River till we 
reached the Tepin River. 

Here the river becomes impracticable for boats on account 
of rapids, so the next day we started climbing up the hills, 
which flank the river. We were met by a party of Punans, 
the wild people who live in the jungle, who had been called by 
Dyau Blawing to show us the route over the hills. The going 
was very bad and fatiguing, as we had to clamber up and 
down the spurs of Mt. Mulu until mid-day, when we reached 
the foot of a hill called Bukit Sigerun Sigop, called so by the 
Punans on account of the wild tobacco growing there (Sigop 
being the Punan name for tobacco). We did not reach the 
summit of this hill till 5 o'clock in the evening when we must 
have been at least 5,000 feet up. I decided to encamp here 
for the night, as we were all very tired and hungry. Cooking 
was managed with difficulty as there was no water to be found 
near the summit. It was lucky for us we had the Punans with 
us, as they soon produced some liquid, which they had found 
in a pig's bathing place and which therefore did not look veiy 
appetising ; still beggars cannot be choosers, so we had to 
make the best of it. It was bitterly cold all the night. 

The next morning we started on the descent, and 
when the mists had cleared away the view was perfectly 
magnificent. At our feet in what seemed a crack in the hills, 
flowed the Tutau River whilst all round hills towered up to some 
thousands of feet. At midday we got through the range of 
hills and from a spur had a still more beautiful view. Right 
in front of us was the Kalabit country laid out like a map, 
and as this tableland is comparatively flat, we could see for 
miles and miles. Away to our right to the South, were the 
hills in which rise the Pata and Akar rivers, tributaries of the 
Baram. In front of us rose up Mts. Pamabo and Murud, which 
separate the head waters of the Baram River from the Trusan ; 
whilst on our left were the ranges which separate the Tutau 
and Limbang waters. 

In the afternoon we reached the Tutau River again at Long 
Taoh and the next day continued our journey in some canoes 

Jour, Straits Branch. 



we found there. We then branched off up, a tributary called the 
Magoh and on the second day from leaving Long Taoh reached 
the first Kalabit villages at the mouth of a small stream called 
the Seridan. On our arrival we were saluted with salvoes of 
firing from muskets and bedils and tremendous cheering, to 
which we retaliated to the best of our ability. The chief Hi 
Bawang received us at the landing place and a sort of 
triumphal procession was made up to the house, where my 
escort were regaled with * borak ' (rice beer) and smokes, to 
refresh them after the fatigues of the journey. 

The people of this village, who numbered some two 
hundred souls, had quite recently moved here from near the 
headwaters of the Trusan, and their chief, Hi Bawang, had 
evidently taken a lesson from the dimensions of the long 
Kavan houses in the Baram River as he had constructed a 
splendid house on a scale hitherto unattempted by Kalabits, 
whose dwellings are generally veritable hovels. 

I append a sketch of the ground plan of the house. 





Private Room. 

L B l±J B J 

Private Room. 

rasa age. 


Private Room. 










A Fireplace. 
B Sleeping Bot. 

A wall divided the house in two lengthwise ; the front 
half was a wide verandah of about 20 feet whilst the back 
part was divided up into rooms, each family having a separate 
room. The dividing wall however did not extend to the back 
wall of the house, as they do in Kayan and Dyak houses, thui 

R. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


leaving a passage, by which communication could be kept up 
from one end of the house to the other, without it being neces- 
sary to come out into the common verandah. This passage I 
found was used by the women, who did not appear in the 
verandah except on special occasions. In the centre of the 
middle wall was erected an enormous fireplace and on either 
side of this was a sort of kennel, in which the married 
couples slept. These were not walled in on the side next the 
fireplace, so as to get all the warmth possible, but of course as 
there was no chimney, they also got their full amount of smoke, 
and soot. The cold at night quite warranted these people 
desiring a close proximity to the fire, and I found also that a 
plunge into the river in the morning seemed as icy and as 
exhilarating as a cold bath in England. 

The next day all the Kalabits collected from the villages 
round to the number of five or six hundred, and a grand feast 
was held ; a buffalo and nine pigs were killed. I must admit 
that although the feast was a fearful orgy, still I could not help 
admiring the thoroughness with which these people enjoyed the 
meal. They began to eat at about noon and did not stop doing 
so until the evening and then only because there was nothing 
more to eat. All that was left of that buffalo were its horns 
and leg bones, which even Kalabit indigestion seemed to shy 
at. The skin I found was being eaten with the hair still on 
and evidently relished. Of the pigs nothing was left at all. 

The meal being finished, some twenty jars of ' borak ' 
were produced and a drinking bout was started, which lasted 
till day-light. Whilst this was going on, all the women, attiring 
themselves in their best clothes and ranging themselves in a 
long line one behind the other, clasping the shoulders of the 
one in front, began to march round the house, up the verandah 
and down the passage at the back and then out into the 
verandah again. The leader of this procession suddenly 
burst forth into song, whilst the others joined in the chorus, 
keeping time with their feet. Although their voices were 
rather raucous, still the song had a weird plaintive air, which 
was decidedly fascinating, and to which the smoky torches and 
wild faces made an impressive ' mise-en-scene' The song was 

Jour, strait* Branch 


i -I 


a historical recitation of the brave deeds done by their fore- 
fathers in the days of yore down to the present time, when they 
first came into touch with Europeans and the Government. 
The rhythm gradually got faster and faster until the march be- 
came a quick-step and then a double, whilst the soloist kept 
time by beating the floor with a stick. Presently the men got 
carried away with enthusiasm and joined on to the line behind, 
until there must have been a procession of over a hundred 
performers careering round the house, shouting the choruses 
at the top of their voices, but all keeping tune and time. The 
song then suddenly ceased, and the men returned to their 
drinking and the women to their duties in the rooms. 

The next morning I went and visited the villages near by, 
but was not much impressed by their appearance as the hduses 
seemed horrid dirty hovels. At one of these villages I saw 
the people having a rat hunt. All the men, women and 
children armed with sticks were engaged in turning over the 
heaps of rubbish and filth accumulated under the house in 
search of the wily rodent, which is considered a great delicacy 
bv the Ka la bits. Whenever a rat was seen, there was a 
tremendous * view halloa' and the whole crowd flung them- 
selves violently into the chase, frequently whacking one 
another in their attempts to slaj their prey. They also lay 
very ingenious traps made of bamboo and rattan, all over their 
houses to catch them. 

I was verv much struck with the industry of the women : 
they never seem to stop working and never shield themselves 
from the sun bv means of sun-hats or head handkerchiefs. 
They wear a short skirt reaching to the knee just like the Dyak 
women. They are great smokers and aie continually using a 
sort of brass cigarette holder, into which they stuff" a little 
tobacco and puff away for a few minutes. 

These people store their paddy in one large hut, which is 
raised off the ground some six feet, to prevent rats and other 
pests climbing up. Inside, this hut is divided into separate 
rooms for the different owners. 

That night another meeting was held and all the different 
chiefs proclaimed their loyalty to the Sarawak Government. 

R. A. *»e.. No. 4i>. l«U7. 

. ■ r 


Dyau Blawing then toasted the Kalabit chief Hi Bawang 
to the rousing tune of the Kayan drinking song which with its 
rolling chorus was much appreciated by the Kalabits. Opportu- 
nity is taken during these extempore songs to tell the in- 
dividual who is toasted the customs of civilized Government 
and to make certain trite remarks as to his former life and 
conduct, which he must now reform. 

After this was over they settled themselves down to 
drinking, in which occupation every night was spent during 
our visit there. I noticed that when a drink was offered to any 
man, all the people near by caught hold of the arm of the 
giver, those further off catching hold of the arms of those 
nearer, thus making the drink appear to come from all of them 
and so the harder to refuse. If a chief was being offered one 
it often happened that some thirty or forty persons would collect 
round him to assist in forcing the liquor down his throat. 

The Kalabits were the most generous of hosts, and whilst 
we stayed with them we wanted for nothing in the way of 
food, and every day presents of fowls, eggs, sugarcane and 
sweet potatoes were brought to us. They seemed genuinely 
pleased to see us and compared favourably their life under the 
Government to their former one further in the interior, with its 
constant alarms of war and rumours of war. 

On the fourth day I received their poll tax, and, as dollars 
or coins of any sort were unknown in these regions, it had to be 
paid in rubber ; every married man therefore paid in three 
katties of rubber. 

The next day we started on our return journey. We 
were escorted down to the landing place by the whole popula- 
tion, and amidst the banging of guns and repeated expressions 
of * au revoir * and wishes for a safe journey, and the usual 
accompaniment of cheering, we started down-river. 

Our return was very different from the journey up ; there 
was no hard poling and pulling up rapids, for with our experi- 
enced boatmen, these were shot with ease in quick succession. 

At midday we reached the mouth of the Magoh River and 
here I had arranged for a meeting of all the Punan tribes who 
range through the dense jungle round here. We found about 

Jour. Straits Branch 


fifty of these strange wild people awaiting our arrival. They 
live entirely on the produce of the jungle. Wild sago and 
fruit constitute the greater part of their food. When they 
find a clump of wild sago they encamp there until it is finished 
and then move on in search of more. They work the sago in 
the usual way by felling the trunk and then splitting it in two, 
then the pith is scooped out with a piece of bamboo tied on to 
the end of a stick. The end of the bamboo is scraped until it 
presents a sharp edge which easily works through the soft 

Their chief weapon of offence and defence is the deadly 
blowpipe, from which they shoot out poisoned darts. With 
these they kill pig and deer, and even rhinoceros have been 
known to die from the effects. 

We spent the night at Long Taoh, as Dyau Blawing had 
decided to attempt to shoot the rapids below here, the water 
being just the right height to enable us to do so ; as if the 
water is too high the waves are so big that a canoe could not 
stand them ; whilst if the water is too low the sharp edged 
rocks show up, making it too dangerous to proceed. 

This was a great piece of luck, as it saved us making the 
ascent of Bukit Sigerun Sigop again, and thereby we gained 
a day, to say nothing of escaping the trouble and labour of the 
climb. Besides this we had the exciting experience of shoot- 
ing the dangerous rapids through the gorge, about which I had 
heard so much : and was glad of having the chance of seeing 

We started early the next morning and soon got to the 
mouth of the gorge, where two spurs of the mountains, one 
from each side, run down to the river and form a narrow gate- 
away about twenty yards broad. As the river above this place is 
about a hundred yards in width, it can be imagined the pace at 
which the water pours through this narrow neck. We held 
on to the rocks here whilst the appearance of the water below 
was examined. It was a wonderful sight looking down the 
gorge. The river ran pretty straight at first and one could 
see for about a mile the water pouring down between cliffs, 
which rose perpendicular to the height of two "or three hundred 

R. A. Hoc., No. 49, 1W7. 


feet. The man in the bow of the canoe, apparently being 
satisfied with the state of the water, pronounced that the 
passage was possible and with a final injunction to sit still and 
hold tight, we let go and started off. Then ensued one of the 
most exciting times I have ever experienced. For five 
hours we simply Hew down between those cliffs, without a 
single stroke of the paddle to assist us, except a quick touch 
every now and then from the men in the bows and stern to keep 
the boat straight or to avoid a rock or whirlpool. It was 
breathless work and nobody seemed inclined to speak, but all 
attention seemed to be strained as to what was going to 
appear round this corner or that rock. On we dashed between 
those grim cliffs on which there was absolutely no foothold 
to be gained if the boat happened to upset. It gave one the 
idea of what one would imagine the river Lethe (Long 
Balek Mati, the River of Death, as the Kayans call it) 
to be like ; although the sun was shining brightly above us still 
it was chilly and dull down in the gorge between the grey lime- 
stone cliffs, whilst the mountains towered thousands of feet 
above us, and absolute silence reigned, except for the hiss of 
the rushing waters; and no sign of life was visible. 

Just before noon a small cleft in the cliffs on the left bank 
appeared, where the Maap stream tumbles down a valley be- 
tween the hills and manages to burst its way through the rocks. 
This being the first place when it was possible to obtain a foot- 
hold, we got out and ate a hurried lunch, the water and weather 
being closely watched, as a heavy shower of rain would have 
caused the river to rise several feet and we should have 
been caught in a trap, unable to proceed up or down-river. 
Happily luck was still with us, and having finished our meal, we 
continued our career downstream. After about an hour we 
heard the roar of waves, which warned us that we were 
approaching a large rapid, and we quickly pulled into the 
bank, where, luckily, the cliffs were broken down, and, the 
pilot having pronounced that it was impossible to shoot 
this rapid, we carried all our luggage and hauled our canoes 
over the rocks to a place below the rapid. This proved 
very hard work as some of the rocks were thirty to forty 

Jour. Straits Branch 


feet high, ami in one place where there was no way between 
the rocks, we had to pull the boats up the perpendicular face 
and let them down again the other side, dangling onto the ends 
of rattans. This process was repeated four times before we 
got through the gorge and reached our old encampment at 
Long Tepin, so it can be understood that we were very hungrv 
and tired. 

Each one of us, I think, heaved u sigh of relief when we 
got through the gorge and had left those gi im grey cliffs be- 
hind ; and for myself I am sure that, although the journey was 
a unique and exciting experience, still 1 have no immediate wish 
to repeat it. The grimness and solitude to which I have already 
referred were too awe-inspiring to make it exactly enjoyable. 
How it affected my followers was shown by the fact that, al- 
though the Kenyahs are iuveterate smokers and are never 
without a cigarette between their lips, not one of them had 
touched tobacco the whole of that day. 

What also struck me was the terrifie pace at which the 
water ran through the gorge, and although I have been up 
rapids in the Baram Kiverand up all its larger tributaries, still 
I have never seen the pace equalled. It is accounted for by the 
fact that the greater portion of the gorge is never more than 
about 40 yards broad, and the cliffs on either side are*worn so 
smooth that there is absolutely no resistance aquainst this large 
volume of water. The natives aptly resemble it to " pouring 
water through a bamboo." When we had reached Long Taoh, 
we were much troubled with the rubber which I had received 
as tax from] the Kalabits, as it loaded the canoes down too much 
to enable them to go safely through the gorge. Dyau Blawing 
persuaded me to allow them to despatch it in the way they sent 
their rubber through, when they had been trading with the 
Puuans. I reluctantly agreed, and it was immediately strung 
piece by piece on to a long rattan until it made a huge rope 
about f>0 yards long ; it was then wound up in a gigantic ball 
about 9 feet in diameter, just like one winds up a ball of 
worsted. Just before we started this ball of rubber was pushed 
into mid-stream ; Dyau Blawing promising that I should find it 
on the morrow ashore on a gravel bank near the Iman River. 

R. A. Sot., No. 49, 1907. 


On our passage through the gorge nothing had been seen of the 
rubber, so my anxiety was great. But on the morning after leav- 
ing Long Tepin, we reached Long Iman, and there, sure enough, 
on the gravel bank was the ball of rubber which proved to be 
none the worse for its rapid voyage. I was assured that this 
had been done hundreds of times with rubber and it always 
fetched up at Long Iman, even if it was occasionally detained 
by rocks or whirlpools. Once a ball of rubber stuck in the 
gorge for 6 months and its owners gave it up for lost ; but it 
eventually turned up rather battered and broken at Long 

From here homewards there was nothing of interest in my 
journey, and after leaving Dyau Blawing and his escort at their 
village, I proceeded on and reached Claudetown after an 
absence of seventeen days, the return journey having only 
taken four days. 

It. 8. Douglas. 

Note : — The term * Lung ' which is used, is a Kayan word meaning the 
mouth of a river. Thus Long Taoh and so forth. 


Journal 4S. Plate I. 

Notes on the capture of a rare Leathery 

Turtle {'Dermochelys coriacea) in 

Johore waters. 

C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. 

Whilst residing at Johore Bahru in 190."> a specimen of 
rhe rare Leathery Turtle (Dcrmoch'lys coriucea t L.) was 
brought to uie by Malay fishermen who had found the reptile 
entangled in their fishing stakes at Kanipong Batu Jawa in the 
Johore Strait on March 1 1th of that year. 

According to their account of its capture, for several days 
previously, the screens and nets of their kelony had been 
broken and torn by some unknown agency that at length, at 
day-break of that morning, proved to be an immense turtle of 
a kind unknown to them which had entangled itself beyond 
escape in the material of the damaged fis-h-trap. For a time 
they were at a loss to know how to dispose of their unwieldy 
capture, but finally brought out a large lighter which, filling 
with water, they sank beneath the turtle ; then by baling out 
the water, the latter was soon reposing on the bottom of the 
dry boat, where unfortunately it shortly expired and was left 
exposed to the heat of the sun's rays until it reached me at 
three o'clock in the afternoon. 

Getting it ashore was an operation of some difficulty for 
it was impossible to grip the creature in any way, and it was 
not until I had collected a gang of ten Chinese coolies fur- 
nished with poles and ropes that it was finally lifted from the 
boat and up the steps of the sea-wall. 

The weight of this turtle — a male — I estimated as be- 
tween nine hundred and one thousand pounds and the principal 
measurements taken were as follows. 

Total length in straight line from tip of 

head to tip of tail ... ... ... 234 cms. (7 ft. 8 in.) 

Extreme breadth of carapace ... ... 84 ,, (2 ft. 9 in.) 

,, ,, between tips of extend- 
ed llippers 240 „ (7 ft. 10 hi. 

Jour. Straits Branch B. A. Sue, No. 49, 1907. 


In colour the upper surface was black, mottled with pinky 
white, while the lower parts were principally yellowish, scantily 
blotched with dark brown. 

The carapace and plastron presented a mosaic-like appear 
ance; the remaining parts were covered with smooth skin, 
that of the head being entirely free from shields of any nature 
as is sometimes reported. 

The contents of the stomach consisted mainly of small 
fishes, prawns and other crustaceans, mixed with a lesser 
amount of different vegetable substances. 

So little is this turtle known locally that it was some time 
before I could obtain a name for it, but at length the word 
" kambau " was given mq with the additional information that 
the term also applied to anything slow or sleepy, such as a 
prau in a calm, or light head-wind. 

Various circumstances, besides its already somewhat 
putrid state, prevented me from preserving this valuable 
specimen in its entirety, but early on the following morning 
[ obtained a number of prisoners from the gaol and with their 
help got out the skeleton. The flesh, though said to be of a 
rank and unpleasant flavour, was eagerly begged for by 
numerous Chinese as soon as stripped from the carcase. The 
novel appearance and huge size of the reptile were causes of 
much attraction, and all the afternoon during which it was 
lying on the sea-front, it was a centre for crowds of interested 

Though the species is widely distributed through tropical 
seas (and is occasionally noted outside such areas) I know of 
only one other example captured in our locality, and this — a 
much smaller specimen — was forwarded to the Raffles Museum, 
where it is now exhibited, by Mr. A. M. Skinner who obtained 
it at Tanjong Katong, Singapore, in 1884. The Johore speci- 
men may therefore take rank as the second recorded capture 
in this part of the Malayan soas. 

A full account of the anatomy of the Leathery Turtle, 
based on the investigation of a small Japanese specimen, 
appeared in a receut number of the P. Z. S. (1905, Vol. I 
Pt. II) but my photographs of this locally-obtained individual 

Jour. Straits Braneh 


Journal 48. Plate II. 

t~ ^^^^^^By 

! aw 

"*:»? J 

' * 



Pil& ; «V' 



Journal 48. Plate HI, 

Malayan Pigs. 

A Recent Zoological Paper. 
Q. S. Miller's " Notes on Malayan Pigs." 

By C. Bodbn Klo8s, f. z. s. 

One of the most recent of publications dealing with the 
fauna of the Oriental region is a most interesting and valuable 
paper by Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, which throws a fresh light on 
the varieties and distribution of the pigs of the Malayan area. 

" Notes on Malayan Pigs " * is based on a quite unique 
collection of 62 specimens from the Malayan Peninsula and 
Islands, presented to the U. S. National Museum by Dr. W. 
L. Abbott, and a small contribution of 4 specimens obtained in 
Johore by myself. In addition to having all this material to 
work upon Mr. Miller has also examined the types and collec- 
tions in the Natural History Museums at Berne, Berlin, Leyden 
and London. 

Excluding the Javan species (as not being yet represented 
in the U. S. N. M. collection) the pigs of Western Malaya are 
broadly defined as belonging to one or the other of three groups 
typified as the Barbatus group, the Crist at us group and the 
Vittatus group. 

In the first group, the " bearded pigs," of greatest local 
interest perhaps is Sus oi, Miller, the species which occurs in 
the Suraatran area, and is, so far, known from the swampy 
plains of south-eastern Sumatra, from Banka and from the 
Khio Archipelago, where, inhabiting Pulo Battam, it most 
closely approaches the Straits Settlements. 

The other members are Sus barbatus, Mailer, of Borneo, 
with which Mr. Miller finds Sus longirostris, Nehring, to be 

* Proceedings of The United States National Museum, Vol. XXX 
pages 737-758, with PlateB XXXIX— LXIV. 

Jew. Straits Branch B. A. Soc., No. 49, 19U7. 


synonymous, and a new species, Sus gargantua, founde J by Mr. 
Miller on the skull of a young adult male from south-eastern 
Borneo. This, besides being the largest of known living pigs 
(upper length of skull of young adult 570 mm., of old S. 
barbatus 510 mm.), is further distinguished by having its ex- 
tremely low occipital region produced backwards to a degree 
quite unknown in others of the group. 

The members of the Cristatus group are confined to the 
mainland and the near-by islands. It has long been thought 
that the wild pig of the Peninsula was the same as the Sum 
cristatus y Wagner, of India proper and when writing a note on 
the Sumatran Stcs oi for the Journal (No. 45, p. 60), I stated 
that " only one species of wild pig is at present known to occur 
in the Malay Peninsula and that is the animal regarded as 
identical with Sus cristatus of India," but it appears that the 
animal ranging from Tower Tenasserim southwards must now 
be separated from the Indian form. It is now described under 
the name of Sus jubatus ; and to a form from Pulo Teratau, and 
perhaps other islands off the west coast of the Peninsula, that is 
like jubatus but not as large, Mr. Miller has given the name 
jubatulus. It is unfortunate however that in making into a 
separate species an animal that inhabits a shoal-water island 
situated close to the mainland, the author has only one example 
to work upon. 

The pigs of the Vittatus group are purely insular except 
one new species from the southern extremity of the Malay Penin- 
sula. They range from the Andamans and Nicobars in the west 
to the Nat unas in the east. The typical Sus vittatus, Muller 
and Schlegel, inhabits the mainland of Sumatra and the Rhio 
Archipelago form now becomes a separate species under the 
name of rhionis. The largest known member of the group, 
which is specially interesting as inhabiting the Asiatic main- 
land (so that the Peninsula is now found to possess at least two 
peculiar pigs), occurs in Johore. This is Sus peninsularis and 
presumably the pig of Singapore Island is of this species also. 

The remaining species of this group are widely distributed. 
On Pulo Nias, on Pulo Babi together with Pulo Tuanku and 
lastly on Pulo Simalu, all islands of the West Sumatra chain, 

Jour. Straiti Bruch 


are found respectively Sum ttuffrtut*, Sus babi and Stis mimus 
all described for the first time. The animal that occurs in the 
islands of the Xatunas between the Peninsula and Borneo is 
Sum natunetisis. Miller, while Sus nicoboricus* Miller, is known 
as yet by specimens from Great Nicobar Island only. The 
smallest member of the group — smaller even than nicobaricus or 
mtmttf, is Sus andamancmis, Blyth. from the Andaman Islands. 
The paper contains full descriptions, keys and measure- 
ments, and is illustrated by many plates (amongst which are 
reproductions of a mounted &<£ barbattis), of mandibular teeth 
and skulls in various aspects, all of which greatly facilitate 
the identification of the different species. 

Mantra Gajah. 

By W. George Maxwell. 

In an article, which I contributed to the Society's Journal 
No. 45, and in which I gave a translation of a book of charms 
used by Malay elephant-drivers, I mentioned that I had in my 
possession another book of similar charms. 

It consists of six sheets of stout paper, sewn down the 
middle so as to make a small book of twelve sheets or twenty- 
four pages. The outer cover has been stained a rich chocolate 
colour by the moisture of warm and perhaps not over clean 
hands and by the smoke of the fire-places over which the 
Malays keep, in hanging racks, the articles which they wish to 
preserve from damp. There is nothing in the book or on its 
cover to give any idea of its age, and Mat Jawi, the Assistant 
Penghulu of Kuala Plus, who gave it to me, could only say, in 
general terms, that it was old, and that it had been in his 
family for a long time. Mat Jawi is the grandson of the for- 
mer Orang Kay a kaya Sri Adika Raja, and, as the book of which 
I have already given a translation is expressly stated to 
contain the hereditary lore " that has come down from the 
Datohs Sri Adika Raja unto the present day," it is only to be 
expected that the charms set forth in the two books should 
closely resemble one another. This book begins abruptly 
without an introduction of any kind, and ends even more 
abruptly by reason of the available space on the paper being 
exhausted. In the last line, the writer started to give a charm 
to soften the heart of an elephant, and then, seeing that he had 
no more paper, scratched it out, and scribbled under it 
44 tamat " " the end." 

I here reproduce the book in its entirety in " roman " 
characters. I have not attempted to edit it in any way, of 
such part of it as is Malay no translation is necessary, and of 
such part of it as is not Malay I am unable to give a transla- 
tion. I am inclined to think that the non-Malay charms are 
nothing but a corrupt form of Siamese, and to ascribe to 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


them a much more recent period than I had suggested in my 
first article. 

It is impossible to say when the Siamese first came down 
the Peninsula in search of elephants. Their own country has 
always been richly stocked with elephants ; and at this day, 
from all accounts, there roam through the forests, in a semi- 
wild condition, herds of these great animals for which there is 
little or no commercial use. It is unlikely, therefore, that the 
Siamese should, at any early period, have gone far afield in 
search of animals for which there was but little demand in 
their own country ; unless, of course, the search was one that 
was being made for the sacred white elephant. 

It was perhaps not until the development of India and 
Burmah caused a demand for elephants for state ceremonies 
and for business purposes, and created a trade between Siam and 
these countries, that the Malay Peninsula was laid under contri- 
bution to supply elephants. 

This trade in elephants was particularly referred to by 
Gemelli Gareri, who in 1695 went from Goa to Malacca. He 
wrote in his " Giro del Mondo " (Vol. III. pp. 358, 359) an 
account, which is translated in Churchill's Voyages, Vol. IV- 
p. 284, as follows : — " all the country of Malacca, Cam bay a 
" Siam, Ciampa, Cocincinna and Tunchin abounds in elephants 
14 of which the Siamese particularly make a great trade, carry- 
" ing them by land to the opposite coast and port of Tena- 
" zarin, belonging to the King of Siam, near the Gulf of Bengaia, 
" where merchants buy to transport them by sea into the 
" dominions of Mahometan princes.'* 

The extent to which this trade in elephants grew is shewn 
in the records of the India Office. The following notices of 
ships with elephants arriving at the port of Masulipatam, from 
Tenasserim alone, are taken from the Diary and Consultation 
Book of that factory.* 

April 25 1680 A ship with elephants 
May 3 1680 A ship with 16 
April_ 21_1681 _„ „ „ 13 

* Anderson's " English Intercourse with Siam in the Seventeenth 
Century" p f 20. 

Jotir. Strata Br*ne}t 









15 i 















• i 








































The Siamese who ransacked the Malay Peninsula to 
supply this surprising demand for elephants probably used the 
Mantra Gajah that are recorded in these manuscripts. But 
whether it was in the Seventeenth Century that the Malays 
learnt these Mantras, or whether their acquisition of this lore 
dates from a period before it or after it, can, until further 
information on the subject is forthcoming, only be matter for 

Mantra Gajah. 

Bab ini hendak tiup tentang atau di-bacha pada batu di- 
limpar-kan pada gajah itu. 
Ini-lah di-kata-nya 

Om kundanga ding kundanga sai teluwang tekulin dipin- 
tai rambut teluling di-hadapan tibalulon kakanan tibalulun 
kakiri sikab piah nenek-mu. 

Ilai gajah aku tahu asal angkau mula menjadi, 
Merkubulia ka-mulia asal mu, 
Kau turut kata, 
Jika tiada turut kata ku, 
Mati di-bunoh Sri Kama; 
Jika angkau turut kata ku 
Di-hidupi uleh Maha Risi. Kul. 
Ini melembut-kan hati gajah di-bacha pada tebu tiga krat 
Ini-lah kata-nya, 

Om darang muka-nya darang darang lang-li muka-nya 
langli telon changku kan kusa mu hati-ku akan chucha-mu 
lidah kau akan sangkal mu tendurong kakanan tenduron kakiri 
tundok chinta kapada aku puah rab, 

It, A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


Bab ini buang hantu rimba. Ini kata-nya. 
Om berang berat pikat pikau rambin perai siah pindah 
leku turun luwai bantu rimba puab rengab. Fada tiga likur 
bulan Safar pada bari malam kbamis, ini pematah hati gajah 
barang biut-nya mau katahui asal-nya kata-nya. 
Hai Adam lemit aku tahu asal mu, 
Allah Tuhan mu, 
Nabi Muhammad penghulu mu, 
Siti Hawa nama ibu mu, 
Nan Pachi nama mu, 
Jusan nama aku, 

Jangan angkau derhaka pada aku, 
Jika angkau derhaka kapada aku, 
Sarupa angkau derhaka kapada Piarawan. 
Fasal pada menyata-kan segala ubat penyakit gajah. Per- 
tama ini ubat besar deripada Pijang, pertama ambil akar pe- 
sambu dan daun-nya, dan pesambu kayu ambil akar-nya, dan 
daun-nya, dan akar chanerai hitam, dan akar chichir, dan akar 
pianggu, dan akar pulai, dan akar rotan dini, dan akar rotan 
tela war, dan akar tutop bumi, dan akar panggai panggai, dan 
akar jerun, dan akar kuchai, dan akar gelenggang, dan akar 
kedudok dan akar paku, dan akar tarn bun tahi, dan akar 

Bab ini pa till kusa ; ambil daun kekiat segenggam, herat 
gosokkan pada kapala gajah dengan kusa-nya sakali. 

Bab ini ubat tuai, maka ambil sampah yang lekat kapada 
kayu yang ter-gerak-gerak di-ayer itu, maka per-habu harang 
buboh mi n yak, maka sapu-kan pada ekor gajah itu. 

Bab ini ubat gajah tiada mau bernang, maka ambil ki- 
ambang, maka per-habu harang buboh minyak maka sapu-kan 
kapada gumba-nya, dan piah-nya kiri kanan. 

Bab ini ubat gajah tiada mau tidor di-ayer maka ambil 
lumut yang lekat di-pangkal-pangkal prahu orang, maka per- 
habu harang maka buboh minyak, maka sapu-kan pada gumba- 
nya dan piah-nya kiri kanan. 

Bab ini ubat membuang geli gajah, maka ambil ulun 
merah sa-genggam herat, maka gosokkan kapada gumba-nya, 
dan piah-nya kiri kanan. 

Jour. Strait* Braucfe 


Bab ini ubat gajahiya-itu maka ambil daun labu yang 
naik pada nimah orang, maka mengambil dia itu churi jangan 
di-tahu uleh tuan-nya, dan timba perigi orang itu pun churi 
juga, maka per-habu harang maka bubok minyak gosokkan 
pada belalai-nya. 

Bab ini ubat pel am but hati gajah, maka ambil asin asin 
sa-genggam herat, maka gosokkan pada piah-nya kiri kanan. 

Bab ini ubat orang kena chemahang, maka ambil getah 
merbau yang muntah-kan darah ambil dengan tanah-nya sakali 
dan chemara putri dan mempalas dan ay or buku kayu dan 
aver kubang babi, maka ram as sakelian-nya itu maka limau- 
kan kapada orang yang kena chemahang itu 'afiat uleh-nya. 

Bab ini ubat gajah kena kesar api ambil akar jenjuang 
merah dan ambil umbut tebrau dan daun limau nipis dan 
maswi bawang merah kunyit terus dan lada sulah, maka 
mamah dengan sirih pinang, maka sembor tujoh petang 'afiat. 

Bab ini ubat gajah kesar ambil akar bunga raia dan akar 
jerangau mamah dengan sirih pinang sembor tiga petang 'afiat. 

Bab ini ubat gajah sakit perut chirit, ambil kulit pauh 
dan buah asam jawa, dan kulit kebantong dan kulit jambu 
aver, dan kulit sena dan langkinang atau kulit-nya sakelian- 
nya itu di-tumbok lumat-lumat beri makan gajah itu serta 
dengan garam siam 'afiat. 

Bab ini ubat gajah makan tanah, ambil chaching dan 
tanah iembah ; ad a pun chaching itu di-rendang dahulu sudah 
itu champur dengan tanah Iembah itu, makan beri makan 
gajah itu tiga petang 'afiat. 

Bab ini ubat gajah bengkak kaki-nya atau tuboh-nya, 
ambil halia dan kunyit dan limping dan kunyit terus, maka 
giling lumat-lumat buboh garam siam maka hangat-kan pada 
api chamur-kan kapada gajah itu barang tiga petang 'afiat. 

Bab ini ubat gajah ter-salah, ambil daun gelenggang dan 
daun raminggu dan daun asin, asin semua-nya itu rendang 
kring kring buboh minyak buboh di-dalam tempurong hangat- 
kan pada api, maka chamur-kan pada gajah sakit itu barang 
tiga petang atau tiga hari 'afiat. 

Bab ini ubat henduk beri gemok, ambil kulit badak dan 
garam siam maka rendam-kan kulit badak itu dan garam siam 

ft. A. 9oc. f No. <9, 1907. 


itu kapada ayer madu, maka beri minum gajah itu barang 
tiga had. 

Bab ini ubat gajah hendak gemok maka ambil buah 
pedindang dan garam siam, maka rendam-kan pada ayer madu 
beri minum gajah itu barang tiga had. 

Bab ini ubat tiada mahu tram, maka ambil akar kuchai 
yang jantan makan dengan sirih pinang sembur kapada segala 
siku gajah itu barang tiga had. 

Bab ini ubat gajah mata ber-ayer, maka ambil buah 
mating bakar hangus hangus, maka asah dengan ayer limau 
nipis, maka buboh pada mata gajah itu. 

Bab ini ubat tiada patih kusa, ambil amas dan perak dan 
tembaga dan besi, maka rendam pada ayer maka mandi-kan 
kapada kepala gaja itu serta dengan kusa-nya barang tiga 

Bab ini ubat membunoh segala penyakit di-dalam perut 
gajah, maka ambil terong perat yang masak dan lengkuas 
padang dan garam siam dan kulit melak, maka kita belah terong 
itu dan lengkuas itu tumbok lumat lumat maka kita buboh di- 
dalam tebu atau pisang, maka kita beri makan gajah itu 
barang tiga had. 

Bab ini ubat gajah melenggang, ambil akar gelenggang dan 
akar terong asam, maka makan dengan sirih pinang sembur- 
kan kapada gumba-nya dan pipi-nya kid kanan lalu pada buah 
anchar-nya kid kanan barang tiga petang. 

Bab ini ubat pengasih gajah yang liar akan gajah jinak 
maka ambil akar tutup bumi maka kita makan dengan sidh 
pinang, maka kita semburkan kapada dahi gajah kita dan 
gumba-nya dan pipi-nya kid kanan dan telinga-nya maka 
lepas-kan-lah gajah kita itu. 

Bab ini ubat gajah kena kesar ayer, ambil jenjuang puteh 
umbut-nya dan kulit bonglai dan kunyit terus, maswi bawang 
merah dan lad a sulah, maka sembur saperti dahulu juga. 

Bab ini akan jarang karang ambil buah kabong dan pisang 
benggala dan umbut chiru maka tumbok lumat lumat rendam 
di-dalam pasu jaram-kan kepala gajah itu. Ini-lah mantra- 

Om kat ti-u tawi sak, 

Jour. Straitt Branch 


Bab ini ubat gajah beri pulang sendiri, ainbil tungku 
rumab orang tinggal dan tangga-nya dan bendul-nya maka beri 
makan gajah itu dengan tebu barang tujoh had. 

Bab ini ubat kena besir, ambil kunyit terus hitam dan 
put eh, dan tanah lembah yang hitam dan umbut terau, maswi, 
bawang merah, lada sulah, maka masok kapada tebu atau 
pisang maka beri makan. 

Bab ini ubat gajah hendak goinok ambil tomakol dan 
pusat buaia ben makan gajah itu di-dalam aver Iiingga lem- 
bong perut-nya serta garam siam dan kapada bulan tiga-belas 
atau lima-belas sudah-nya temakol dengan kulit buaia itu 
jemor kering kering. 

Bab ini ubat gajah tiada mahu makan maka ambil leng- 
kuas dan akar pisang pisang tumbok lumat lumat, maka beri 
makan serta garam siam. 

Bab ini ubat gajah hendak gomok, ambil patawali dan 
akar terong perat dan akar terong pipit dan akar terong asam 
dan akar mentajam chinchang lumat lumat serta garam siam 
rendam kapada bekas, maka beri minum gajah itu. Sabagai 
lagi ubat gajah gemok ambil jenjuang besar dan jenjuang puteh 
dan akar betik dan akar mentajam, maka beri makan serta 
garam siam. 

Bab ini ubat gajah sojuk kena penyakit, ambil akar terong 
asam dan akar rotan dini dan akar chekor jerangau dan akar 
jenjuang merah dan akar kunyit terus dan bawang merah 
lada sulah, makan dengan sirih pinang sembur kapada selerah 
tuboh gajah itu. 

Bab ini jika gajah kona sakit hangat ambil daun tetawar 
dan akar nior dan akar tebu betong dan akar jenjuang puteh 
dan akar chiru dan akar rotan tetawar mamah dengan sirih 
pinang sembur selerah tuboh gajah itu. 

Bab ini ubat gajah kesar ambil buah kayu yang lekat 
pada pasir merah warna-nya, beri makan serta garam siam 
barang tiga ban. Danlagi ubat kesar ambil daun sunting 
hantu dan daun mentajam dan daun pinang tumbok buboh 
kapor tuhor bedak-kan pada tuboh gajah itu barang tiga hari. 

Bab ini ubat membunoh biar di-dalam perut gajah, maka 
ambil sendawa dan jemuju kharsani beri makan gajah itu 'afiat. 

B. A. Sot., No. 49, 1907. 


Bab ini fasal pada menyatakan nama penyakit gajah. 
Per-tania-tama, jika bengkak hujong belalai gajah itu, 

Mersud nama penyakit, 
Dan jika bengkak di-bawah dagu-nya, 

Merchun nama penyakit, 
Dan jika bengkak gumba-nya, 

Mertab nama penyakit, 
Dan jika bengkak mata-nya, 
Mer-ka-but nama-nya, 
Dan jika bengkak pada telinga-nya, 

Keron nama penyakit, 
Dan jika bengkak di-dalam perut-nya, 

Morpun nama penyakit, 
Dan jika bengkak pada supek karong atau shahwat-nya, 

Mertemu nama penyakit, 
Dan jika bengkak sabelah kaki-nya, 

Merau nama penyakit, 
Dan jika bengkak kedua kaki-nya, 

Maratalum nama penyakit-nya, 
Dan jika bengkak jubor-nya, 

Merchap nama penyakit-nya, 
Dan jika bengkak hujong ekor-nya, 
Merpahat nama penyakit-nya, 
Dan jika bengkak belalai-nya, ubat-nya ambil daun lang- 
kudi dan daun peria, daun labu kentang, dan tahi lembu, kapor 
tahor dan garam semua-nya itu pipis lumat lumat tampalkan 
pada bengkak itu, 

Dan jika bengkak gumba-nya itu, 
ambil kulit remunggai dan kulit dedap dan kulit lemping dan 
kunyit terus dan lengkuas padang dan limau nipis, maka 
tumbok lumat lumat, maka rebus hangat sapu-kan pada gumba- 
nya, dan bengkak di-bawah dagu pun ubat ini jua. Dan lagi 
ubat bengkak mata-nya maka ambil kulit lembu dan kapala 
arak dan daun peria dengan akar-nya dan daun langkudi 
dengan akar-nya dan daun labu gantang dengan akar-nya, 
maka bakar kulit lembu itu hangus hangus sakelian-nya itu 
tumbok lumat lumat champur dengan kapala arak, maka buboh- 
kan kapada yang bengkak itu neschaya semboh uleh-nya, dan 

Jour. 8tr»it« Braaob 


jika gajah bengkak telinga-nya maka ambil buah asam jawa 
dan buah limau kerbau, liuiau purut, limau manis, limau kerat 
lintang, maka sakelian itu ambil daun-nya dan akar-nya chin- 
chang lumat lumat rebus kapada api, maka tuang dengan 
hampas-nya kapada bengkak itu barang tiga hari. 

Bab ini pada menyatakan laksana gajah, 

Jika ada gajah itu ber-jalan sapor ti lembu ber-tuah gajah 

Dan jika gajah itu ber-jalan saperti kuda atau polandok 
gajah itu ber-tuah. 

Fasal pada menyatakan tuah gajah, 

Apabila gajah itu mengerab telinga-nya ber-temu di-ha- 
dapan dan belalai-nya sampai ka-tanah dan gading-nya dokat 
dengan tanah selak nampak-nya lima lapis atau tiga lapis kuku- 
nya dua puloh, dan shahwat-nya sampai ka-tanah, dan okor- 
nya sampai ka-tanah gajah itu chalaka. 

Bab ini pri menyatakan cholaka gajah, 

Jika hitam langit-langit gajah itu atau bukor lidah-nya 

Atau yang kelong gajah itu bidak dua belas cholaka-nya 

Atau kuku-nya anam belas, 

Atau ekor tiada gajah itu chelaka. 

Atau bidak di-bawah dagu-nya rupa-nya morah, 

Atau di- telinga-nya gajah itu bidak cholaka, 

Atau di-bawah perut-nya bidak chelaka 

Atau ekor-nya yang belong tiada baik. 

Bab ini pri menyatakan kapada masa iya makan atau 
minum jangan di-sembur-kan-nya biar-lah dongan por-lahan 
lahan juga, jikalau ada lebih di-makan-nya itu di-letakkan-nya 
di-hadapan-nya gajah itu baik. 

Bab ini pada menyatakan bangsa gajah, 

Per-tama-tama, Morsan nama-nya gajah itu tinggi-nya 
dua bolas hesta, akan bangsa gajah itu deripada Mem bang. 

Jika tinggi-nya anam hesta, bangsa gajah itu deripada 

Jika tinggi-nya lima hesta gajah itu, bangsa deripada Indra, 

Jika tinggi-nya lima hesta gajah itu, bangsa-nya deripada 
Bangsa wan, 

B. A. Soc, No. 49, 1007. 


Jika tinggi-nya lima hesta, umka yang ter-sebut baperti di- 
aalam temrai nu 'aim tarong sikan. 

Jika gajah itu gading-nya angkat sabelah kanan gajah 
itu mata-nya puteh gajah itu ber-tuah. 

Dan jika gajah itu bulu ekor-nya puteh gading-nya angkat 
sabelah kiri gajah itu tiada baik. " Finai " nama-nya. 

Jikalau gajah itu gading-nya angkat sabelah kanan, 
" Tink " nama-nya gajah itu, tetapi baik. 

Jikalau gajah itu hitam gading-nya dan sabelah puteh, 
chelaka gajah itu. 

Ada pun gajah yang baik gading-nya puteh kadua. 

Bab ini kita hendak menarek tunggal, 

Jika tunggal itu tiada mahu mengikut, ini-lah mantra-nya, 
maka ambil tanah tiga kepal, atau barang yang patut dapat di- 
makan gajah itu, maka mantra-kan dengan mantra ini, maka 
di-lontarkan kapada gajah itu. Ini-lah yang di-bacha-nya, 

Ma-tapu chum-kan midun yoh ka-yau ambi kawan teng- 
wan wan pirak dut pirak situn duraja cbam-kan Ian teng nura 
ambi kewat tengwan wan. 

Bab ini jika kita di-hambat tunggal. Ini-lah mantra-nya 

Tut tahai chati chatang lipu tut hai. 

Bab ini jika hendak menjerat gajah di-dalam hutan atau 
di-dalam kubu, atau membuka hutan atau kubu, 

Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Am kanching kandui kaikitai karum kau chakan tang- 
langkan langka peryumaha pau Sidi-kan guru ombak batiya. 

Bab ini kenaling kambing hutan, ini-lah kenaling-nya 

Om yang chong bang dai bang tu bang ru bang tipal yang 
kemun kamaya om shar wa bang sidi-kau guru om buk batiya. 

Bab ini ubat gajah supaya berani ber-juang maka ambil 
akar leletup dan akar panggil, maka tumbok lumat lumat 
buboh di-dalam tebu beri-kan gajah itu makan barang tiga hari 
neschaya berani uleh-nya. 

Bab ini jika gajah itu cherdek, pertama ambil kulit 
remunggai dan kulit asam jawa dan buah-nya yang masak 
ambil ayer limau nipis dan ayer tebu, maka buboh di-dalam 
rumput beri-kan makan neschaya 'afiat uleh-nya. 

Bab ini ubat mantra suku, 

Jour. Straiti Brunch 


Tima safaha charu s'osi ra ara saufa katu yash a soma 
kankha teru kiseru asam pintu. 

Ada pun sakelian ubat itu, ini-lah jampi-nya maka di -h ambus - 
kan tiga kali. 

Bab ini mantra membuang perai, 

Om biranduk randai kaparai perai pundum niohampaling 
cham chik irak ku wan cham yut nacham-mu lang mu terung 
kuk miter mucbang teping tau peria munteri puah, 

Om chating ting chaketang telang kau chung-kan yet kuta 
yet kau naret terat tuanku suroh luloh lulai peyak tau ter u 
yerwon bat teha teraua biba yun tabom yaman cbangrai miok 
keta wie. 

Bab ini membuang hantu kambing hutan, 

Om bing bing bangtu bang dai bangti pada bang kamut 
meya om rengab sorpa rengab. 

Bab ini mantra perabun gajah, 

Om pan pang malia pang pit om tau tau sahom siti ker- 
tana sahom om sauhom. 

Bab ini perengab, 

Om rengab chang rengab dzai rengab pitai piyat yakrom 
rengab per-yom apom rengab rungkang karamai rengab pada 
payaman pong om rengab maha rengab sidikan guru om bok 

Bab ini mantra gajah naik rengka 

Om pat maha pat chailaku pat kuru hei mihan changrai 
mayu tani. 

Bab ini mantra mengarang-kan tali rotan 

Om kan kat changra mau kau ikat pekarangku. 

Bab ini jika menjerat gajah yang besar, maka di-tahan 
sidin itu maka di-sembur dengan kunyit terus kemdian di- 
kunchi-kan mata sidin itu. Ini-lah mantra-nya. 

Om yok bat kau chabat diran dai bau bangkat chang 
pacha nangkrai om maha risi si bok katarak tanta pongtala 
cha nangai aurab rab perakamtu rengab, maka lalu disembur- 
kan dengan kunyit terus lalu di-tahan. 

Bab ini jika ber-kubu gajah bacha-kan kapada kunyit 
terus beri-kan kapada orang kubu itu suroh sembur-kan sake- 
liling kubu itu. Inilah mantra-nya, 

B. A. Soc., No. 40, 1907. 


Ikrai min puni chi chana rak 

Bab iai per-tahan tunggal. Ini-lah ubat 

Tut kerar tut kanching kandai kanpatai tut hei. 

Bab ini jika kita hendak masok gajah jinak, maka kawan 
ber-tunggal itru, maka bacha mantra ini tiga kali sa'nafas. 

Om wi chit terui kambara ula sipu wah suwah suhom dai 
bang kembang tikada samkam. 

Bab ini mantra bomo' yang kechil kechil, maka orang 
hendak menjerat gajah masok kubu, maka bomo' yang besar 
membacha mantra juga, maka bomo' yang kechil kechil pun 
membacha melepas diri-nya. Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Om kenaling chak chap chap kenaling rengab kenaling om 
chap kenaling suwah su hei. 
Maka di-sembur dengan kunyit terus kakanan dan kakiri. 

Bab ini perengab, 

Om rengab chang rengab pai tai bakarom rengab pera yom 
apom rengab rengkong kangku ramai rengab pada peman pong 
rengab maha rengab sidikan guru ombok batiya. 

Bab ini pelambai tunggal, maka ambil chamar maka patah 
paras mata gajah jinak itu. Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Ma tapu chomkan liyon tak chong ambi ya kasayok om- 
biya kawan chom-kan lisan tangku an pirak dos pirak siton 
nang makaru tangkuan. 

Bab ini membuang hantu hutan. Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Om berah berom berah berai patari patarai patabuna ra- 
miya tin shah pindah kau turun laui mur-tangan kamui kamai- 

Bab ini perabun pun jadi di-bacha masok hutan atau 
barang pilak tiada kita kena atau barang kerja kita. 

Ini-lah mantra-nya yang di-bacha dahulu, 

Om kenaling pajanaru pajanari samba bangkom bangkak 
takabonting lai pat pachaupi bangkom bangkamanya turun kau 
pindah kahutan yang pana puah karab turun kapadang yang 
maha luas karimba yang maha besar. 

Bab ini suatu kenaling. 

Om kenaling perah pom porah pai patabu rasin marang 
salik samsatom sirapatom perpai tataban ting tui pat kau chat 
pai ai chakat torn bang torn turun-lah pindah kau kahutan 

Jour. Straits Branck 


pana puah kerab turun kan kapadang yang maha luas karimba 
yang maha besar. 

Ini-lah kelamin-nya, 

Om kenaling tang chandap kenaling ating kambakut kena- 
ling yaku wah yanata baka parom peratang kenaling nai sitikan 
guru mu batiya rengab, 

Bab ini mantra Eaja Gajah, maka kitapergi kapada tanah 
kita kuais dengan tumit, maka ambil tanah itu kita mantra 
tiga kali sa'nafas, maka buboh kapada ubon ubon kita. 
Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Om pan pang maka pang pit om tau sa horn sitikan tana 

Bab ini hendak buka hutan. Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Om bik bik bang bang bangtu bangru bangti pada bang 
ka-muai maia om rengab sara para ngab. 
Ini-lah kelamin-nya, 

Om kanching kandai kun pitai naka nara nakaru pi pat 
chamdi kam ti pa man da puni sara pcrcngab. 

Bab ini penutup liutan. Ini-lah uiantra-nya, 

Om bang chang bangdai bangtu bangru bangti pada bang- 
kemu kamya om bang sara para bang. 
Ini-lah kelamin-nya, 

Om rengab chang rengab undai rengab piti di yat bakarom 
rengab rakang lang kerahei rengab pada pai man pong am rengab 
maha rengab ombang chong bangdai bangtu bangru bangti 
pada bang kamu kamai am bang sarpa bang om rengab chang 
rengab dai rengab pitai pi yat bakarom rengab rakong lang 
karamai rengab pada pai man pang om rengab maha rengab. 

Bab ini hendak ber-buat hikmat akan orang jangan ber- 
uleh menjerat gajah, maka ambil tanah bekas gajah jinak 
orang itu dan gajah yang hendak di-jerat itu di-perbuat akan 
gambar gajah, ambil daun kandan akan satam-nya, maka 
surat nama bomo'-nya dan nama gamala-nya pada daun kan- 
dan itu, sudah maka korek lubang sajengkal dalam-nya, maka 
tutop dengan papan maka tiup api di-atas-nya jangan padam 
padam. Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Am \vi mata kamarah angkar aula sula chi puan sau horn 
suhom. Kelamin-nya 

B. A. 8oc., No. 49, 1007. 


Am borah berom berai petari potarai pekuboran mi suti sah 
pindah-lah angkau turun kaui ui tatong kambi kamlai. 

Bab ini mantra melambai tinggi lambai dengan chamar. 

Ma tepu chara kan liyan dutang ching abiya keyak abiya 
kewan chum kan liyan tangkuan. 

Bab ini mantra tunggal. 

Am kasak kan terak hak chantek junsa nak selak setaha 
tikah wi serawi kak wi tera wapu taua ati yan nik mekurai 
tech un tang kepurantai sura mamawi serawi kak wi puru purak 
binat siyan tiga bulan naik siyan bulan turun. 

Bab ini menahan kawan, maka keliling tiga kali. 
Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Teru 'om ambi tan bimak lok tu wadin keluwi lok pik 
pitai lok mas yata yang kerai chandan kerai perok nangai tuan 
ti yang salok tan mu chaku chakkatom. 

Bab ini mantra kapada tapak tangan kiri, maka gosok 
kapada telinga gajah yang kanan dan yang kiri. 

Om chikan chichu samit palai a'itu rati duchang bayi du- 
chang san bisai yi. 

Ini tunggal atau kawan, ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Tut sapera tut changlu mi changkan changsu mu kan 
chantang pora piyat sitikan kuru bati per-hai kalu hai. 

Bab ini makan bomo'. 
Pau bub yabub kindi judi tang-pong'ai malab miyaji janak kan 
pastak taru chai-ku kat cha king. 
Ini-lah kelamin-nya, 

Ter om pu wat om nya midak midong midak mi-kalang 
sata yang chadin karai paruk pangai lo'tu mu chak kan jakat- 

Bab ini buang bantu hutan, 

Om kali miwah kacharai rai keli duk kalidan tera-yang 
kachang kanan sah pindah laui turun kau wi hantu kamsat 
kamya nyamihan changrai miyu katu wai. 

Bab ini kepala segala mantra, maka barang suatu kreja, 
ini-lah dahulu di-bacha-nya. 

Om kenaling kanalai kanaling tuk-ting kanaling nuk tai 
kut kut katakong kalai kamalut kuh kanaling takongkalal om 
sing kupasing changrai om sah kapasat changrai arah rah 

Jour. Strait* Branch 


terong perat tijau beli turun bei-titi salah di-batang tuboh kau 
wi mitarau kau miloh sidikan kuruku batiya para-kan haika- 
loh kachat pi tukkami kau mipai lui sarapa changrai. 

Ini-lah mantra Raja Ibrahim maka jika gajah itu sakit 
atau demam mantra-kan kapada ayer, maka mandikan kapintu 
kubu dan mandi-kan chelong pun. 
Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Ora patabu ramai san kau cha'an angkat matang pin 
pindan au kau kuklu mata changrai kachat pit ongpami kau 
miki lui sarapa changrai kau minan tara anglai sitikan guru-mu 
batiya om setaidai sati yudong sati karang kana parak yatu tuk 
sam diyak samdak sakala yak sakadong nai ong nong chakaran 
sib ang tong chakaran siyan ontong chaparat pat pat changrai 
oksaksi pataradi sarap chatarai matarang changrai kan miman 
ter englui situ-kuru-mu batiya. 

Bab ini jikalau* gajaii sakit maka bacha-kan kapada ayer 
mandikan, atau kunyit terus sembor-kan petang petang. 
Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Om pa paru paparai maha rasai sakunta parah Sri Rama 
per yit terang siti-kan Oh Maha Eisi yak tamarahai parai' aurai 
awai dai madong sarpa angkan per-angkau sakang sakom sa- 
rapa rengab siti aku Kama batiya. Hu ! 
Ini-lah kelamin, 

Om kenaling kanalai perah puat perah pai pata burasan 
materong chai salik sum torn karapatom per pai tut ban ting 
tui pat ka chat ai chakatom bangtom turun kau pindah kau 
kahutan pana puah karab turun kan kapadang yang maha 
luas karimba yang maha besar. 

Om kenaling tang chandai pa kenaling ating kumalut biti 
kenaling yakut yanata baka parom parom paranang kenaling 
nai siti-kan guru-ku batiya rengab. 

Bab ini perabun pun jadi dan lagi tetkala hendak masok 
hutan di-bacha barang kiblat tiada ken a kapada kita. 

Om kenaling paja narui serbabangkom bangkok tak banting 
tai pat pachan pai bangkam bangli pada somkom ting kamaia 
turun kau pindah kan kahutan pana puak karab turun kau 
kapadang yang maha luas karimba yang maha besar. 

B. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


Bab ini buang hantu anak gajah, maka pukul dengan 
kosa jangan dengan mata-nya kapada anak gajah itu, 

Am panirang panarak malachoh kau pindah kahutan pana 
puah karab turun kau kapadang maha luas karimba yang maha 


Om chawi chawat chawi chamarat malachoh kau pindah 
kahutan pana puah karab turun kau kapadang yang maha luar 
karimba yang maha besar komya maia. 

Ini perabun gajah tiada mahu.masok chelong maka bacha- 
kau kapada kunyit trus sembor kapada chelong. 

Om kaling yating tamdit batka lingkit salik santom am 
kamin kar kau lasantom. 

Om chau samin samin plai ranghai tamku lamipaina tau 
kalim parak nak tuah tawanta. 

Bab ini menahan kawan atau tunggal masok kawan jinak 
maka kita patah kayu delapan j Strang lebar keliling kawan atau 
tunggal itu. 

Ini-lah mantra-nya, 

Puntang pakachakak tamang pakachakak sangkong paka- 

Ini-lah kelamin-nya, 

Ara hak aro puhon kau mihai umok dun au mihai mang- 
wa au mihai mang hincha ok chong pak hukdab tang chakang 
changma lamatong chun sini karong chong put nak omdib. 

Ini membuang hantu rimba. 
Ini mantra-nya 

Am kenaling kanalai pajanaru saraba hangkom takbun 
tau pat kut chat pai ngaban korn bangti pada saiekom salik 
suttom mada chak kau turunlah \vi kahutan pana karimba 
yang besar puah rengab. Temat. 

Here the manuscript ends. I ought in conclusion to say 
that I have made no attempt to alter, in the hope of amending 
the spelling : Sidikan and sitikan, guru and kuru (to take 
examples) are in every case exact transliterations. 


Joi'knal 41P. Plate II. 


Malay Chess, 

By T. B. Elcum. 

I have seen few things so amusing as a game of chess 
played in a Malay village, with the whole population of the 
village standing round, and all of them who possess even the 
most rudimentary knowledge of the moves, * assisting " their 
champion with vociferous advice, and abusing his stupidity when 
he makes a move which for some reason, generally entirely 
wrong, they think inferior. The rule of " touch and move " 
is not generally observed among Malays. The spectators fre- 
quently will seize upon a piece which has been moved, replace 
it and make another move, pointing out how superior their 
method is. Very frequently the suggested improvement is 
absolutely futile, putting a piece "en prise," or offering an 
obvious mate to the opponent, but the suggestor is quite un- 
abashed when this is pointed out to him, and the fire of advice 
and remonstrance goes on until the game is over. 

The appliances for these village games are generally of a 
very primitive character. There will be probably a rough 
hand-made lot of pieces, perhaps all of one colour, and a hand- 
made board. The squares of the board are never marked in 
different colours. Probably some of the men are missing, and 
various substitutes have to be provided ; and sometimes there 
are no pawns, and their place has to be supplied by little 
stones, or bits of leaf. 

Sometimes the pieces used by Malays bear more or less 
resemblance to the shapes with which we are familiar, except 
that the tir, the rook, is generally a fiat piece like a draughts- 
man. But more usually they are much less distinctive in 
shape. The illustrations show a handsome set, gold and 
brown, kindly lent to me by one of the Johore Royal Family. 
It will be noticed that the board is uncoloured; the king, 
queen and pawns are all of the same shape, and distinguish- 
ed by size only. 

J««r. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 49, 1907. 


The rooks in this set are not of the usual flat description. 
As a rule the carving of the pieces is very rough, and it is seldom 
that one sees an elaborate set like that here illustrated. A set 
often suffices for a village. It is difficult to procure a genuine 
set of Malay chessmen. 

In some parts of the Peninsula very few Malays play 
chess, in others a large proportion of the inhabitants. On the 
whole the proportion of men who can play chess more or less 
is probably greater than with most races. The same game is 
played in Sumatra as in the Peninsula, and I believe also in 

How the Malays acquired the game is a mystery. They 
may have done so from the Arabs, or they may have learnt it 
directly from natives of India. Neither the peculiar rules of the 
game, nor the names of pieces and terms used in play throw 
any light on this point. I give at the end of these notes a list 
of the words most commonly used in the game, and the lan- 
guages from which they are derived, as given in Wilkinson's 
dictionary. The Sanscrit words seem as likely to have come 
through the Arabs, who learnt the game from India, as direct. 
Nor do Malay records shed any light on the way in which the 
game was introduced, so far as I have been able to discover. 
The most interesting points about the game are the similarities 
to, and the differences from, the game as now played in Europe, 
and as formerly played. 

The board is 8 by 8 as in European chess, and the men 

except for the modifications to be pointed out, have the same 

moves and powers. They are the King {raja) the Queen 

(menteri, minister), two Bishops (yajah, elephant), two 

knights (kuda, horse), two Rooks (tir, a name which appears 
to have no other meaning), and 8 pawns {bidak, also only the 
name of this piece). 

The first great difference between the Malay game and 
ours, and one which entirely upsets all book knowledge of the 
openings which may have been acquired by a student of our 
game, when he attempts to play the Malay game, is in the 
arrangements of the pieces. With us king stands opposite king 
and queen opposite queen. In Malay chess the menteri stands 

Jour. Stra.Ua Brucb 


on the right of his king, and is so opposite to the opposing 

In the early days of European chess occasional modifica- 
tions appear to have been made in the position of the pieces at 
starting, before the game had settled to its present strict form. 
I have not seen any mention of the Malay method of arrang- 
ing the men, but we read of games starting with a " tabiyat " 
or battle array, which seems to have taken may forms, in 
which the pieces were arranged in positions quite different 
from the normal starting arrangement and it is probable that 
the relative positions of king and queen were not always in 
early days entirely settled. 

However that may be, the next variation l>etween Malay 
chess and ours is certainly a survival of a rule, now dead, 
which prevailed at one time in Europe. 

The Malay king, provided he has not been checked or 
moved, has the privilege of once leaping like a knight, or of 
moving over two squares whether another piece intervenes a 
not, laterally but not forward or diagonally. He can thus 
practically castle, but in two moves instead of one. Castling 
as we know it is not a part of the Malay game. 

The " king's leap " was recognised in Europe in mediaeval 
chess before the present method of castling was generally 

The results of this power of the king are very disconcert- 
ing to a player unused to the Malay game. Thus an unguard- 
ed knight giving check can be taken by the king, or in a 
crowded position the king skips away from an otherwise fatal 
check by a knight's move or over another piece. In playing 
Malay chess at first, it is very common to overlook this curi- 
ous privilege of the king. The Malays frequently give what 
would otherwise be an aimless check in order to deprive the 
king of this power. I have not played the game sufficiently 
to be sure whether it would be generally advisable to do this 
between even players — whether the loss of one or two moves 
involved in giving the check is made up for by the king s loss of 
his privilege. But it is certainly advisable for a European 
skilful at his own form of chess, but a novice at Malay chess, 

It. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


to endeavour to force the king to move only in the'way to which ' 
he is accustomed, even at the loss of a little time. 

A pawn is taken "en passant " at Malay chess, as with 
us. That a refinement of the game such as this should exist 
among a primitive race is curious, but it is well established. 

The rules of the game mentioned so far contain nothing 
which might not have been naturally developed from the same 
form of the game which produced chess as now played in 
Europe. The curious rules in force among Malays with re- 
gard to the promotion of a pawn appear to be peculiar to Malay 
chess only, and to have no parallel, so far as I can discover, in 
other forms of chess, ancient or modern. 

In Europe any pawn reaching the eighth rank can at once 
become a queen or any other piece at the option of the player. 
In Malay chess a rook's pawn, so reaching the 8th rank, may 
become a menteri or any other piece immediately, except that 

it can only become a piece which is off the board ; it cannot 
become a menteri if the menteri has not been taken. Should, 

however, the pawn so advancing to the eighth rank be on any 
other file, it does not acquire the privilege until it has played 
back diagonally a sufficient number of moves to enable it to 
reach the rook's file. Thus a pawn reaching knight's eighth 
has to play back diagonally one square, on reaching bishop's 
eighth, two squares, and on king's or queen's eighth, three 
squares. It is not necessary to actually play the pawn to the 
rook's file, but it must play back sufficiently far to have reach- 
ed it. This curious rule makes winning by the odd pawn more 
difficult that in the European game. 

There are other rules which tend to make it easier for the 
weaker force to draw. The king if left alone on the board 
must be mated in not more than seven moves or the game is 
drawn. When the stronger force is barely sufficient to mate, 
or the position is such as to make it difficult to mate in a few 
moves, Malay players of the weaker force frequently try to 
force the capture of these last remaining pawns or pieces, in 
the hope of escaping defeat by this rule. 

Mate cannot be given by a discovered check. It is not good 
form to exchange queens unless the game can be immediately 

Jour. Straits Branch 



won or saved by doing so. A prejudice against the exchange 
is very common amongst beginners in Europe. There 
is, of course, no reason for this, but in Malay chess there is 
some. The rules as to queening a pawn, and as to the lone king 
make it so difficult to win a pawn ending that it is seldom 
advisable for the stronger force to clear the board by exchanges. 

These rules, which make it easier for the weaker force to 
draw, are to my mind a weak point in the Malay game, which 
otherwise is probably equal in essentials to our own. It is 
certainly a pleasant change to play a game in which no open- 
ings have been analysed, and in which the player has to rely 
entirely on himself from the very beginning of the game. 

Malays generally open with a fianchetto to avoid exposing 
the king to an early check. Whether this is the best method 
of beginning I cannot say. Few Malays are really strong at 
the game, though a considerable number play respectably. 

The point of most interest with regard to the game is how 
the special rules which differ from those of other forms of 
chess, were evolved — whether they are a survival of the form 
of chess originally taught to the Malays, or whether they have 
been invented bv the Malavs themselves. 

Terms commonly used in Malay Chess. 


Malay Derivation according to 

Wilkinson's Dictionary. 


Chator Sanskrit (chaturanga) 


Buah Chator (Bauh = fruit) 


Raja Sanskrit 


Mentcri (Minister) Sanskrit 




Gajah (elephant) Sanskrit 


Kuda (horse) 


Bidak Arabic 


Sah Persian 

R, A. Roc. 

No. «9, 






Deriration according to 
Wilkinson's Dictionary. 


Mate Mat 

Draw Seri 

To take Makan 

To take "en passant " Makan bidak suap. 

(suap = mouthful or bribe) 

The origin of " tir " is doubtful 

The words " buah," " kuda," " makan." " suap," are 
probably pure Malay. 

" Mat " apparently comes from the same source as " Sah." 
If " Sah " is derived from the Persian, so probably is " mat." 
" Sah Mat " may mean 44 the king is dead." 

Note on the Malay Game 'Jongkak/ 

By M. Hellier. 

I lately obtained, and sent to the Baffles Museum for 
exhibition, the playing board and seeds for the Malay game 
" Jongkak." 

Haji Othman the Visiting Teacher of Province Wellesley, 
from whom I obtained the board, describes Jongkak as a 
women's game originally played by the ladies at the courts of 
the Malay Rajas. The playing board is shaped like a junk or 
boat, and, according to Haji Othman, the name of the game 
is derived from "jong" a junk. The board has 7 holes on 
each side, with a larger hole or compartment at each end. 

The game is one for two people and is usually played with 
Tamarind or other seeds, but marbles are now sometimes used. 
Each player has one "village" (kampong) or row of holes, 
and in each side hole she places 7 seeds. The board is then 
ready for play. 

The players start together. Each player taking the 7 
seeds from the hole on her right and carrying them from right 
to left, drops one in each hole, the last seed falling into the 
large hole at the end. This seed is said to have " entered the 
house" (naik rumah) and this house belongs to the player on 
whose left it lies. 

Each player then takes all the seeds from any one of the 
other holes in her " village " and moving as before from right 
to left around the board again drops a seed into each hole, 
taking care to drop one into her own ' house ' but none into 
her opponent's. 

Should the last seed fall into an empty hole the player is 
dead (mati), and must wait until the other player is ' dead ' 
before she can again play. If this hole is in the player's own 
"village" any seeds in the opposite hole on her opponent's 
side may be taken and put into the " house." This is said to 
be (?) " a sacrifice " (mati bela). 

Jour. Straits Branch B. A. Stoc, No. 49, 1907. 



When the last seed falls into a hole in which there are 
other seeds, these are taken and the player continues in play, 
and should the last seed fall into the player's " house " 
she also continues in play, taking the seeds from any hole in 
Iier "village." 

When no more seeds remain in a player's " village M she 
is said to be " once defeated " (kalah sa-papan). She may 
however, take any seeds there may be in her " house " and 
place them again in the holes in her " village " putting 7 in a 
hole as before. Should any holes be left empty they are 
called " ruined wells " (telaga burok) and the player owning 
"ruined wells" must wait until her opponent is dead before 
playing again. 

The game goes on in this way until a player has lost all 
lier seeds. She is then " utterly destroyed " (mati kena abu). 
Skeat, who calls the game " chongkak," gives a short descrip- 
ion of it in his " Malay Magic." 

Concerning some old Sanskrit Inscrip 
tions in the Malay Peninsula. 

By Professor H. Kern. 

Extract from * De Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koniuklijke 
Akademie van Wetenschappen.' Division ' Literature ' 

3rd Series. Part I. * 

To complete my former communications in these pages 
upon the history of writing in the Indian Archipelago, I now 
desire to consider some inscriptions in the Malay Peninsula. 
Of these inscriptions, discovered by Colonel Low and published 
by him in facsimile, one only has come down to us perfect ; 
the rest are very fragmentary. 

The first inscription was found in Kedah. It was engrav- 
ed on a stone — a kind of slate — under the floor of a ruined 
building which had once measured ten to twelve feet square. 
This circumstances together with the contents of the inscrip- 
tion lead us to suspect that the building may have been the 
hut (kuti) of a Buddhist monk. A transliteration and transla- 


tion of the inscription were published by J. W. Laidlay in the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal XVIII 247 (1). 
Although this gentleman who was at the time of the publica- 
tion Secretary of the Asiatic Society has noticed the chief 
points in the inscription which call for comment, I give my 
own transliteration of it which differs in a few minor points 
from his. It runs thus : — 

* Note. — This translation is published with Professor Kern's per- 

(1) The facsimile on plate X. (This paper and plate are repub- 
lished on Dages 232-234 of Volume I of * Miscellaneous papers relat- 
ing to lndo-Chiua ' reprinted for the Straits Branch Royal Asiatic 
Society London 1886). 

Jour, Straits Branch, B. A. Soe. No. 49, 19u7. 


Ye dharmma hetuprabhava tesha (rn) Tathagato (hy ava- 


Yesha (m) ca yo nirodho eva (m) wavi Mahacramana (h) 

^, • • • • 

Ajnac clyate karma (sic) jenmana-karma karanam 

Jnanan na kriyate karmina (sic) karmabhava (n) na jay ate 

The first couplet in halting arya-measure is the well 
known Buddhist creed-formula and need not detain us. The 
second in Anushtubh can be translated thus : — 

• • 

* It is through lack of knowledge that the Karma (2) ac- 
1 cumulates. The Karma is the cause that men must be reborn. 
' Through knowledge (of the nature of things) it comes about 
' that men effect no (more) Karma and from the absence of 
1 Karma it follows that men need not be born (again). 

The idea expressed in the couplet is by no means exclu- 
sively Buddhistic but seeing that it follows immediately after 
the better known formula there can be no doubt that the sen- 
tence must be regarded here as the profession of faith of a 
disciple of Sakya. We shall find the same phrase further on 
in another and indubitably Buddhist inscription from Province 
Wellesley. Elsewhere in British India and in Ceylon it is 
usually another sentence which we find coupled with the for- 
mula Ye dharmd <lr. I mean the couplet in Dhammapada 
stanza 183 (edited by Prof. Fausboll). 

Sabbapapass ' akaranam kusalass ' upasampada 

Sacittaparyodapanam, etam buddhana sasanam. 

• . • 

i. e. to refrain from all evil, to apply oneself to the good, 
to purify one's heart : that is the bidding of the Buddhas (the 

The couplet runs thus with a slight difference in the halt- 
ing Sanskrit of Tibet : — 

Sarvapapasyakaranam , kucalasyopasampadam 

(2) t. t. the sum of good and evil actions which is the cause of 
man's remaining shackled to life and unable to escape from incarna- 

Jour. Straits Branch 


Svacittaparidamanam, etad buddhanu$asanam (3) 

Between the two formulas Ye dharmd &c* % and Sarvapd- 
pasya dc. t there is no more necessary connection than between 
the former and the sentence ajndndc ctyate Ac. There is 
therefore nothing strange in finding as the second couplet first 
the one sentence and then the other (4). The second inscrip- 
tion in which the couplet diijdndc dc. t is found, was dug up by 
Colonel Low in the North of Province Wellesley (5). The 
inscribed stone seems to have been the upper part of a column. 
On a copy of this ancient record which was published in 1835 
without any explanation (6) can be seen the representation of 
a stCtpa, the under part of which is formed by a sphere and 
not as usually by a hemisphere. Above the sphere rises a row 
of so-called umbrellas. On either side stands a line of writing. 
On the right side can be read : — 

Ajnanac clyate karmma janmanah karmma karana (m) 

• . 

Of the writing on the left side I can only make out the 
word jn&nd (7) Fortunately what is left is sufficient proof that 
the inscription, apart from certain differences in spelling, is 
identical with the second couplet on the Kedah stone. That 
stone reads janmana with a * Jihvamitltya ' whilst the in- 
scription on the pillar spells the same words with a Visarga.' 

Besides this two-lined verse the pillar has also another 
inscription along the edge. Beginning from the top on the 
right-hand side we can recognise the inscription given in 
facsimile on Plate IV in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Bengal XVII 2 and numbered 8 (8) It runs : — 

(3) See Csoma Korosi in J. As. Soc. 8. IV 134 Cp. Spence Hardy 
Manual of Buddhism 198. 

(4) Already noticed by B. H. Hodgson in J. As. Soc. B. IV 211. 

(5) J. As. Soc. B. XVII 2, 64 (Misc, Papers relating to Indo- 
China. Vol. I. 223226). 

(6) J. As. Soc. B. IV pi. HI. 

(7) On the facsimile No. 10 on PI. IV of J. A. S. B. XVII 2 the 
second line is almost entirely missing. 

(8) The transliteration and translation given by Babu Rajendra- 
lal Mitra bear little resemblance to it. 

ft. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


Mah&n&vika-Buddhguptasya Raktamrittik&v&sa. 

i. e. of the eminent shipowner Buddhagupta, resident at 

RaktamrttikA (9), The words following these cannot be made. 


out with certainty, possibly sya (sign of genitive) ddndm (gift); 
or deyadhannah (pious donation). Even less can we decide 
if anything was written on the broken foot of the pillar. 

On the left hand side beginning at the top we read — Sarv- 
vena prak&rena sarwasm&t sarwathd, sarwa — Then follows a 

gap until at the end of a second line we see : — 


What is left of the first line can be translated word for 
word : ' In every way, from every thing, in every respect, all '••• 
Siddliaydndsanna might mean ' who has performed a successful 
journey ' but it is impossible to decide with certainty that that 
is the meaning ; too much of the sentence is missing to allow 
of its restoration to its original form. 

Despite the incompleteness of these inscriptions which 
all appear to be by the same hand it is probable that the 
monument is the gift of a pious Buddhist sea-trader to a temple. 
As regards the man's residence, Baktamrttika i. e. Bed-earth 
I would remark that the Chinese accounts make frequent men- 
tion of a port in the Gulf of Siam Chih-tu l Bed-earth ' (see 
Groeneveldt in Verhand: Batav: Genootschap XXXIX8 2" 
101) (10) That is probably the place meant. 

The style of writing of Buddhagupta's inscription agrees 
exactly with the type found in Wenggi and in Tjampda in 
West Java. The agreement is so striking that I have no hesi- 
tation in regarding the inscriptions from Wenggi, Tjampa and 

(9) Mrittika is a misspelling for mrttika. A similar mistake it 

found in kritwa in an inscription at Ajanta (PI. XXI in No. 9 of the 
Archaeological Survey of Western India by J. Burgess Cp. No. 10 
page 79 inscrip. 7) and elsewhere. The mistake is explained by the 
fact that in many parts of India r is pronounced as ri. 

(10) Misc. papers relating to Ind«-China Second Series Vol. I 
page 205, 242. 

Jour. Strait n Branch. . 


Province Wellesley as being of approximately the same date 
i. e. as belonging to the same century. The inscriptions from 
Wenggi were determined by Burnell — too early lost to science ! 
— as being of the fourth century (11) and in my opinion, (the 
grounds for which I have already published) the views of that 
scholar cannot be far wrong. I should therefore give the date 
of Buddhagupta's inscription as being roughly 400 A. D. (12) 
It is undoubtedly the oldest Buddhist fragment yet found in 
these parts unless indeed the Kedah inscription is given the 
preference. In view of the fact that the characters in the two 

inscriptions notably differ — especially in the ka and na and 


that the difference in type points to different places of origin, 
a comparison of the two can lead to no reliable conclusion. 

Different again is the type of some of the rock-inscriptions 
at Tokun, a place lying in the middle of Province Wellesleys 
The seven fragments copied by Colonel Low and published on 
Plate IV (13) of the Journal mentioned are so small and, in 
part, so indistinct that they have no value except as contribu- 
tions to palaeography. 

No. 1 I can decipher in part only. It begins with 
sarwa which is written quite distinctly and in nearly the same 
type of characters as is Buddhagupta's inscription. The word 
following seems to represent drama or drdmam — monastery- 
garden. The remaining few groups of letters are indecipher- 

No. 2 is in different characters which seem to me, judg- 
ing from the great development of the vowel-sign for i. to be 
not older than the 6th century. The type reminds me of that 

(11) South Indian Palaeography PI. XX and XXI. 

(12) The oldest inscriptions in the Talaing Country in Pegu are 
in the same Wenggi-type and according to Dr. E. Porchammer date 
from the fourth Century A.D. * The oldest Talaing inscriptions date 
back to the 4th Century A. D. and the lythic characters are almost 
identical with the Dravidian-Vengi alphabet of the same period.' 
See notes on Buddhist Law by the Judicial Commissioner British 
Burma (John Jardine) III Marriage page X. 

(13) (Misc. Papers relating to Indo- China Vol. I page 231). 

B. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 


at Djamboe and of that at Pattadakal in the Deccan and also 
of the oldest Cambodian inscriptions of Bhavavarman. The 
two first words are quite clear ; they are pratliame vayasi i. e. 
4 in time of youth.' The reading of the next two groups of 
letters which stand in the same line, is however uncertain. 
I would read ndvvi since this combination is intelligible. The 
second lino I can make nothing of ; the three last groups of 
letters might, allowing for defective writing, represent dvivi* 

The two first letter-groups in No. 4 are jaya. In No. 5 
I read with some diffidence 48. No. 6 might represent siddhi. 

These fragments of inscriptions from Tokun do not, like 
those from Eedah and from the temple ruins in Province 
Wellesley, bear a clear stamp of Buddhist origin. The most 
noteworthy point of this respect is the word &r&ma — the read- 
ing of which is unfortunately not beyond doubt. Fortunately 
it is clear from the other inscriptions that Buddhist establish- 
ments existed in the Malay Peninsula at the period to which 
the earliest Brahman and Hindu remains in Western Java are 

With the exception of the inscriptions mentioned no others 
have, I believe, been found in the Malay Peninsula itself, but 
one which formerly stood on a large rock at the entrance of 
Singapore Eiver, is worthy of description. In the Journal of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1837 (14) there is a drawing 
of this ancient record which shews that even then it had 
suffered considerably. Later on, shortly previous to the year 
1848, the stone was apparently removed and so damaged that 
a few years later only fragments of it could be found. Mr. 
Laidlay so far succeeded in deciphering some of the pieces 
that he was able to give a facsimile. He rightly recognised 
the Eawi characters in the writing and he came to the conclu- 
sion that the language of the inscription was also Kawi. This 
conclusion was certainly legitimate though Mr. Laidlay could 
not have known that the Eawi alphabet was at one time used 
in Java for Sanskrit inscriptions. 

(14) (Misc. Papers Indo-China Vol. Igepa 219). 

Jour. Straits Branch 


I have attempted to decipher the three fragments publish- 
ed by Mr. Laidlay and to determine the language of the in- 
scription but I must confess that I have not succeeded. Most 
of the characters can be recognised singly but the gaps are so 
numerous that no words can be positively recognised. Thus 
I read in the third line of figure 1 the letter-groups saldgala- 
lasayananara : in the second line of figure 2 ya-dmAnavaiiai 
in the third line kesarabharala in the sixth line of figure 3 
yadalama. Granted that no vowel-marks and Anussw&ra's 
have been omitted in the facsimile, I see no chance of so divid- 
ing these letter-groups as to make an unmistakeable Javanese 
word. I cannot however assert that the inscription is written 
in any other language. 

In a work entitled ' The Malayan Peninsula ' by Captain 
Begbie quoted by Mr. Laidlay, reasons are given for believing 
that inscription dates from the reign of Cri-Raja Wikrama 
(1223-1236). Palaeography is not opposed to the conjecture. 

As regards the question, which of the Kawi types — that of 
Java or of Sumatra, the characters on the Singapore inscrip- 
tion most resemble, some letters, notably ma, which in Java- 
nese Kawi differ markedly from those found in Sumatra, re- 
appear in their Javanese form on the Singapore stone and I 
therefore believe that we must assign the inscription to the 
Javanese type. Ma is the most characteristic letter in these 
alphabets since it is different both in later Cambodian in the 
time of suryavarman (15) and in the Sumatran Kawi. On the 
other hand the form for sa is common to both Sumatran and 
Javanese Kawi and different in the later Cambodian. 

It is to be feared that the Singapore record has been 
damaged beyond hope of restoration ; so much the more reason 
for fixing our attention on the little of it that remains in 

(15) In m>* paper on the Koetei inscription, I assumed on the 
strength of one date that Snryawarman reigned in the 8th century of 
Caka; it appears however from the investigations of Messrs. Aymonier 
and BerffHigne that this date ix two centuries too early, see the re- 
marks of i he latter savant in the Journal Asiatique (February March 
1882) Note 4. 

B. A. Soc. t No. 49, 1907, 

Miscellaneous Notes. 

By W. George Maxwell. 

I have found in an old note book the following jottings 
of folk lore picked up by me at various times from Pa* 
Senik, an old Kelantan Malay now resident in Einta. They 
are mere trivial disconnected scraps, but are perhaps worth 

* # * * 

" When one leaves the house to go hunting deer, one 
" ought, in order to avert from oneself any evil consequences, to 
" repeat this mantra, 

" Bukan aku yang memburu, 

•'Pawang Do Resat yang memburu." 

Pa 1 Senik was unable to tell me anything about Pawang 
Do Resat or his connection with deer, but supplied the following 
information about deer generally. 

" The first hunter of rusa was Pa' Chu Seming.* Upon 
11 his death, which took place in the ritnba he became a hantu 
" rusa. 

" His son Jitan died in the bluker, and likewise became a 
" hantu. He looks after the kijang, pelandok and jungle fowl. 

" Nang Peluntong Chai was the wife of Pa' Chu Seming. 
" She died in the padang. It is she who sends the deer 
" away before a drive begins, if the preliminary propitiatory 
." ceremonies have not been duly performed. 

" After the death of these three, the next hunters of deer 
"were Cho Resat, Do Resat, Pran Ali, Pran Rasu, Pran 
" Maiar and Putri Bongsu." 

• Another account, recorded in considerable detail in a Ms. 
(written by a Perak Malay) which I hope to have ready for the next 
number of this journal, makes out that Pa' Chn Seming became the 
Hantu Pcmburu, the Great Spectral Huntsman. 

Jour. Straits Branch R. A. Soc, No. 10, 1907. 


" Before one goes out shooting, one should make an offer- 
11 ing at the edge of the forest, and repeat the following mantra. 

%i Chorteh, Chordeng, 

" Eong Pali, Nak Terming, 

" Marilah terima idangan kami ini, 

" Kami na' minta menembak rusa didalam rimba ini " 

For the word rusa one substitutes sladang, gajah, or badak 
if necessary. All that Pa' Senik could tell me regarding the 
four personages invoked in this mantra was that they were 

llantu Rimba. 

* • * ♦ 

The following is a mantra to be repeated after the death 
of a rusa. 

" Ora Ma'hong gana, 

" Gana kecbil, gana besar, 

" Gana saratus sembilan puloh ; 

" Bukan aku mahu buangkan gana, 

" Dewa Agong turun buangkan gana ; 

" Bukan aku mahu mengalahkan gana, 

" Dewa Mantra Guru yang mengalahkan gana, 

" Dewa Bantra Umar yang mengalahkan gana, 

" Dewa Puteh yang mengalahkan gana, 

" Sang Kaki Bantra Galah yang mengalahkan gana, 

" Dalang Yahuda Semak Turah yang mengalahkan gana, 

"lladina Kreta Pati Selangor Majitan Petra Jangkal 
aGajahGemala Kuda Lawi yang membuang gana." 

• • s * 

Pa 1 Senik told me that after the completion of the cere- 
mony known as sapu bahdi, whereby the evil influence conse- 
quent upon the death of a deer are swept away, and after the 
animal has been cut up, there is a final ceremony called labor y 
of which the literal meaning is " smearing." With a stick, the 
patcang turns over the blood-covered leaves that disfigure the 
Bite where the carcase has been out up, and so far as possible 
attempts to restore the pristine appearance of the place. 

Jour. 3tr*iti EfAMh 


As he does so, he repeats this mantra. 

" Om doling kad&Hang, 

" Sorak tepi di rimba raia, 

" Sakali aku balik membuang bala, 

44 Dua kali aku balik labor, 

44 Labor anak bini aku, 

44 Labor segala permainan aku, 

44 Kalau t'ada satu, ganti dua, 

44 T'ada dua, ganti ampat, 

41 T'ada ampat, ganti delapan, 

14 T'ada delapan, ganti anambelas. 

44 Labor. Labor. Labor. 

The pantang in connection with this mantra is, that upon 
its completion, the hunting party must leave the place without 
looking back. 

• « ♦ ♦ 

44 If, by any mischance, a man is attacked by bahdi (the 
11 premonitory systems are dizziness and trembling) he should 
44 collect some of the clay and mud that lies nearest to him and 
44 besmear himself all over with it." 

• • • • 

If bitten by a snake, or stung by a scorpion, in the forest, 
one should repeat this mantra. 

14 Medang aku Si Medang Raia, 

14 Tumbuh di padang gela gat*, 

44 Urat menikam ka bumi, 

41 Puchuk menikam ka angkosa, 

11 Aku tahu asalnia bisa, 

14 Sedang Bruai yang punya bisa. 

• • • • 

If bitten by a water snake, one should call on Hana 
Taskun, the great Water Jin. Splash water over the wound 
and call out " Uei ! Hana Taskun ! " and the swelling will subside 

B. A. fcfoc., No. 49, 1907. 


" If poisoned by Sakais' poison (ipoh) take some Indian 
" corn {jagong\ chew it, then rub the wound with it, repeating 
" this mantra. 

" Malim Karimun yang punya tawar, 

" Tawar Allah, Tawar Muhammad, 

" Tawar Baginda Rasul Allah." 

• • • • 

Pa' Senik once told me the following account of the asal 
snapang, " the origin of the gun." The story is so ridiculous 
that it affords matter for speculation as to the manner in which 
it can hare been evolved. 

" Abda'l kaka was the son of Nabi Musa, but disgraced 
11 his father by persisting in having dealings with Jins, and 
11 upon his death, Allah punished him by turning him into a 

" Halan Muda, Halan Chapik, Halan Glanggi and Halan 
" Do8a*ere four men who became tigers." 

. * # • * * 

Most people are aware of the Malay belief that a balul intar 
(a stone weapon of the neolithic age often found in Perak) is a 
thunderbolt, and that when a tree or house has been struck by 
lightning a batu lintar may, if it has not been destroyed by its 
own blow, be found in the torn-up ground. (Some Malays 
tell you that the batu lintar is a weapon which the Jins hurl at 
one another in their fights). Pa 1 Senik supplemented this 
account by saying that it is dangerous to keep in one's house 
a perfect batu lintar as it has life. A batu lintar that has been 
chipped in any way is however dead, and therefore harmless. 
The live batu lintar will attract lightning to the house, and 
then disappear in the flash. 

• * # * 

" The sun and earth had once human form, the sun being 
"the male and the earth the female. The tin ore found in the 
" alluvia] strata of the Peninsula is the earth's milk, and the 
" gold is its blood. 

Jour. SfcraiU BranA 


" The putat bumi, its navel or centre, is at Acheh. This 
" was first discovered to be the case by Nabi Ibrahim 1 by 

" measurements (sukat)." 

. . . • . . . ■ . • 

(When I suggested that Mecca was the centre of the world, 
Pa' Semk was for a minute at a loss. Then, with an al- 
lusion to the methods of the Survey Department, said that 
that, of course, was a re-survey). 

The two following scraps may be assigned to the period 
of Hindu influence that succeeded the pagan, and preceded 
the Muhammadan, era. 

" The earth is supported upon the horns of a bull. Facing 
" the bull is a mosquito that threatens, if it stirs, to enter its 
" nostril and bite it. The bull therefore supports its heavy 
" load without moving. Sometimes, however, it tosses its head, 
V and then there is an earthquake." 

■ • * . * * 

" At the end of the world the sun will go down to hell in 
" the shape of a bull, and will gore the men who hare wor- 
" shipped him upon this earth. 

Notes and Queries. 

Colonel Low, writing in J 850, A. D., in Volume IV of the 
Journal of the Indian Archipelago, page 18, has the following 
notice of Perak. 

"25th: February 1814. The Perak Raja addressed a 
11 letter to the chief authority at Penang : 'lam' wrote this 
11 potentate ' he who holds the royal sword and the dragon betel 
" stand and the shell which came out of the sea which flowed 
" from the Hill of Se Guntang. 1 " 

Do the dragon betel stand and this sea-shell still form 
part of the Perak State Regalia ? If so, can any one say what 
the sea-shell is, and what the legend connected with it is ? 

This hill, which is perhaps the Sagatang Maka Mini of the 
Sejarah Malayu, is connected with the Perak regalia in the 
following lullaby [which was published on page 76 of the " Notes 
and Queries " of the Society]. 

Mangqueta nama-nya kayu, 
Doun-nya luruh menelentang, 
Malikota raja Malayu 
Turun deri Bukit Saguntang. 


Daun-nya huroh meneletang, 
Daun puan di-raut-raut. 
Turun deri Bukit Seguntang, 
Kaluar deri dalam laut. 

W. G. M. 

Bark Canoes among the Jakuns 

and Dyaks. 

By Dk. W. L. Abbott. 
(See Plate I, fig. 2). 

As no one seems to have noticed the use of bark canoes in 
Malaya, tho following note may be of interest : 

In July, 1902, during a trip up the Rumpin Rivor in 
Pahang, I saw the Jakuns using somo roughly made conoos of 
bark. It was meranti bark as well as I can romember. Their 
use was said to be confined to the Jekati and Keratong tribu- 
taries of tho Ulu Rumpin. 

They were but little trouble to make and the Jakuns 
brought down large cargoes of Rattans and other jungle produce 
in them. They did not always take tho trouble to take them 
back up stream again, or to repair them when split or damaged. 

I did not measure any of these " rapako," as they are 
called in the Rumpin, but they were 4 or 5 metres long. 

I sent a specimen to the National Museum in Washington, 
but it warped very much out of shape w T hen drying. 

Tho bark is removed from the tree in one large sheet. 
Tho ends are cut square and stitched up with small rattan. 

Ribs are placed transversely about 18 inches apart, and 
straight sticks are lashed transversely across at corresponding 
places to hold the sides in position. A large split rattan 
encloses tho edge of the gunwale. The sewn ends arc. freely 
cauled with mud or clay. 

In July 1907, I found similar canoes in use among tho 
Dyaks of the Semundung and Ulu Sempang Rivers, West Borneo. 
Slightly more roughly made if possible — a thick spongy bark 
is used containing much resin (?) The same bark is much used 
as flooring by Malays and Dyaks. The Malays said it was the 
bark of bintamjor batu (.') 

Jour, straits Branch, K. A. 4oc., No. 49, 1907. 


The Dyaks dispense with the split rattan along the 
gunwales, as they use a much stronger and thicker bark than 
the Jakuns. These canoes in no way compare with the 
elaborate birch bark structures of the North American Amerindo, 
but they are very easily and quickly made. I was told that 
two Dyaks could make a large canoe in half a day. The Dyaks 
had no special name for them — they used a term which I can't 
recall, but it meant only bark canoe (according to the Malays). 

Tin and Lead Coins from Brunei. 

By E. Hanitsch, ph. d. 
With Plate III. 

The curious tin and lead coins from Brunei, Borneo, des- 
cribed below, were, with one exception, exhibited at the Kuala 
Kangsar Agricultural Show, August, 1907, by Mr. Edmund 
Roberts, of the P. W. D., Labuan, and subsequently presented 
by him, on behalf of Pangeran Shabander, of Brooketon, Brunei, 
to the Raffles Museum, Singapore. They had been found in 
an earthenware jar, buried two or three feet below the surface, 
at Brooketon, in July, 1907. A number of coins were in the 
jar, but most of them were seized by natives and cannot now 
be found. Those which reached the Raffles Museum were of 
two types only. A few months later Mr. Roberts presented 
to the Museum a third kind of coin which he had found when 
clearing the site for the Brunei residency, in 1906. 

The first two coins differ only slightly from each other ; 
one of them is of a simpler design and in a less perfect state 
of preservation, so that it may be considered as the older one. 
It is 36 mm. in diameter, 1 mm. in thickness and weighs 
5*9 grammes (see pi. Ill, fig. 1). It is more or less of pure tin, 
its specific gravity being 7*5 (that of tin is 7*29). Its obverse 
shows a recumbent buffalo, minus its horns, with erect tail, 
the space between the figure and the edge of the coin being 
filled up by circles, cloud-like scrolls, and dots. 

The reverse bears an inscription, in Malay characters, 
which is arranged in what Lane Poole* calls the "mill-sail 
pattern," a pattern which is met with on Persian and other 
coins, the writing being placed within the four arms of the 
sail-wheel. The division into four fields is effected by a line 
which starts from near the centre of the coin, runs parallel 

* See O. Codrington, A Manual of Mu*aliuan Numismatic*, 
London, 1904, p. 17. 

Jour. Straits Brand), R. A. Soc., No. 49, 1907. 



of pure lead being 1137, the slight difference probably being 
due to impurities and oxidation. 

The obverse shows the (yellow) State umbrella, one of the 
insignia of Malay royalty, surmounted by the Sultan's (yellow) 
flag. The other leaf-like ornamentations have probably no 
special significance. 

The reverse bears the inscription 


or in Romanized characters 

Inilah titah 
perentah kamuafak- 
atan ka'atas bclanja 

Negri Brunei ta- 
rikh v 

By order 
of the administration 

of the Finances 

of the State of Brunei 

date 1868. 

The dates 1285 and 1868 refer, of course, to the Hejira 
and to the Christian era respectively, and Abdul Mumin was 
Sultan of Brunei at that time. 

I am indebted to the united efforts of the Rev. Dr. Luer 
ing and of Messrs. Hellier, McArthur and Elcum for deci- 
phering this coin for me. 

R. A. Soc, No. 49, 10U7. 



Although this coin is of such a recent date, only forty 
years old, I have not been able to discover any more speci- 
mens of it. The only other Brunei coin known to me is the 
copper cent, dated 1304 A. H. (= 1886 A. D.), which until 
recently was current in Singapore too. 

Explanation of Plate III. 

(N. B. All figures are reproduced in natural size). 

Fig. 1. Obverse of tin coin Seepage 111 

Fig. 1a. Reverse of the same 

Fig. 2. Obverse of tin coin 

Fig. 2a. Eeverse of the same 

Fig. 3. Obverse of lead coin 

Fig. 3a. Reverse of the same 









[No. 50] 


September, 1908 

i Agents of the Society 

London: Kkgan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. 



PRINTKO at rue urTivuiitr mm iauma mmi*** •< 

[No. 50] 


of the 

Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society 


Printed at The Methodist Publishing Houski 


.** v 

Table of Contents. 

Council for 1908 • •• ... ••• ... v 

Proceedings of Annual General Meeting ••• • •• vi 

List of Members ••• ••• ••• • •• viii 

Annual Report of tho Council • •• ... ••• xiv 

Treasurer's Account for the year 1907 ••• ••• xv 

Rules of Straits Branch of Royal Asiatic Society ••• xvi 
A List of the Ferns of the Malay Peninsula, by 

H. N. Ridley.F.'R.S. ... ... ... 1 

Some Visits to Batam Island, by C. Bodcn Kloss, F.Z.S. 61 

Some Ethnological Notes, by C. Boden Kloss, F.Z.S. ... 73 

The White-Handed Gibbon, by C. Bodcn Kloss. ... 79 

Curriculum of a Course in Malay in Paris ... ... 81 

Father Civet, by It. 0. Winstedt. ... ... ... 85 

Sindbad's Old Man of The Sea, by W. George Maxwell 91 

Spada, by W. George Miixwell. ... ... ... 97 

Two New Species of Cicindela (Tiger beetles) from 

Borneo, by Dr. Walter Horn. ... ... ... 93 

Bats in a Bamboo, by H. N. Ridley. ... ... 103 

The Labiates of the Malay Peninsula, by H. N. Ridley 105 

The Crackling Moth, by H. N. Ridley. ... ... 109 

New or Rare Malayan Plants, by H. N. Ridley. ... Ill 







Dr. D. J. Galloway, President. 

Mr. W. D. Barnes, Vice-President for Singapore. 

Hon. R. N. Bland, Vice-President for Penang. 

Mr. II. N. Ridley, Honorary Secretary. 

Mr. R. J. Bartlett, Honorary Treasurer. 

Dr. Hanitsch, \ 

Mr. V. S. Flower, 

Mr. A. Knight, {^Councillors. 

Mr. C. B. Kloss, 

Mr. H. Marriott, 


of the 

Annual General Meeting. 

The Annual. General Meeting was held March 23, 1908. 

Present : 

Db. Galloway, (in the Chair.) 



B. A. J. Bl DWELL. 



S. V. Flowkr. 



R J. Bartlett. 

Ma rriott. 

W. D. Barnbs. 

C. B. Ki.oss. 




H. N. Ridley. 

The minutes of the last annual general meeting were read 
and confirmed. 

The secretary's report was laid on the table and accepted. 
The Treasurer'*) account was also passed. 

It was resolved that the members of the society were 
desirous of expressing their sense of the loss which the society 
had sustained by the departure from the East of the Right 
Reverend Bishop Hose u.d., their President, on bis well- 
deserved retirement after a period of over forty years. It was 
to him, the Founder of the Society in 1877 that the 



society was indebted for its inception and for its continuance 
for thirty years, during which he occupied the position of 
President almost without a break, till the actual date of his 
retirement. He also contributed on various occasions to its 
Journal and in every way possible assisted in the furthering 
of the objects of the society. 

A letter from Mr. H. C. Robinson was read stating that 
a scheme for the systematic study of the Fauna of the 
Peninsula had been laid down. The Reptiles. Batrachians 
and birds had been well studied but the mammals had been as 
yet little investigated. The Government of the F. M. S. 
h id sanctioned the insertion of a certain sum of money in the 
estimates for the purpose and it was suggested that the society 
might provide a substantial grant to be devoted to the same 
purpose. Eventually the sum $500 a year for three years was 

The officer 8 for the ensuing year were then elected viz. 

President : 

Dr. Galloway. 

Vice-President Singapore : 

W. D. Barnes. 

„ Penang : 

Hon. R. N. Bland. 

Secretary : 

H. N. Ridley. 

Treasurer : 

R. J. Bartlett. 

Councillors : 

Dr. Hanitsch. 


V. S. Flower. 


A. Knight. 


C. B. Kloss. 


H. Marriott. 

List of Members for 1908. 

* Life Members. t Honorary Members. 

Patron: H. E. Sir John Anderson, k.c.m.g. 

Abbott, Dr. W. L. Singapore. 

Acton, R. D. K. Lumpor, Selangor. 

Adams, A. R. Hon, m.l.c. Penang. 

Anderson, E. Singapore. 

Anthonisz, Hon. J. O. Singapore. 

BAMPFYLDE, Hon. C. A. England. 

"Banks, J. E. Iowa. U. S. A. 

Barker, Dr. A. J. G. Sarawak. 

Barnard, B. H. F. Selangor. 

Barnes, W. D. Singapore. 

Bartlett, R. J. Singapore. 

BEATTY, D. Penang. 
Bentara Luar, Hon. Dato, s.p.m.j. Batu Pahat. 

BlCKNELL, W. A. Penang 

Bidwell, R. A. J. Singapore. 

Birch, Hon. J. K. England. 

Birch, E. W., c.m.g. Taipeng, Perak. 

*BlSHOP, J. E. N. Sembilan. 

Bishop, Capt. C. F. Pulo Brani. 

Blagden, C. O., m.a. Switzerland. 

Bland, Hon. R. N. Penang. 

Bland, Mrs. R. N. Penang. 

Brockman, Hon. E. L. Kuala Lumpor. 



Brown, Dr. W. C. 
Bryant, A. T. 
Buckley, C. B. 
Burgess, P. J. 
Burn-Murdoch, A. M. 
Butler, A. L. 
Byrne, H. E. 

Campbell, J. W. 
Campbell, A. 
Camus, M. de 
Carruthers, J. B. 
Cerruti, Giovanni Battista. 
Chapman, W. J. 
Clifford, Hon. H. 
Collyer, Hon. W. R., i.s.o. 
Collinge, H. B. 
*Conlay, W. L. 
Cook, Rev. J. A. B. 
Curtis, C„ f.l.s. 

Dallas, Hon. F. H. 
Dane, Dr. R. 

Dent, Sir Alfred, k.c.m.g. 
Dent, Dr. F. 
'Deshon, Hon. II. F. 
Dew, A. T. 
Dew, E. Costa. 
Dickson, E. A. 

Donald, Dr. .1. 
Douglas, F. W. 
Douglas, R. S. 
Dunkerley, Yen. Arc h. W. 





K. Lumpor, Selangor. 

Khartoum, Egypt. 

K. Lumpor, Selangor. 

Kuala Lumpor. 

K. Lumpor, Selangor. 
Ulu Slim, Perak. 



Larut, Perak. 

K. Lumpor, Selangor. 








Batang Padang, Perak. 


Kuala Pilah, Negri 


Batang Padang, Perak. 
Baram, Sarawak. 
H. C. M.a. England. 

Edgar. Dr. P. Galistan. 

Ipoh, Perak. 


Edmonds, R. C. Penang. 

Egerton, His Excellency Sir W., k.c.m.g. 

Lagos, W. Africa. 
ELCUM, J. B. Singapore. 

Everett, H. H. Santubong, Sarawak. 

Fleming, T. C. 
*Flower. Capt. S. S., f.l.s. 
Flower, V. A. 
Fort, Hon. Hugh. 
Freer, Dr. G. D. 

Galloway, Dr. D. J. 

Gardner, N. E. A. 
*Gerini, Lt. Col. G. E. 

Gibson, W. S. 
*Gimlette, Dr. J. D. 

Grandjean, W. D. 

Gueritz, E. P. His Ex : 

Haines, Rev. F. W. 
Hale, A. 

Hanitsch, Dr. R. 
Harrison, Dr. H. M. 
Haynes, A. Sidney. 
Hellier, Maurice. 
Hemmant, G. 

Hervey, D. F. A., c.m.g. 
Hewitt, John. 
Hall, G. A. 
Hill, Hon. E, C. 
Hinks, Lt. T. C. 

tHosE, Rt. Rev. Bishop G. F., m.a. 
Hose, E. S. 
Hose, R. E. 


Ghizeh, Egypt. 


N. Sembilan. 

Bangkok, Siam. 


Kelantan. ( 




Taipeng, Perak. 


Pekan, Pahang. 



Kuala Pilah, Negri 

Aldeburgh, England. 

K. Lumpor, Selangor. 
Busau, Sarawak. 




Humphreys, J. L. 

Izard, Rev. H. C. 

Janion, E. M. 
Johnston, L. A. M. 

Kehding, Dr. 
Ker, J. Campbell. 
Kinsey, W. E. 


Kloss, C. Boden. 
Knight, Arthur. 
Knocker, F. W. 
Krieckenbeek, J. W. 

Laidlaw, G. M. 
tLAWES, Rev. W. G. 
Laws, G., m.e., a.i.m.m. 
Lawrence, A. E. 
Lemon, A. H. 
Lermit, A. W. 
Lewis, J. E. A., b. a. 
Lim Boon Keng, Dr. 
Luering, Rev. Dr. H. L. E. 
Lyons, Rev. E. 




Med an, Deli. 


Kuala Pilah, Negri 

Kuala Lumpor. 
Tailing, Perak. 

Telok Anson, Perak. 

New Guinea. 





Kuching, Sarawak. 



l)agii])an, Philippine I. 

MACHADO, A. D. Sungei Siput, Pemk. 

MACLAREN, J. W. J). Singji]K)re. 

MacDougal, Dr. W. Christmas Tslnncl. 
Mahomed.bin Mahbob, Hon. Dato. Johore. 

Makepeace, \V. Singapore. 

Marriott, H. Singai>ore. 

MARRINER, J. T. Kelantan. 

Marshall, F. C. Raub, Pahang. 



Mason, J. S. 
Maxwell, Eric. 
McCausland, C. F. 
Maxwell, W. Geo. 
Moorhouse, Sydney. 

nanson, w., b.a., f.s.a. 
Napier, Hon. W. J., d.c.l. 
Norman, Henry. 
Nunn, B. 

Pears, Francis. 
tPERHAM, Ven. Archdeacon, A. 
Pykett, Key. G. F. 
Pra, C. Da. 
Pringle, R. D. 
Pustau, R. von. 

Rankin, H. F. 
Ridley, IT. N. m.a., f.r.s. 
Rigby, J. 

Richards, W. S. O. 
Roberts, J. A., m.a. 
Roberts, B. G. 
Robinson, H. C. 
Rostados, E. 
Rowland, \V. R. 


Ipoh, Perak. 

Batu Gajah, Perak. 



Jugra, Selangor. 




N. Sembilan. 



Ipoh, Perak. 

K. Lumpor, Selangor. 

Tras, Pahang. 

Port Dickson, Negri 


tSarawak, H. H. Rajah of, g.c.m.g. Sarawak. 

Sarawak, H. H. The Rance of England. 
ISatow, Sir E. M,, k.c.m.g. 

Saunders, C. J. 

Schwabe, E. M. 

scrivenor, j. b. 
Seah Liang Seah 

Tanjong Rambutan 




Seah Song Seah 
Shelford, R. 
Shelford, W. H. 
Shellabear, Rev. W. G. 
Simmons, J. W. 
Singer, C. 
Skeat, W. W. 
Skertchly, E. J. 
tSMiTH, Sir Cecil C, g.c.m.g. 
Staples, F. W. M. 
St. Clair, W. G. 
Sugars, J. C. 

Tan Cheng Lock. 
Tatlock, J. H. 
Thomas, G. E. V. 





Tampin, N. Sembilan. 





Klang Selangor. 


Batang Padang, Perak. 

[poh, Perak. 

Van Benningen von Helsdingen.Dr. R. Tanjong Pandan, 


Walker, Lt. Col. R. S. F., c.m.g. 
Waterstradt, J. 
W T atkins, A. J. W. 
Welham. H. 
Wellington, Dr. A. R. 
West, Rev. B. F. 

WlCKKTT, F., M.I.C.E. 

Williams, J. II. 
Winstedt, R. 0. 
W t ood, E. G. 
Wolff, E. C H. 

Taipeng, Perak. . 

Batjan, Sourabaya. 




U. S. A. 

Lahat, Perak. 


Tapah, Purak 

Kuala Lumpur. 


*Y0UNG, H. S. 

Bau, Sarawak. 

Annual Report for 1907. 

Tbe Council are glad to be able to state that during the 
year the financial state of the Society has been satisfactory and 
that there have been a considerable number of new members 
added to the Society. 

The following were elected this year : 

Mb. J. W. Krieckenbeek 

„ E. M. J ANION 
Dr. T. Hayward Hays 
Mb. E. Costa Dew 

C. Da Pra 

G. A. Hall 

N. E. A. Gardner 




Mr. H. Wellman 
J. T. Marrinbr 
13. T. K. Johnson 
E. Anderson 
Dr. F. Dent 
Hon. A. R. Adams 







The Council have to record the loss to the society of the 
Right Reverend Bishop Hose who has lately retired from the 
East. Bishop Hose was the founder of the Society in the year 
1877 and was the last member of the original council of tbe 
Society in the Straits Settlements. He was the first president 
of the society and occupied that position almost without break 
till his retirement in February of this year. 

During the past year, the Hon. Secretary, Mr. H. N. Ridley 
was absent on leave for nine months and Mr. Hellier kindly 
acted for him. 

A journal No. 48 was issued and another No. 49 is ready 
for distribution to the Members. 

A Map Committee was formed to bring out a new edition 
of the map, the old edition being sold out, and they commenced 
the work of compiling and revising. 

An Index to the Journal was compiled by Mr. W. I) 
Barnes and offered to the Society. It was decided to complete 
and publish it when volume 50 was published. 

A number of books and pamphlets were added by presenta- 
tion to the Library of the Society. 

The Treasurer's report is appended. 

i 2 sis 

•» § S 5 

' : 1 \s ■ =g.| • 11 ; | -| -| ■ 

be a a % "HE £ £ fa 

i,Sm] |^ »- g . _ » ^ 

".J'B : a 5 3 - : § "3 : "a : J* : .sf ! 

ii 1 1 

S_: I 

00.^300— -t 

Si 51 =-. 01 b 

23SC}E3=5^ ■-.9' _ _ o 

I ill S* jl SA?.5 SJ 
|ls 3 3 $ \ g= 


- v 1 "* 




Royal Asiatic Society. 

I. Name and Objects. 

1. The name of the Society shall be ' The Straits 
Branch of the lioval Asiatic Society.' 

2. The objects of the Society shall be : — 

(a) the increase and diffusion of knowledge concerning 
British Malaya and the neighbouring countries. 

■(b) the publication of a Journal and of works and \ 

(c) the formation of a library of books and maps. 

II. Membership. 

3. Members shall be of two kinds — Ordinary and 

4. Candidates for ordinary membership shall be pro- 
posed and seconded by members and elected by a majority of 
the Council. 

5. Ordinary members shall pay an annual subscription 
of $5 payable in advance on the first of January in each year. 
Members shall be allowed to compound for life membership 
by a payment of $50. 


6. On or about the 30th of June in each year the 
Honorary Treasurer shall prepare and submit to the Council 
a list of those members whose subscriptions for the current 
year remain unpaid. Such members shall be deemed to be 
suspended from membership until their subscriptions have 
been paid, and in default of payment within two years shall 
be deemed to have resigned their membership. 

No member shall receive a copy of the Journal or other 
publication of the Society until hi* subscription for the 
current year has l>een paid. 

7. Distinguished persons and persons who have rendered 
notable service to the Societv mav on the recommendation of 
the Council be elected Honorary members by a majority at a 
(Jeneral meeting. They shall pay no subscription, and shall 
enjoy n4 the privileges of a member except a vote at meetings 
and eligibility for office. 

III. Officers. 

S. The officers of the Society shall be: — 

A President. 

Three Vice Presidents, resident in Singapore, Penang, and the 
Federated Malay States respectively. 

An Honorary Secretary. 
An Honorarv Treasurer. 


An Honorarv Librarian. 
Four Councillors. 

These officers shall be elected for one year at the annual 
(Jeneral Meeting, and shall hold office until iheir sueeessors 
are appointed. 

!). Vacancies in the above offices occurring during any 
vear shall 1)0 tilled bv the Council. 

IV. Council. 

10. The Council of the Society shall be composed of 
the officers for the current year, ami its duties and powers 
shall be: — 


(a) to administer the affairs, property and trusts of 
the Society. 

(b) to elect ordinary members and to recommend can- 
didates for election as Honorary members of the Society. 

(c) to obtain and select material for publication in the 
Journal and to supervise the printing and distribution of the 

(d) to authorise the publication of works and maps at 
the expense of the Society otherwise than in the Journal. 

(e) to select and purchase books and maps for the 

(f) to accept or decline donations on behalf of the 

(g) to present to the Annual General Meeting at the 
expiration of their term of office a report of the proceedings 
and condition of the Society. 

(h) to make and enforce by-laws and regulations for 
the proper conduct of the affairs of the Society. Every such 
by-law or regulation shall be published in the Journal. 

11. The Council shall meet for the transaction of 
business once a quarter, and oftener if necessary. Three 
officers shall form a quorum of the Council. 

V. General Meetings. 

12. One week's notice of all meetings and of the sub- 
jects to be discussed or dealt with shall be given. 

13. At all meetings the Chairman shall in the case of 
an equality of votes be entitled to a casting vote in addition 
to his own. 

14. The Annual General Meeting shall be held in 
February in each year. Eleven members shall form a 

15. (i) At the Annual General Meeting the Council 
shall present a Report for the preceding year and the Treas- 


urer shall render an account of the financial condition of 
the Society. Copies of such Report and account shall be 
circulated to members with the notice calling the meeting. 

(ii) Officers for the current year shall also be chosen. 

16. The Council may summon a General Meeting at 
any time, and shall so summon one upon receipt by the Secre- 
tary of a written requisition signed by five ordinary members 
desiring to submit any specified resolution to such meeting. 
Seven members shall form a quorum at any such meeting. 

17. Visitors may be admitted to any meeting at the 
discretion of the Chairman but shall not be allowed to address 
the meeting except by invitation of the Chairman. 

VI. Publications. 

18. The Journal shall be published at least twice in each 
year, and oftener if material is available. In the first number 
in each year shall be published the lleport of the Council, the 
account of the financial position of the Society, a list of 
members, the Rules, and a list of the publications received by 
the Society during the preceding year. 

19. Every member shall be entitled to one copy of the 
Journal, which shall be sent free by post. Copies may be 
presented by the Council to other Societies or to distinguished 
individuals, and the remaining copies shall be sold at such 
prices as the Council shall from time to time direct. 

20. Twenty- four copies of each paper published in the 
Journal shall be placed at the disposal of the author. 

VII. Amendments to Rules. 

21. Amendments to these Rules must be proposed in 
writing to the Council, who shall submit them to a General 
Meeting duly summoned to consider them. If passed at such 
General Meeting they shall come into force at once. 

A List of the Ferns of the Malay Peninsula. 

By H. X. Ridley, f.r.s. 


As might be expected in a wet tropical forest region such 
as the Malay Peninsula, the iiuiuIhm* of ferns is very large, no 
less than .**82 species being recorded, and further the number 
of individuals is so large that they form a very conspicuous 
feature in the forests and damp open spots. 

That the number of species occurring here will be very 
largely increased by futher discoveries may be taken as certain, 
for there still remains a very large area of the country es- 
ptK'ially in the centre and northern part of the peninsula 
which lias not as yet been investigated by the lovers of ferns. 

The ferns of the plain country of the west coast are 
probably pretty well known and the Thaiping J 1 ills ami some 
of the other hill-ranges have been the collecting grounds of 
Day, Scortechini, and Kunstler. The ferns of Penang were 
well collected by Curtis, but the hill-ranges of Selangor and 
I'ahang and the low country of the east coast have? as yet 
been onlv partiallv searched and that mainly bv myself. The 
northern states on the borders of Siam have been hardly in- 


vest iga ted at all, and are likely to produce many additions to 
our flora. 

In following the arrangement of Bcddomc's Ferns of 
British India, 1 have incorporated into the list some species 
recorded by him from definite localities in the j>en insula 
which have not been seen by me. There are however a good 
many recorded by him as from "Malay peninsula" without 
special localities, and which have not l>ccn apparently met 
with again. Those I have excluded at present as some authors 
include Tenasserim as part of the Malay peninsula and the 
plants thus vaguely localised may have been obtained across 
the border. 

Jour. Straiti Branch, R. A. Hoc., No. ft), 1008. 


I am indebted to Dr. Christ of Basle for identification of 
many species, as well as to Bishop Hose, and Surgeon General 
C. T. Matthew, who always spent his spare time in Sing- 
apore during the short stays of his ship in searching the 
forests of Singapore for ferns, witli no little success. 

The chief collectors of ferns in the peninsula have been 
Father Scortechini, Mi:. Day? Mr. Kunstler, who collected for 
the Calcutta Gardens, Mr. Hullett, flight Keverend Bishop 
Hose, Mr. Curtis and in earlier days W. Norris, Lady Dal- 
housie, Mr. Pinwill, Dr. Wallich and Cuming. 

Habitats. The most abundant and conspicuous fern is 
perhaps the well-known % * ttesam " (Uo'uhenia linearis which 
covers considerable tracts of country on the edges of forest, 
and whore the forest has l>een felled and burnt. In such 
spots it produces dense thickets very troublesome to penetrate. 
In the hill districts it is replaced by other species of Olei- 
c/tenia, (j. hi Ha. G. (jlaucfi and (#. flagrllaris. In more sandy 
places in the low country, we find the common bracken. Pterin 
aquiliaa taking its place. 'Phis is probably the most widely 
distributed and abundant of any vascular plant in the world. 
It is remarkable too how little this plant varies in different 
regions of the globe. There is but little visible difference 
between the bracken of the woods of Kent and that of the hot 
sandy country of Singapore, the chief difference being the 
more woody texture of the stalks in the tropical form. 

Another fern which forms thick masses is the local 
Matotiia prrlinata of Mount Ophir and others of our higher 
hills. This beautiful fern often occurs growing in close 
thickets, like bracken. 

Dipt oris Horsfieldii grows in a similar manner over the 
sea-coast cliffs and on clay banks at 2000 feet and upwards in 
close masses. It is noticeable that all these ferns are re- 
markably difficult to cultivate, abundantlv and readilv as thev 
grow in a natural state. All attempts to grow Dipteris and 
Matonia have failed, while the (Ueichenias and the Bracken 
too are notoriously troublesome to transplant. 

Very common and conspicuous too are the Lygodiums, 
known here as u Kibu-liibu,'? literally " thousands," from 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


their numerous leaflets, L. circinatum and L. m'urophyUum. 
So abundant are these ferns climbing over bushes and 
through grasses, that they are extensively used in decorating 
ballrooms in the form of twisted roj>es of the ferns. 

An oogonium esciilcntum is a very common fern fringing 
the banks of muddv rivers in dense thickets, and verv abun- 
dant too is the ,: *Lamiding %, Strnochlocna jm/u'stri* scrambling 
and climbing over trees and bushes. Both of these last 
mentioned ferns are eaten as potherbs by the Malays. 

AcrostichuiH aureum a big tufted fern occurring in tidal 
river mud all over the warmer parts of the world is very abun- 
dant. It occasionally is to be met with in damp places far 
away from the sea or any tidal river. In most of these places 
however I l>clieve that it has merely persisted for many years 
after the river on whose banks it formerly grow has been 
silted up ami now forms part of the dry land. A large clump 
still grows in the Economic Gardens at Singapore where the 
original river on which it doubtless first started its growth 
lias lieen drv land since anv historv of it has been known, 
though Xipah fruits still dug up in the surrounding soil prove 
that at one time the tides reached this spot. 1 have also 
found the Arrostirhum far inland at the base of Uunong 
Pantai in Johor, and still further from the sea at Bukit 
Asahan at the foot of Mount Ophir and over thirty miles from 
the Coast. Most of the ferns however occur in a more isolated 
manner, though many are very abundant. 

The richest localities for ferns are the wet densely 
forested hills at altitudes of from 1000 to 5000 feet but the 
damp rocky woods of the plains are also very rich. The drier 
woods are less abundantly supplied, but many species arc very 
characteristic of this kind of locality. Such are the Schizoeas, 
Lindsayas, Xeph rodiums. 

Even the sands of the sea-coast produce some species such 
as DavalVut solida and I), rlrgmis, the Humatas and Schiznea 
duhoioma. At high elevations there is a noticeable dis- 
appearance of the thin textured ferns such as the Xephro- 
diums and Lastraeas, which are replaced by the more eori- 

R. A. Soc., No. 50. 1008. 


aceous leaved xerophytic Dipteris, Matonia, Polypodiums, 
Oleandras and such ferns. 

Epiphytic species are very abundant frequently covering 
the trees, especially at high altitudes, but as it seen in other 
groups of plants, ferns which in the plants only occur on the 
upper branches of lofty trees, grow at an altitude of three or 
four thousand feet quite low down, and not rarely on rocks. 
Some of these high growing ferns are not at all easy to 
cultivate at low altitudes, but IDarallia triphylla which only 
occurs in a wild state on the topmost boughs of trees a 
hundred or a hundred and fifty feet high, I have met with 
on several occasions transplanted, accidentally or intentionally 
to the base of trees a few feet from the ground and thriving 
well. This fern was formerlv considered so rare that about 
20 years ago few herbaria in Europe had a specimen, but as 
a matter of fact it is by no means a rare plant. (J rowing as 
it does onlv on the inaccessible branches of lofty trees, it 
could only be obtained by searching for fallen boughs on 
which it happened to be growing. 

Two of the most curious of our ferns are epiphytic plants 
remarkable for their rhizomes being modified so as to form 
nests for ants. They are Leva no pi 'eras vornoxn and PI en pelt is 
sinuosa. The former which occurs abundantly on trees at 3000 
much after the manner of the rubiaceous plant Myrmeeodia. 
Pleopellis sinuosa has a thick scaly rhizome hollow inside and 
also inhabited by ants. It is abundant in Singapore. It 
is curious that flesh v and succulent as the rhizome of this 
plant is, it is one of the first epiphytic plants to die during 
a short dry spell. One would have thought its supply of 
water in the rhizome would have been sufficient to have 
prevented this. 

Distribution of Ferns. As ferns are disseminated by the 
floating of their dust-like spores on the wind to immense dis- 
tances it will easily be understood that many of the species 
have a very wide distribution over the surface of the globe. 
Ferns indeed are among the first of the higher plants to 
appear on newly cleared ground, if the soil and climate suit 

./our. Straits Branch 


The majority of our ferns occur in the Malay islands 
also, and a large proportion are found in the Mascarene 
islands, as well as India and Polynesia and South America, 
which is not the case with the higher flowering plants, few 
of which except some wmls carried ahout by human agency 
have as wide a distribution. Six species even occur in the 
British Isles, viz., Trichomaiies radicans, Hymenophyllum 
T nub rid ye use, Pleris aquilina, Lastrea Tlwly pleris and Poly' 
stichum aeuleatum and Adia»tum ( 1 apillus-rcneris. 

There are however about 40 species which are endemic, 
never having been collected anywhere else except in the 
peninsula at present. 

Uses of Ferns. 

A good manv of the local ferns are used for food in the 
form of pot herbs in place of spinach, or as sumbuls with 
currw but chieflv bv natives; for excellent as manv of these 
are, Europeans are not acquainted with their merits and rarely 
use them. Among the most popular are Sleuochloena pains- 
Iris the " Miding " or " Lamiding " of the Malays, Auisoyo- 
iiium esculent nut ik Pakn Anjing," and the water-fern Ccra- 
lo/dcris Ihalielroidvs, which occurs often abundantly in 
ditches. Of these ferns the young fronds are collected and 

From the stems of Kesam, ((ileiehenia linearis) are made 
pens, and they are also used for making the walls and par- 
titions of the tishing-stakes. 

The fronds of the common Pleopcltis Phymatodes, when 
dry, exhale a delicious odour of Coumarin, like that of the 
Tonkin bean. Hence this fern is known as Paku Wangi or 
scented fern. The fronds are dried and put among clothes, 
especially 1 am told by the Eurasian population in order to 
give them a pleasant perfume. 

Comparatively few ferns are accredited here with medical 
properties. The golden brown hairs on the rhizome of Cileo- 
iium Barometz are used as a styptic for wounds for which they 
are very suitable, and the rhizomes are sold in the drug-shop^ 

B« A. Soc., >*o. 50, 1908. 


under the name of ' Penawar Janibi." This vegetable fur is 
even exported to Europe for the same purpose, being used not 
only as a styptic but as an antiseptic in planters. 

The fronds of the number of a softer textured ferns are 
used pounded up as poultices for boils or sores ; such are those 
of Cyalhra Br u noma (also eaten as a pot herb by Jakuns), 
and Phcyopteris punctatum. 

The ashes of Drymiria qnvrri folia fronds are applied to 
the abdomen in eases of miscarriage. 



67. rirrinala (S\v.) Damp rocks and streams at about 4000 
feet elevation. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Hullett, Perry 
Wo) ; Perak. (iuuong Bubu (Cantley) : Kedah, Gunong 
Jerai (Ridley). Distrib. Australia, New Zealand and 
New Caledonia. 

67. diairjHX (Br.) Perak. (iunong Berumhun (Wray 158-1) ; 
Province Wclleslcv, Bukit Panchur (Ridlev 12633). 

var. af/nita Bedd. Perak (Scort echini. King's Coll. 
).') 1~>). hist ril), Malay isles, Australia. New Zealand. 

67. hirhi (Bl.) Hill districts. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Lang, 
Ridley); Perak ( Scort ech i ni ) : Penang Hill (Norris, 
llullett) ; Kedah, (iunong Jerai (Ridley). 

67. Xorrisii Mett. Hill districts. Perak, Bujong Malacca 
(Ridley yrm. Curtis 3314) : (iunong r u | iu (Wray 210) ; 
(jlunong Batu Putih (Wray 21.1). Endemic. 

67. gloura (Hook.) 6*. fon</i.s*iwa Bl. Very abundant at 
about 1000 feet elevation and upwards, forming dense 
masses. Johor, (.iunong Pulai (Ridlev 12127 ) : Malacca, 
Mt. Ophir (Lang) : Perak, Larut Hills (Fox 131, Ridley 
lonoS); Penang Hill very abundant (Ridley 7082)'; 
Kedah, (iunong Jerai ("Ridley). Distrib. Malaya, China, 
Australia, Polynesia, Trop. America. 

Jour. Straits Brunch 


67. fliiyplUms Spr. Abundant on hill tops from about 1000 
feet upwards. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Dcrry 004) ; Negri 
Sembilan, Gunong Angsi (Ridlev) : Perak, Maxwell's 
Hill (Kidlcv lOoVH)); Penang Hill (Hullett). Distrib. 
Masearenc isles, Malay isles, Polynesia. 

Gl. linearis (Burn). 67. tlichofoma, Willd. The commonest 
occurring everywhere in the low country, in immense 
almost impenetrable masses. Native name " Resam/' 
The stems used for making pens, and also for fishing 
stakes. Singapore, Tanglin. etc. (Ridley); Malacca; 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hidlev 1212N); Perak, Gopcng, 
Sungei Rayah (King's Coll. 10(>J> ) : Penang. Distrib. 
India, .Japan, Australia, Polynesia, Trop. America. 


C. HritHonis Wall. Common in woods at no great elevation. 
Native names •• Paku Pahat," % * Paku (rajah Rayah," 
''Paku llitani Pavah," "Paku Salamah." The leaves 
are eaten a> a vegetable by the Jakuns, and also used to 
poultice mhv legs, .lohor. near Castlewood, Ratu Pahat 
(Ridley 110GI): Negri Sembilan, Perhentian Tinggi 
(Ridley) : Malacca, Bukit Kavu A rang (Cant ley's Coll.), 
Rukit Tungul (Ridley 44o:;'), Hukit Bruang; Pahang, 
Tahan River (Kidlcv): Selangor, Kwala Lumpur (Kid- 
lev in |s:> ) . Batang Padang (Murdoch); Perak, (toping 
(King's Coll. K.j)'. Larut ( King's Coll. 188.1) : Penang 
Hill near the top (Kidley >:><»). Distrib. Malay 


.1. oltfroHs Hook. Singapore. Bukit Tiinah (Iiidley 12.V>I) : 
dohor. Bat u Pahat (Hullett): Selangor, Kwala Lumpur 
(Kidlcv HUL'i): Perak, Gunong Bubu (Cantlev) ; 
Penang Hill, Penara Bukit (Kidley ;i.):l, ; i:>(;, UnW). 
Distrib. Borneo. 
A handsome tree fern in damp forests. 

B. A. Soc., No. 50. 1908. 




A. hdebrosa Hook. The commonest tree fern in the low 
country, stem 8 to 12- feet tall. Singapore common, 
Bukit Tiinah, Chan Chu Kang (Bidley 1)123), Clnia Chu 
Kang (Ridley G029); Johor, Tanjong Kupang (Bidley 
4400) ; Malacca, Aver Panas, Aver Keroh (Bidley 
10705) ; Selangor, Batang Berjuntai (Ridley ?870), Gua 
Batu (Ridley 8141) ; Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 23591, 
?31T), Thaiping (Curtis) ; Penang Hill, Province Wel- 
lcsley, Tasek Uelugur (Ridley 6965) ; Kedah, Yan (Rid- 
lev 51 « 7). 

A. co mom Hook. Not rare in the low country, stem 8 or 9 
i'eet tall. Singapore, Bukit Tiinah, Jurong (Ridley 
oi.Vj). Reservoir woods. Perak, Kinta (King's Coll. 
7118), Larut (Bishop Hose); Penang Hill (Hullctt), 
Koad to Penara Bukit (Ridley 7153). Distrib. Malay 

A. Iiidlcj/i Baker. Stem very short almost none. Damp low- 
woods. Singapore, Sungai Morai (Ridlev 1401), Chan 
Chu Kang (Pidlcy 6li2), Chua Chu Kang (6031). 

A. commutata Mett. Hills at 1000 feet. Malacca, Mt. Ophir 
(Ridley 9857, 3319): Pahang, Kluang Terbang 
(Barnes) : Selangor, Bukit llitam (Ridley 7\S09) ; Perak, 
I,arut (King's ('oil. 190N, 7150), (iunoiig Bubu (Cant- 
ley), Bujong Malacca (Ridley 9G04). 

A. (jhtbru Hook. Perak (Scortechini) ; Kedah Peak (Bidley 
515G, 5157) ; Langkawi, (funong Rayah (Curtis). Dis- 
trib. India, China, Malava. 

A. ylnnca (Sw.) A. conlaminuus Hook. A splendid tree 
fern sometimes 20 feet tall, with the rachis and petiole 
ashy blue. Johor, Bukit Soga (Ridley 1066); Sungei 
l.'jong (Hullctt) : Selangor, Pahang track (Ridlev 
8633), dinting Bidai (Bidlcy 7868) ; Perak, Larut Hills 
(King's Coll. 4032). Common near the top of the hills. 

Jour. Stralte Branch, 


Penang Hill common at the top "(Ridley 7150). Distrib. 
India and Malay islands. 

I found a very curious form with fasciated fronds 
on the Thaiping hills near the top. 

A, Kittgii Bedd. Johor, Gunong Panti (Ridley) ; Perak, top 
of Gunong Bubu (Kings Coll. 7402/ Wray 3860). 

*1. crenulala Melt. Johor, Gunong Panti (Ridley) ; Selan- 
gor, Bukit Kutu (Ridley T8G5) ; Dindings, Lumut (Rid- 
ley) ; Perak, Gunong Keledang (Ridley 9548), Bujong 
Malacca (Ridley 9551); Waterfall, Thaiping Hills (no 
?8()5). Distril). Java. 

A. (labia Bedd. Perak (Scortechini), Larut (Iving^ Coll. 
2493). Endemic. 

A. obxctmt, Scort. Perak, Gunong Hijau (Scortechini). 

*1. (rich ode* ma Bedd. Perak (Scortechini). Endemic. 


M. prct inula Br. By no means one of the rarest ferns a* 
Beddome savs. It is local but usuallv very abundant 
growing like bracken, where it occurs usually in open 
spots on the top of bills. Malacca, Mount Ophir, Pa- 
dang Batu, (all collectors) 3000 feet elevation. Selan- 
gor, Hulu Semangkok (Ridlev): Perak, Gunong Bubu 
(Scortechini 701); Kedab Peak (Uidley). 

It also occurs in the Carimon islands quite low 
down near the Waterfall and in Borneo. 



I), awpla Bak. Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Ridley 5188), (Kings 
Coll. 2159). Also Borneo. 

R. A. Soc., No, 50, 19U8. 

- f 

■■ "i • 


D. Kin g ii Bedd. Perak, Gunong Batu Putih (King's Coll. 
8058) and Larut (2118). Endemic. 


C. Baromeiz, Link. In woods at no elevation, not rare. 
Native name " Penawar Jambi." The hairs from the 
rhizome sold as a styptic. 'Hie rhizome usually short 
creeping but I found it with a stem 4 feet tall on Kedah 
Peak. Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley 10981); Selangor, 
Bukit Kulu (Ridley 78(34) ; Perak. Bujong MaJacca 
( Ridley 0532), Gunoiig Batu Putih (Wray 489), Gunong 
Ilijau (Scorteehini 122(5); Kedah, Gunong Serai (Rid- 
ley 517 G) ; Penang, Mr. Erskine (Curtis). Distrib. 
Malay islands and S. China. 


L. aunosa Bl. Epiphytic with great irregular hollow tuber- 
culated rhizomes full of ants. On very lofty Diptero- 
carpus trees in the lower country, on lower trees in the 
hills. Singapore, Bukit Timah (Ridley); Malacca, 
Simgci Hudang (Goodenough no 1417 ) : Selangor, Bukit 
llitam (Kelsali) ; Perak, Thai ping Hills (fiervey, etc.) 
very abundant, Gunong Bubu (Cantley). Pistrib. 
Malav isles. 


II. pulyimlhu* S\v. Common on trees and nx-ks, in the low 
country and up to a considerable altitude. Singapore, 
Bukit Timah, Bajau, Kranji (Ridley 5G07 ) : Johor, 
Kampong Bahru, Gunong Pulai (Ridley) ; Pahang, 
Tahan River (Ridley) ; Malacca, Mt. Ophir (R. Perry) ; 
Perak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley 9609); Penang Hill 
(Hullett, Ridley 70T2) ; Kedah, Gunong Jerai (Ridley), 
var. Blumeana. Singapore, Bukit Timah (Matthew), 
Sungei Morai (Ridley 440(5), Bukit Mandai (Ridley 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


89:58) ; Pahang, Tahan River (Bidlev) ; Selangor, Bukit 
Kutu (Ridley 7872): Perak (Scortcchini 320). 

//. jarankum (Spreng). Rocks and trees from about 1000 
feet upward*. Johor, (Junong Pulai (Hullett) ; Malacca, 
Mt. Ophir (Ridlev 9992) ; Selangor, Pahang Track (Rid- 
ley 8773, 8774); Perak, Thaiping Hills (Kings Coll. 
218?, Seortechini, Wray), Bujong Malacca (Ridley). 

var. hmliuHi. Perak, Maxwell's ilill (Bishop J lose*, 
Ridley 5182, Curtis 2084); Penang Ilill (Hullett). 
Distrib. Mascarene islands. India to Australia. 

//. Smil/iii Hook. Singapore, Kranji (Matthew) : Johor, 
G in long Banang, Batu Pahat (Ridlev 101)85): Selangor, 
Semangkok Pass (Ridley 12034); Penang Hill (Ridley 
7072). Distrib. Malay isles. 

//. ftrodurhim K/.e. Singapore, Kranji (Ridley 1687) ; 
Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Wray): Kedah, Gunoiig Jerai 
(Ridlev). Distrib. Malava, Polvncsia. 

//. f/ihtlahtm (Sw.) Perak, Larut (King's Col lector). Dis- 
trib. .fax a and New Zealand. 

//. tuuhrithjpuse Sin. Rare. Kedah Peak (Ridley 5178). 
Distribution Kurope. Africa, South America and New 
Zealand. Identified bv Dr. Christ. 

.//. anilrohnn Y. I). Bosch. Singapore, Woodlands (Christ) ; 
Perak at -lOfM.i feet alt. (King's Coll.): Penang 3O0O 
feet alt. (Day). Also Java. 

//. fi/finr V. D. Boseh. Johor, Mt. Austin (Ridlev 1253!), 
125-10). (Junong Pulai (Ridley 12135). Distrib. Java. 

//. tlfufkiiftittuii Sw. Singapore, Kranji (Ridley lb'87 ) ; 
Perak, Maxwell's Ilill (Wray): Kedah, Gunong Jerai 
(Ridley). Distrib. Java. 

//. Xmtii Hook. Common on trees low country up to 4000 
fivt elevation. Singapore, Bukit Mandai (Ridley 98-10), 
Kranji, Woodlands, Selitar: Johor, Pengaram, Tanjong 
Bunga (Ridley): Malacca, Mt. Ophir, (Junong Mering 
(Ridley), Batu Tiga (Derry) ; Pahang, Talian River 

B, A. 8oc„ No. 50, 1908. 



(Ridley 2153, 21M), Kluang Torbang (Barnes); Se- 
langor, Rawang, Bukit Kutu (Kidlcy 1)852), llulu Se- 
mangkok (12036); Negri Sembilan, Perhentian Tinggi 
(Ridlcv) ; Dindings, Lumut (Ridlcv 7145); Perak 
(Scorteehini), Maxwell's Hill (Curtis 2083), Bujong 
Malacca (Ridlev 9C>10); Penang Hill, Penara Bukit 
(Itidlcy 7U6)." Distrib. Malay isles, Fiji. 


Tr. Motleyi V. I). Bosch. Singapore, Stagmount (Ridley). 
Distrib. Tenasserini, Andaman*, Ceylon, Borneo, New 

Tr. Ilenzaicnuim (Parish). Singapore, Feruvalley, Bukit 
Timah (Matthew). Distrib. Burmah. 

Tr. musroides (Sw.) On Bocks. Singapore, Feruvallev, 
Bukit Timah; Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Ridley). Distrib. 
India and Tropical Africa and America. 

var. aub/imbalum. Very near the last species. Perak, 
Bocks, Bujong Malacca (Ridley). 

Tr. ncil (flier reuse, Bedd. Perak (Scorteehini). Distrib. 
S. India. 

Tr. /Htrruiitin Poiret. Perak (Scorteehini); IVnang Hill 
(Kidlcy 1M8); Kedah Peak (Ridley). Distrib. Mada- 
gascar, India, Malay isles, Japan, China and Polynesia. 

Tr. humile Forst. Singapore, Woodlands (Matthew). Dis- 
trib. Pacific islands, Philippine*. 

Tr. palidum Bl. On trees and rocks usually at a consider- 
able elevation, easily recognized by its ashv grov color 
when alive. Singapore, Kranji (Matthew) ; Johor, 
Uunong Panti (Ridley 41G1) ; Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Rid- 
ley 0885); Perak, Gunong Hijau (Scorteehini). Dis. 
trib. Java. 

Tr. diyitaiitm Swartz. On trees. Singapore, Kranji (Rid- 
ley) ; Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley); Selangor, Bukit 
Kutu (Ridley ?8<3); Perak (Scorteehini), Gunong 

Jour, Straits Branch* 


Hijau ^Ridlev) ; Pcnang Hill (Bishop Hose), Pcnara 
Bukit (Curtis 3062); Kcdah Peak (Ridley). Distrib. 
Mauritius and Java. 

Tr. proliferuw Bl. Perak, Larut 100-4000 feet (King's Coll. 
2565). Distrib. Java, Philippines. 

Tr. bipunctatum Poir. T. F'dinda Bory. On rocks. Sing- 
apore, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley) ; Johor, Gunong Panti 
(Hullett) ; Selangor, Bukit Hitam, Petal ing, Langat, 
Batu Caves (Ridley 8143), Paliang Track (Maehado) ; 
Dindings, Lumut (Ridlev): Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 
1860, 1913, Scortechini), Thaiping (Ridley), Bujong 
Malacca (Ridley 9606). Distrib. African islands, India, 
Ceylon, Pacific islands. 

Tr. pyxidifnrum L. Perak (Scortechini), Goping (King's 
Coll. 4185) ; Pcnang Hill (Ridley). Distrib. Brazil. 

Tr. javanicum Bl. very common on rocks in forest. Sing- 
apore. Bukit Timah (Ridlev 9561)); Johor, Gunong 
Panti, Batu Pahat (Ridley* 11065) ; Pahang, Tahan 
Woods (Ridley 2181) ; Selangor, Rawang, Bukit Hitam, 
Pahang Track (Ridlev 8665) ; Dindings, Lumut (Ridlev 
7149*/) ; Perak, Maxwell's Hill at 3000 feet (Scortechini 
541), Goping (King's Coll. 584); Penang Hill (Ridlev 
7149) ; Lankawi (Curtis 2423). Distrib.' India, Malay 

Mixed with garlic and onion the dried fronds are 
smoked as tobacco to cure headaches. 

Tr. riqiduw, Swartz. Common in woods. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah, Sungei Buluh, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 6119), 
Toas (1407); Johor, Castlewood, Gunong Pulai (Rid- 
lev) ; Pahang, Tahan River (Ridlev 2161) ; Malacca, Mt. 
Ophir (Ridlev 3332, 3320); Negri Sembilan, Gunong 
Angsi (Ridlev 11815); Selangor, Batu Caves (Ridley 
8661), Bukit Ilitam (Kelsall), Bukit Kutu (Ridlev 
7871) ; Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 2404) ; Penang Hill 
(Ridley); Kedah, Gunong Jerai (Ridley); Tringanu, 

ft. A. Soc., No. 60, 1908. 


Bnndi (Rostado). Distrib. S. Africa and islands, 
Ceylon, Malay Archipelago, Polynesia and S. America. 

Tr. pluma Hook. Not rare in the hills at about 4000 feet alt. 
Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Bishop Hose, etc.) ; Selangor, Bukit 
Hitam, Ginting Bidai, Semangkok Pass (Ridley 1210?) ; 
Perak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley), Gunong Buim (Cant- 
Icy), Gunong Hi jau (Wray, Scortechini 344). 

77. parviflorum Poir. Tr. foenivulaceum Bory. Singapore, 
Mooivs Herb (fide Beddome) ; Perak, Gunong Bubu 
(Murton). Distrib. Mascarene isles, Borneo, Queens- 

Tr. (jem malum Sm. Malacca, Mt. Opbir, Mering and Tun- 
'duk (Ridley 9881, Derry GOT). Distrib. Malay isles, 
Polynesia, S. America. 

Tr. apiifolium, Presl. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (King's Collector 
iide Beddome). Distrib. Malay isles, Polynesia. 

Tr. hispid til urn Melt. Singapore, near Selitar (Matthew and 
Ridley) : Perak and Goping (King's Coll. 531), Tapa 
(Wray 1305). Distrib. Borneo. 

Tr. imi.rimum Bl. Jobor, Gunong Panti (Ridley); Malacca 
(loc. incert.), (Hervey) ; Selangor, Pahang Track (Rid- 
ley 8G38), Semangkok (12032) ; Perak, Bujong Malacca 
a curious small form (Ridley 1)534), Larut 2500-3000 
(King's Coll. 2225-528G), Maxwell's Hill (Scortechini 
225), Tea Gardens (Ridley 3059). Dsitrib. Malay isles 
and Polynesia. 

Tr. radirans, Sw. Jobor, Paiani, Batu Pahat (Ridley 
lOD'JO) ; Malacca, J cram Xvalas (Derry 1120) ; Sungei 
Ujong (Hullett) : IVrak. Maxwell's Hill (Ridlev 5183, 
K>;oj. Gunong Batu Putib (King's Coll. 8045) ; Penang 
Hill at 2500 feet (Hullett). Distrib. Both hemispheres. 

Tr. denticvhilum Bl. Jobor, (iunong Pantai, Gunong Pulai 
(Ridley 12135) ; Negri Sembilan, Perhentian Tinggi 
(Ridley) ; Penang Hill; Kedah Peak (Ridley). Distrib. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



77. vtir'ti "in rut in IV. J i: ;.:■• :■!"." w,v»c]i -.L :rws. StJaiifror. 

i limine Bid*: iliidi*'* - "r"^.: P'-riii:. Mfevweii"? Hill 

H uni*. Nt-tirif l-1lU-. . . ■-iiutoh: B*-r TV:::. <Wr*iv 3-M). 

lh-iriii. Mhi*»v imc-.. ^timi LU>; '-iLJaTifc. 
Tr. hifi'atri'itst ('LriT:. yitaWL. M:. < >:•!/": < IjiTig » : Ferak. 

IJujoiio Maib-.vt 'K. : i"v I»"ll i. Ti)a:r^u-r Hill>. En- 


Jr. (,h*/i,nn„ IV:. lit j a-.- -a. M:. <">j»l- 1 j. < Timing Tn niink 
«]{i«ljt-v !«*<*2. J«vs:: ■ : I'-.-i,;:. Buying Ma!an-a (Ridlry 
!*i.;os )m ]»Mr.':-. .lu'.i:, 

Jr. lliiiiriti Ci.-r. >iiiiraji- •:■•■. IV.ikii Tiu^ih (li!d]i-\ ). 

Jr. «/.. J'«-iihuj.\ M«»l'"> I?-"*-! iMa::iivw «. 


Hi mata. 

II. in hroj'liiH'i Siniih. On dead invs or high up on living 
on#-». or a!*o on the ground near the M-a. Singapore. 
Krauji (Kidlry J>iUuj. Bajau. Changi i>ea»h (4:>.V>), 
Pulau Broni and Pulau Chin (llulleit): .lohor. Bukit 
Paiani. Bain Fahat (Ridley): Pahang. IVkan (Ridley 
5Mi"iii|: lVrak. Lampatang (Si-ortcvhini l.VW). B. l\ 1>. 
(King*- (.'oil. 7*21). Malav isles, Polvnesia. 

H. nutjHstntn Wall. Singapore (Cuming X\?\) % Sungei Morai. 
Chan i.lui Kang (Ridley 35!»!» ) ; Jolior. Bukit Pengarnm. 
Kainj>ong Bahru (Ridlev) : Malacca. Mt. Ophir (Ridlev 
:\MW>): Selangor. Pahang Track (Ititlloy S(ilT): Din- 
dings, Luinut (Ridlev • i:U») ; Pcrak, Sungei Rvah 
(King's Coll. 828), Maxwell's Hill (Seortechini 108), 
Bnjong Malacca. (Junong Keledang (Ridley JKmO) : 
Penang, Waterfall (Ridley), Hill (King); Kedah Peak 
(Ridley oi;!)), A very curious form crenatelv deeply 
lobed to the midrib grows on the roeks on Padaug Batii, 
Mt. Ophir (Xo. ;m\)). Kndemic. 

H. jxinilh'la Wall. Singapore, Tanjong Merawan (Ridley); 
Malacca and .7 olio r; Pahang, Pekan (Ridley): Lankawi 
(Curtis). Distrih. Burmah to Polynesia. 

R. A. Soc., No, 60, 1908. 


II. pedata Smith. Singapore, Kranji; Johor, Sungei Ban, 
Mt. Austin; Malacca, Tanjong Kling (Bidley) ; Pahang, 
Tahan River (Ridley), Khiang Terbang (Barnes) ; Bin- 
dings, Lumut (Ridicy 7155) ; Tringganu, Bundi (Ros- 
tado) ; Penang (King 1374), Penang Hill (Ridley 
7077); Kedah Peak (Ridley 5179); Lankawi (Curtis). 
Distrib. Malay isles, India, Cevlon, Masearene isles. 

//. pinna tip da Baker. Rare. Malacca Mt. Ophir (Ridley) ; 
Perak, Larut 3-4000 feet alt. on trees (Kings Coll. 
6393). Also Borneo. 

II. sewM folia Bl. " Singapore Sinclair v ) Beddomc. Dis- 
tril). Java. Xot seen. 


L. hymenophylloides Bl. On rocks and rotten trees. Perak, 
Bujong Malacca (Ridley 9545), Gunong Batu Putih 
(King's Coll. 8046), Kinta (King's Coll. 7i28) ; Penang, 
near Richmond pool (llullett, King). Distrib. Malay 
isles to Polynesia. 

L. nodosa Presl. Perak, top of Gunong Bubu 5000 to 5300 
feet alt. (King's Coil. 7421, Wray 383). Distrib. India 
and .lava. 

L. parvula Sm. On trees in mangrove swamps. Singapore, 
Sungei Buluh, Tanjong Merawan, Kranji (Ridley 87). 
Distrib. Malay isles. 

L. affinis Hook. Perak, Gunong Batu Putih (Wray 1030) ; 
Penang (Lady Dalhousie). Distrib. Ceylon and Malay 


P. Emorsoni Presl. On trees and rocks usually on the hills. 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (llullett); Malacca, Batu Tiga 
(Deny) ; Selangor, Rawang, Bukit Kutn and Bukit 
Hi tarn (Ridley 89G4) ; Perak, Hermitage Hill, Bujong 
Malacca (Ridley), Maxwell's Hill (Scortechini 120, 

Jour. Straiti Branch. 


215); Prov. Welleslev. Bukit Panchur (Xativc Coll.); 
Penang, Government Hill (Ridley, Kvmstler 1307); 
Kedah Peak (Ridley 5170). Distrib. Malay isles and 

P. contigua Swartz. Paliang, Tahan River (Ridley) ; Sungei 
Ujong (Hullett): Perak, Gunong Hijau (Scortechini 
4U0). Distrib. Malay isles and India. 


D. sol'uht Swartz. Common on tree trunks and in dry sandy 
spots. Singapore, abundant in the Botanic Gardens, 
Sungei Morai (Ridley): Johor, Jaffa ria (King); Pa- 
hang; Perak. Kinta (King's Coll. ^OG8) ; Selangor, 
dinting Bidai (Ridley 084) : Penang, above the Water- 
fall (Hullett): Kedah. Yan (Ridley). Distrib. Poly- 
nesia and Malay isles. 


D. elcgaus Swartz. On trees or sandy points, " Paku Teru- 
tep. v Singapore. Changi beaeli (Ridley -J'ttl) : Paliang. 
Pekan, Kota Glanggi (Ridley 1598f/): Malaeea, Sungei 
Hudang (Ridley), Pulau Cndan (CantleyV Coll.), Jasin 
(Goodenough ) : Srlangor, Semangkok Pass (Ridley); 
Perak (Sioruvhini ), Thaiping Hills Cottage (Hcrvcy); 
Tringganu. ('berating River (Ridley): Prov. Welleslev, 
Permatang Britain on cocoa nut trees (Ridley) : Kedah, 
Kedah Peak ( Ridley .">1.V)). Distrib. Africa, India, 
China, Malav i>les, Polynesia. 

• » 

D. epiphf/l/ti Bl. On rocks. Perak. Gunong Batu Putih 
(King's Coll. 803; ). Distrib. Polynesia and Java. 

D. dlrari'vla Rl. JVrak (Scortechini). Distrib. Java. 

D. biillata Wall. Selangor, Paliang Track (Ridley 8031); 
Perak, Larut Hills " IWOO-IUOO feet alt. (King's Coll. 
(5081). Cauliield's Hill (Scortechini 31)1): Kedah Peak, 
rocks of the precipice (Ridley 5158). Distrib. Assam 
and Nepal. 

D. Iriphylla Hook. On boughs of lofty trees rarely low down. 
Singapore (Cuming 339), Woodlands, Bukit Timah 

B. A. Soc., No. 60, 19U6. 



(Ridley 9005) : Johor, Bukit Fatani, Batu Pahat (Ridley 
11004), Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; Negri Sembilan, Per- 
hentian Tinggi (Ridley 108PJ) ; Perak (Scortechini). 


M. pinnata Cav. " Paku Merah " on banks in the hills. 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (Ridley); Malacca, Mt. Ophir 
(Ridlev 3318) ; Selangor, Batang Padang (Near dock), 
Bukit Hitam (Ridley), Pahang Track (Ridley 8GG0) ; 
Perak, La rut Hills (Scortechini 153, 407), Gunong 
Keledang (Ridley 1)511) and Bujong Malacca (U533) ; 
Penang Hill abundant at the top (Bi&hop Hose, Ridley, 
Wallich, Lady Dalhousie). 

var. luzonica. Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 214-4). 
l)Mrih. Philippines. 

M. slriyom *Swartz. Selangor, Rawang, Ginting Bidai, Bukit 
Kutu (Ridlev 18G0); Penang, Penara Bukit (Curtis 

J/. Kurzii Clarke. Perak, Gunong Bubu (King's Coll. 8331). 

M. ■iiuirtjumUs Tlumb. Lankawi (Curtis) not in fruit but 
the frond resembles tins plant. 

D. Moorccuia all*, but pinnules much larger. "Perak, Larut 
Hills (Curtis a? 23). 

M. iipf/anvae L. Singapore, Aug Mo Kio. Changi (Ridley 
G034), Gelang by a tidal stream (02 48) : Johor, Tebing 
Tinggi (Ridley); Pahang, Kuala Tahan; Selangor, 
Caves, Kuala Lumpur (Ridley 8G41), Ginting Bidai 
(Ridlev 7855); Negri Sembilan, Perhentiau Tinggi 
(Ridley <>85G ); Perak, Thaiping (King's Coll. 8371), 
Tanjong Malim (Ridley), Telor Pinang (9740) ; Penang 
(Curl is"); Prow NVUesley, Tasek Gelugur (Ridley); 
Kedah (KingV Coll. 1245). Lankawi (Fox); Kelantan, 
Kamposa (Ridlev) a very glabrous form. 

var. hirla. Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Track (Rid- 
ley 8G3i) ; Perak, LTu Kerling (King's Coll. 8GG1). 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


M. moluccuna Bl. Perak alt. 3000-1000 loot (Seortechini), 
Maxwell's Hill (Curtis 2085) ; Selangor, Paliang Track 
(Ridley 8G34). Distrib. Malay isles. 


8. chine nsis Swartz. The Lace fern, on banks at considerable 
altitudes, this plant seems to prefer still: yellow clay. 
Paliang, Kuala Paliang near the Sultans tombs (Ridley 
4230), Tahan River; Selangor, Uinting Bidai, Seinang- 
kok Pass common (Ridley) ; Penang, Penara Bukit, etc. 
common (Ridley). Distrib. Mascarene, India, Malay 
isles, China, Polynesia. 



L. cult rata Swartz. On rocks and banks. Pahang, Tahan 
River (Ridley 2151); Malacca, Ml. Ophir (Ridley); 
Selangor, Rawang, (iinting Bidai (Ridley 78<(i) ; IVrak, 
La rut (Scortechini, King's Coll. 2413), 'lea Gardens 
(Ridley), Bujong Malacca (Ridley DG05) ; Kedah Peak; 
Lankawi (Curtis). 

var. Lobbimm. Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley). Dis- 
trib. Mascarene isles, India, Japan, Australia. 

L. repents Thw. Singapore, Bukit Tiniah (Ridley) ; Malacca 
(Hervey); Selangor, Uniting Bidai (Ridley T845), Pa- 
ining Track (Ridlev 8(>1>1) ; Perak, Bujong Malacca 
(Ridley JM503). Lanit Hills (Fox). Distrib. Mauritius, 
India, Malav isles, Polynesia. 

L. scan den* Hook. .Johor, Sempang Kiri (Ridley), Uunong 
Pulai (Jlullett); Pahang, Kluang Terbang (Barnes); 
Malacca, Selandau (Uoodenough), Sungei Hudang, Ma- 
chap (Ridley) ; Perak, Thaiping Hills (Hervey, W'ray), 
Bujong Malacca (Ridley) ; Penang, Uoverninent Hill 
(Ridley), Richmond pool (Fox). Distrib. Malay isles, 

B. A. Soc, No. 50, 1008. 


L. orhiculala Lam. Pahang. Tahan River (Ridley) ; Malacca, 
Mt. Ophir (llullott, Ridley 2319); Selangor, Ilulu Se- 
mangkok (Kidlcv) : Perak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley 
93(50), Uunong Bubu (Scortcchini 133), Thaiping Hills 
(Ridlev) : Penang, Ciovernnient Hill road (Ridley), 
Richmond Pool (Fox); Kodak Peak (Ridley 5163, 

var. tenent. Perak, (.iunong Batu Putih (King's Coll. 
803D). Distrih. India, China, Au.-tralia. 

L. Laneca L. Common in woods. '* Paku Dudok bukit" 
" Paku (.^u^llang. , ■ , Singapore, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 
1(153), Bukit fimah (Ridley 10815); Johor, Uunong 
Panti (Ridlev 1118), Hadji Senawi, Sempang Kiri 
(KMdley 1(MJ(>;) : Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Ridley 3347); 
Sclangor, Batu Tiga (Ridley): Negri Sembilan, Per- 
hentian Tinggi (Ridley), Bukit Danan (Cant ley's 
Coll.): Perak (Scortechini) : Tringanu, Bundi (Ros- 
tado); Penang, Hill (Mulletl): Kedah Peak (Ridley 
5101 ). Distrih. Ccvlon, Malav isles. S. America. 

L. lorncrnsis J look, hi woods. Singapore. Sungei Jurong 
(Ridley S)Sp>): ,Johor, Gunong p u Iai (Ridley 12132); 
Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley): Perak, Thaiping Hills 
(Ridley 3002). Distrih. Borneo. 

L. riff ida Sin. On clayey soil in woods. Singapore, Sungei 
Bululi (Ridlev); Malacca, Mt. Ophir. Gunong Mering 
(Ridley 3350. Griitith, Lohh, Cuming 3DJ ) ; Perak, 
Bujong Malacca (Curtis 3311). Lamt at 2300 to 2500 
feet alt. (King's Coll. 3080). Endemic. 

L. ]Yu/l'rnic Hook. In water in woods. Singapore, Tampinis 
(Ridlev 20;<M). Changi (0035); Malacca, Mt. Ophir 
(Ridley 3333). Distrih. Banka. 

L. diccrfjrns. Wall. In drv woods common. Singapore, 
Bukit Tiinali (Ridley 1231//), Bajau (4321), Sungei 
Morai (1000), Pulau Chin (Murton) ; Johor, Uunoug 
Banang (Ridley 10'J<o), Tanjong Kupang; Malacca, 
Batu Tiga (Derry) and Ayer Panas; Kegri Sembilan, 

Jour. Straits Branch 


Gunong Angsi (Ridlev) : Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Scorte- 
chini 499): Penang* Hill (Hullctt, Roxburgh); Trin- 
ganu, Bundi (Rostado) ; Kcdah Peak (Ridley). Dis- 
trib. Borneo. 

L. lanuginosa Wall. On trees usually near the sea. Sing- 
apore, Jurong (Iluilett), Bajau (Ridley (>r>5;5) also es- 
tablished in the Botanic* Gardens.; Perak (Scortechini) ; 
Penang (Wallich). Distril). Africa, Burmah, Australia. 


S. lobata Poir. Common in woods. Singapore, Bukit Timah 
(Ricllev 9501) ; Malacca (Cuming ;Y.)2) : Johor, Gunong 
Pulai '(Ridlev 12i:H); Pahang, Tahan River (Ititlloy 
2108) ; Perak, La rut Hills (Scortechini, Ridley 1O0TO), 
Gunong Batu Putih (Wrav 292) ; Penang, Government 
Hill (Pox). Distrib. India. 

S. (hmi/lioidrti, Bl. Common in woods. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah common; Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley 21T9) ; 
Malacca, Mt. Ophir (;W48, tf3.">l) ; Xegri Sembilan, Gu- 
nong Angsi (Ridlev) ; Perak, Larut Hills at 4000 feet 
(Scortechini 230, 4:*;</), Gunong Batu Putih (King's 
Coll. 8044) ; Penang Hill ; Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado) ; 
Kcdah Peak (Ridlev). Distrib. Malav isles. 

*S. CHsifo/ia Swartz. Singapore, Chua Chu Kang (Ridley 
«o;w, 0O28); Johor, Gunong Pulai (Ridley); Penang 
Hill. Distrib. Africa, India, Polynesia, Australia. 

Sc. hrtrrojihy/la Dry. L. Finlaynomana Wall. No. 2197. 
Singapore, Pulau Brani (Iluilett) ; Malacca (Robertson) 
tide Hooker. Not to be found now, perhaps a garden 
escape. Distrib. Mauritius, India, Malay isles, Hong- 

Sc. media Br. Singapore, Pulau Brani (Iluilett). Lost like 
the last. Distrib. Tropical Australia. 

Sc. rordata Gaud. i% Malay Peninsula " (tide Beddome). 
Distrib. New Guinea and Rawak. 

H. A. Soc., No. 60, 1908. 


8c. Gueriniana Gaud. Malacca (fide Beddome). Distrib. 
Eastern Malay islands. 1 have seen no specimens of 
these last two. 


A. caudatum L. Perak, Bukit Kupayiang, Sungei Siput 
(Ridley), Gnnong Tundok (King's Coll. 8351) ; Selan- 
gor, Limestone rocks, Batu Caves (Ridley 8142). Dis- 
trib. Tropics of Old World. 

A. flabellulatum L. Singapore, Pulau Ubin, on rocks near 
the sea (Ridley 805), Road side near Changi, a flaccid 
form on shady banks (Ridley 2080) ; Malacca, Cape 
Rachado (Hervcy). Distrib. Eastern tropics. 

A. Capillus-veneris L. Kedah, Pulau Songsong, an island 
olf the Kedah coast, on rocks by the sea (Ridley 5155). 
Distrib. Whole World. 

A. aethiopimni L. Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley 2173) 
rocky banks - of the river; Penang (Curtis); Malacca 
(Bishop Hose). Distrib. Africa and South America. 

A. lunulalum Burm. Penang, Banks by the road side at 
Balik Pulau (Ridley 9 4 1 (> ) apparently an escape fronu 
cultivation; Lankawi (W. Fox). Distrib. Africa, Indo- 
Malava, South America. 

A. slenochlamys Bak. Singapore, Graves in the old cemetery 
(Ridley); Malacca, Walls of the old chapel. Distrib. 


Cli. ten ui folia Sw. *' Paku Tclor Belankas, v " Paku Resam 
Padi, v " P. Resam Lumut," common on dry banks, etc. 
Singapore, Pulau Ubin, Sungei Brih (Ridley), also col- 
lected here by Xorris, Seemann and Wallich ; Malacca, 
Ayer Keroli, Kesang; Negri Sembilan, Seremban; 
Penang, Penara Bukit, Pulau Tikus; Prov. Wellesley, 
Tasek Gelugur (Ridley). Distrib. India to Australia 
and New Zealand. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


H. punctata Bedd. Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 5015). 


Pt. longifolia, L. Common on walls and dry spots, " Paku 
Uban Bukit." Singapore, on the aqueduct near the 
Reservoir, etc.; Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley); Malacca, 
on the old chapel, Mt. Ophir (Ridley) ; Selangor, Batu 
Caves (Ridley 8145) ; Perak, Kuaia Dipang (Ridley 
9549), Bukit Kupayiang, Sungei Siput (Ridley); 
Penang (Ridlev ?OT9) ; Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado). 
Distrib. Whole World. 

Pt. cretica L. Rather rare, usually a peculiar grey form. 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (Ridlev, Ilullett) ; Perak, Upper 
Porak (Wray 3099) ; Penang Hill (Hullett) ; Lankawi, 
Ounong Rayah (Curtis 3381) ; Selangor, Pahang Track 
(Ridley). Distrib. Europe, Africa, Asia and America. 

P. Grevilleana Wall. Pahang, Pekan (Ridley 2163) ; Perak, 
Tambuan near I poll (Uidlcy). Distrib. India. 

Pt. ensiforniis Burm. Common in dry spots, sometimes in 
burnt up lalang fields, " Paku Padang." Singapore, 
Garden Tanglin, Bnkit Timah (Ridley), Pulau Ubin 
(Murton) : Johor, Tanjong Bunga (Ridley 6549); 
Malacca, Bukit Panchur (Cantley), Selandau, Sungei 
Udang (Deny); Negri Sembilan, Seremban (Ridley 
9877); Penang (Bishop Hose); Kedah (King's Coll. 
1744) ; Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado). 

var. A very stunted tufted plant growing betweea 
stones in streams on Gunong Mering, Ophir (Ridley 
3340) and on Kedah Peak at 3000 feet altitude (Ridley 
5165). Distrib. Type lndo-China, Australia. 

Pt. semipinnata L. "Paku medang," "Paku Pelandok." 
Malacca, Alor Gajah (Hervev) ; Pahang, near Pekan 
(Ridley): Selangor, Ginting Bidai (Ridley 7838); 
Sungei Ujong (var. dispar) (Ilullett); Perak, Upper 

B. A. Soc., No. 50, 1908. 


Perak (Wray 3528); Kinta Kiver (King's Collector 
830). Distrib. Malaya, Chino-Japan. 

PL Dalhousiac Hook. Perhaps only a fine form of Pt. semi- 
pinnata. It was first found by Lady Dalhousie in 
Penang, but was not seen there again till it was redis- 
covered by Mr. Curtis on rocks, near Mt. Erskine where 
the original Government house was, and where doubtless 
Lady Dalhousie found it. Malacca, Hulu Belangkas 
(Perry 1082), Bukit Besar, Mt. Ophir (Ridley 9867) ; 
Selangor, Langat (Kidlcy 1681); Penang (Lady Dal- 
housie), Penara Bukit ' (Curtis 63o, Hidley 7270). 

Pi. quadrianuita Retz. Singapore, Serangoon Road (Rid- 
ley) ; Johor, Batu Pahat, Patani (Ridley) ; Malacca, 
Pulau Undan (Cant ley), Bukit Panchur; Selangor, Batu 
Caves (Ridley 8153), Petaling: Perak, Tambun, Ipoh 
(Ridley 9543), Goping (Kings Coll. »2\). Distrib. all 
the tropics. 

Pt. patens Hook. Malacca (Hcrvcy) ; Selangor, Caves, 
Kuala Lumpur (Ridley 8640) and 15th mile Pahang 
Track; Perak, Upper Perak (Wray 3706); Lankawi, 
Foot of (junong Rava (Fox). Distrib. indo-Malava, 

Pt. longipinnula Wall. Perak, Upper Perak (Wray 3741). 
Distrib. Indo-Malava. 

Pt. nquUina L. Common all over the Peninsula, usually in 
sandy soil, from the plains to 1000 feet elevation or more. 
The most remarkable forms are a very pubescent one. 
Selangor, Bukit Kutu (7837) and a variety with very 
long pinnules found in Malacca by Mr. Hardy. Distrib. 
the whole world. 


C. biaurita L. Singapore, Serangoon Road (Ridley) ; Din- 
dings, Bruas (Ridley 7268); Penang, Penara Bukit 
(Ridley 6946). Distrib. Tropics old world. 

Jour. Straita Branch. 



D. I u dens Wall. Sclangor, Limestone rocks at the Caves 
(ltidley 8135) ; Perak, Batu Kurau (Scorteehini 50?). 
Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 

The Selangor form is a very curious one with thick 
ovate cordate quite obtuse sterile fronds and all the 
pinnules of the fertile ones narrow and entire. 


L. incisa Thunb. Singapore, Tanglin, Holland Road; Johor, 
Tanjong Kupang (Ridley); Perak (Scorteehini 471), 
Larut (Kings Coll. 2363, Scorteehini 102, 419), Max- 
well's Hill abundant. 

var. i ti teg ri folia. Grows with the ordinary form on 
Maxwell's Hill. Distrib. all tropics. 

L. marginata Bory. Malacca (fide Beddome) ; Sclangor, 
Batu Caves, Kwala Lumpur (Ridley 8146), Bukit Kutu 
(Ridley 7836). Distrib. Africa, Asia, Australia, 


C. thalictroides L. In ditches. This plant has a habit of 
disappearing altogether at certain times of the year and 
reappearing in abundance. Singapore, Gardens, Ang 
Mo Kio, Seletar, Changi (Ridley 4227) ; Pahang, Pekan 
(Ridley 1509) ; Malacca (Ifcrvey) ; Selangor, Bukit Bin- 
tang (Goodcnough) ; Penang, Tanjong Bunga (Curtis) ; 
Kelantan, Kamposa (Ridley); Lankawi isles (Curtis). 
Distrib. whole world tropics. 


L. procera var restita. Perak, Gunong Batu Putili (3-4000 
feet) (King's Coll. 8065). 

B. A.'Soc., N«. 60, 1908. 




P. pycnophylJa Kze. Larut 5-5500 feet alt. near top of 
(Junong Bubu (King's Coll. 7324). Distrib. Indo- 

P. euphhibia Kze. Perak, Gunong Bubu (Wray 3852). Dis- 
trib. India, Japan, Australia. 



B. serrulatum Rich. Singapore, Serangoon Road (Ridley 
10917); Malacca (Hervey), Ching (Derry) ; Pahang, 
Pekan (Ridley 21G0a). Distrib. Malaya, Australia, 

B. o rim tale L. Very common in open country " Paku TTlar/' 
Paku Jkan. v Singapore, Tanglin, Bukit Timah ; Johor, 
Batu Paliat, Gunong Pulai (Ridley 3750); Malacca, 
Pulau Besar; "Negri Sembilan, Bukit Bemmbang (Cant- 
ley), Seremban (Ridley 9875); Penang Hill (Ridley). 
Distrib. Indo-Malaya, China, Australia. 

B. Fin/aysonianum Wall. Singapore, ('ban Chu Kang (Rid- 
ley (5121), Reservoir Woods (Ridley 4821); Malacca, 
Simgei Iludang (Derrv); Selangor, 15th mile Pahang 
Track (Ridley 8050) ;' Pahang, Tahan River .(Ridky). 

8. ryaihvoides, Kaulf. Perak (Day) fide Beddome. 



Th. nidus L. Common everywhere on trees. The bird's 
nest fern. It is supposed to be the home of the demon 
known as the Langsuir. There are several forms. 

Jour. Strain Branch. 



var. musacfolia Mett. The form with long broad 
leaves, 6 feet or more long a foot wide. 

var. phyllitidis Don. Leaves narrow 2- feet long 
2-3 inches wide. A crested form also occurs. Dis- 
trib. Indo-Malaya, Mascarenes. 


A. Scoriechini Bedd. Perak (Scortechini 128), Maxwell's 
Hill (Ridley 5186). Endemic. 

A. Mactieri Bedd. Penang (Mactier) (fide Beddome) not 

A. squamulatum Bl. On rocks and stumps in wet woods com- 
mon, bulbiferous at the extremity of the fronds. Sing- 
apore, Bukit Timah on rocks, Chua Chu Kang, etc.; 
Johor, Batu Pahat, Hadji Scnawi (Ridley 10964), a 
curious branched form, Tanjong Kupang; Perak, Larut 
.(King's Coll. 6320), Maxwell's Hill (Ridley). Distrib. 
, Malay islands. 

A. normal e Don. Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 2T05). Dis- 
trib. India, China. 

.4. subavcnituH, Hook. Tenang (Beddome). Distrib. Mada- 

A. amboinense Willd. Perak, Thaiping (Scortechini). Dis- 
trib. Malay isles. 

-4. longissimum Bl. On trees and rocks not rare. Singapore, 
Mandai (Ridley 10930), Bukit Timah abundant 
. (10810), Tanglin on trees in the Gardens; Prov. Welles- 
lev, Bukit Panchur (Xative Collector); Pahang, Pekan 
(Ridley); Malacca (Hervey), St. John's Hill (Derry) ; 
Dindings, Bruas (Ridley); Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 
2550). Distrib. Mascarene isles, Indo-Malaya. 

A. Wightianum Wall. On rocks. Sungei Ujong (Hullett) ; 
Perak (King's Coll. 8130, 10959). Distrib. Indo- 

R. A. Soc„ No. 60, 1908. 

*■->' ' 

• ■* 


A. sumatmna Hook. On rocks. Johor, Batu Pahat (Bid- 
Icy 1106?); Selangor, Ginting Bidai (Ridley 7841); 
Bindings, Pangkor (Ridley) ; Penang, Penara Bukit 
(Ridley 7074). Distrib. Malaya. 

A. tenerum Foist. On trees and rocks. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah, Aug Mo Kio (Ridley) ; Johor, Batu Paliat; 
Pahang, Pulau Tawar (Ridley) ; Selangor, Pahang Track 
(Ridley), Gunong Hitam (Goodenough), Bukit Rutu 
(Ridley 1847); Perak (Scortcchini) ; Penang, Govern- 
ment Hill. Distrib. Ceylon, Malaya, Polynesia. 

A. hmulaium Sw. Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Ridlev), Gunong 
Batu Putih (King's Coll. 8043). Distrib. India. 

A. Hook. Perak, Bujong Malacca (Curtis 3312, 
Ridley 9553), Larut (King's Coll. 1998). Distrib. 

A. hirt urn Kaulf. Pahang, Tahan (Ridley); Penang, 
Government Hill. Distrib. Indo-China, Malaya, Poly- 

A. falai him Lam. Singapore, Bukit Timah (Hullett). Dis- 
trib. Africa, India, Australia. 

A. macro phylhun Sw. Rocks and trees. Singapore, Pulau 
Thin (Kunstler), Sungei Buluh, Chan Chu Kang, Bukit 
Timah; Selangor, Batu Caves; Negri Sembilan, Per- 
hentian Tinggi ; Prov. Wellesley, Bukit Panchur; Perak 
(Scortcchini 1079) : Penang, Bukit Erskine (Curtis), 
Balik Pulau (Ridley). Distrib. of the last. 

A. caudal inn Porst. Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 2351), Caul- 
field's Hill (Scortcchini 390). Distrib. Africa, India, 
Australia, S. America. 

A. di/nidiaiuin, Sw. Perak, Goping (King's Coll. 432). 
Distrib. \Y. Indies. 

A. amentum Lam. Perak (Scortcchini), Bujong Malacca 
(Ridley 954(>). Distrib. all the tropics. 

A. welanopht/llum Scort. Perak, Gunong Bubu (King's 
Coll. 1403). Endemic. 

Jour. Strait* Branch. 


A. paradoxum Bl. Penang (fide Bcddomc) ; Perak, Kinta 
(King's Coll. ?164). Distrib. Malaya. 

A. hclerocarpum, Wall. Sungei Ujong (Hullett). Distrib. 
India, China, Malaya. 

A nilidum Sw. On rocks and trees. Singapore, Bukit 
Tiinah; Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hullett), Hadji Scnawi, 
Batu Pahat (Ridley 109G5) ; Pahang, Tahan Kiver, 
Pulau Tionian; Selangor, Batu Caves (Ridley 8144); 
Perak, Goping (King's Coll. 8180) var. obtiutatum. 
Distrib. Africa, Indo-Malava. 

A. unilateral? Lam. A. reset- turn- Hook. Pahang, Tahan 
Kiver (Ridlev) ; Malacca, Jeram Xvalas (Derrv) ; Se- 
langor, Batu Caves (Ridlev $286, 864!)), 15 mile Pahang 
Track: Perak, (Junong Batu Putih (Wray 1010), Thai- 
ping Cottage (llervey). Distrib. Africa, Indo-Malava, 
Japan Polynesia. 

A. Iielangeri Kze. Perak, Thaiping Hills (Scortechini, 
llervey); Penang, Government Hill (Fox). Distrib. 

A.hulbiferum Forst. Penang (fide Beddome probably culti- 


A, liidleiji Christ. Malacca, Bukit Besar, Ophir (Bidley 
98G(i). Endemic. 


D. subsrrratum Bl. Hills at about oOOO feet elevation. 
Selangor, Ginting Bidai (Bidley) ; Perak, Maxwell's Hill 
(Bidley) ; Penang Hill. Distrib. Java. 

D. larutense, Bedd. Larut (King's Collection 1013). En- 

D. iHtllidum Bl. Singapore, Toas (Ridlev) ; Pahang, Tahan 
River ( Ridley 21GT) ; Sungei Ujong (Hullett). Distrib. 
Burmah to Malava. 

&. A. Soc, No. 50, 1908. 


D. porrectuiH Wall. Common in woods "Paku Naga." 
Singapore, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 4399), Holland 
Road (5700), Reservoir Woods, Garden Jungle; Johor, 
Balu Pahat (Ridley 109T8), Gunong Pulai (3751); 
Malcaea, Batu Tiga (Derry 985), Ayer Panas (Derry 
16) ; Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley) ; Negri Sembilan, 
Gunong Angsi (Ridley 9868), Sungei Ujong (Hullett) ; 
Selangor, Pahang Track (Ridlev 8048) ; Perak, Larut 
(King's Coll. 2255), Ulu Kuf (10503) and Batong 
Padang; Kedah, Gunong Jerai (Ridley). Distrib. 

D. sylcaticum Presl. Singapore (Hullett) ; Pahang, Tahan 
River (Ridley 5818); Malacca, Aver Panas (Hcrvcv) ; 
Selangor, Batu Caves, Bukit Kulu (Rid)ev 7844) ; Pefak, 
Kinta (Kings Coll. 7146), Thaiping" (Scortechini), 
Maxwell's Hill (Fox) ; Pcnang Hill (Hullett). Distrib. 
Africa Indo-Malaya. 

D. bantamenw Bl. var. Prcscottianum. Singapore (Hul- 
lett); Malacca, Aver Keroh and Aver Panas (Ridley); 
Selangor, Ginting Peras (Ridlev 7031) ; Perak, Max- 
well's Hill (Fox), Larut (King's Coll. 2098); Penang 
Hill. Distrib. Indo-Malava, China. 

D. spcriosum Mctt. D. acuminatum Bl. "Paku Kijang/' 
Singapore, Sorangoon Road (Ridlev 8937), Garden 
Jungle, Slag Mount (11271), Reservoir Woods (12202) ; 
fFohor, Gunong Pulai (Ridley 12130) ; Malacca, Ayer 
Panas (Derry); Selangor, Batu Caves; Dindings, Gu- 
nong Tungui (Ridlev 7271) : Kedah, Gunong Jerai 
(Ridley 5100). Distrib. India. 

D. lomentosum Hook. Tn woods, terrestrial, "Paku Binct." 
Singapore, Bukit Timah ; Pahang, Tahan River; Se- 
langor, Labu River, Petaling, Sungei Ujong, Bukit Sulu 
(Cantley's Coll.); Perak, Goping (Kings Coll. 058), 
Thaiping Hills (King's Coll. 11128). Distrib. Burma, 

D. chlorophyUum Bak. Penang (Curtis). Endemic. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


D. sorzogoncnse Presl. Singapore, Selitar (Ridley 6557) ; 
Pahang, Talian River (Ridlev) ; Perak, Larut (King's 
Coll. 2532), Kinta (King's Coll. 7151), Thaiping 

var. major Bedd. Perak, Gunong Bubu '(King's Coll. 
7403). Distrib. Malaya. 

V. as per urn- Bl. D. polypodioidcs. var. asperum. Malacca 
(Hervev) ; Perak (Scortechini), LTu Bul>ong (King's 
Coll. 10849). 

var. pohjpodwidcs. Pahang, Kuala Talian (Ridley 
2100); Penang abundant (Curtis). Distrib. lndo- 

D. lati folium Don. Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Track (Rid- 
ley 8052); Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 2214, 234(1), 
(iunong Bubu (King's Coll. 8420). Distrib. lndo- 
Malaya, Australia. 


.4. liucohitum Mett. Perak (Scortechini), (Junong Batu 
Putih (King's Coll. 802G) ; Penang Hill (Hullett). 
Distrib. Malaya. 

JL cordi folium Melt. Woods, terrestrial, u Paku Tuujok 
Langit." Singapore*, Bukit Timali (Ridley 58G7) ; 
Selangor, Kuala Lumpur; Negri Sembilan, Kupaiviang 
(CantleyV Coll.); IVrak, Larut (Kings Coll. 2711), 
Cottage, Thaiping Hills (Hervey). Distrib. Malaya. 

.4. drcus.safuni Sw. Rare. Perak, Thaiping Hills, Gunong 
liijau (Ridley), Birch's Hill (Day). Distrib. Malaya. 

-4. esculent urn. " Paku Anjing." Comnion on stream banks, 
leaves eaten as spinach. Singapore, Stream along Bukit 
Timah Road; Selangor, Dusun Tua (Ridley 78G3) ; 
Pahang, Pulau Manis (Ridley) ; Xegri Sembilan, Sercm- 
ban; Perak (Scortechini 437). Distrib. lndo-Malaya, 

B.A. SOC., No. 50, 1908. 




D. lunulata Dcsv. Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Track (Kid- 
ley 8G59) ; Perak, Gunong Chcy at 2G00 feet (Murton), 
Gunong Keledang (Ridley 9338), Thaiping Hills 
(Scortechini, Ridley). Distrib. Burma, Malaya, Mas- 
carene, Polynesia, America. 


M. poli/curpa Bl. Woods " Paku Surai. v Singapore, Bukit 
Timah (Ridlev 1058) ; Pahang, Pulau Padang (Ridley 
2401) and Tahan River (23%) ; Negri Sembilan, Bukit 
Sumaiyiang (Cantlcy's Coll.) ; Perak, Thaiping (Scorte- 
ehini 404), Goping (King's Coll. 371) and Gunong 
Binlang (243). Distrib. Malaya. 


P. semicordatum S\v. Pahang. Tanjong Antan, Pahang 

River (Ridley); Perak, Kuala Dipang (King's Coll. 

8282). Distrib. Malaya, Burma, Tropical America. 
P. aculeatiun var. b'uirittatum Sw. Perak, Larut 2500 to 

3000 feet alt. (King's Coll. G258) ; Penang, Richmond 

Pool. Distrib. of type whole world. 


A. sinfjaporiaiunn Wall. Woods common, u Paku Todak, Paku 
Biawak, Paku Murak." Singapore, Bukit Timah, Chua 
Chu Kang. etc. (Ridley); Pahang, Tahan River; 
Malacca. Jasin, Sungei Hudang (Derry) ; Sungei Ujong, 
Bukit Sulu, Gunong Berumbun (Cantlcy's Coll.) ; 
Selangor, Kuala Lumpur (Curtis), Bukit Kudah (Rid- 
ley) ; Perak, Tpoh ; f rringanu, Bundi .(Rostado) ; Penang 
llill. Distrib. Malava. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


A. Kumtlcri Bcdd. Perak, Goping (King'* Coll. 405). 

A. tricttspc Bcdd. Pcrak, Goping (King's Coll. 973). 

A. vcstuni Bl. Woods " Paku Jari." Johor, Batu Paliat 
(Kidlev 10669); Paliang, Tombeling River (Ridley 
2399); Selangor, Batu Tiga. Batu Caves (Ridley); 
Perak, Kota Baliru (King s Coll. 382) ; Pcnang (Bishop 
Hose). Dislrib. India, Malaya. 

A. anguhtum Sm. Singapore, Bukit Timah (King's Coll. 
312), Bukit Panjang (Ridley 12534); Perak (Scorte- 
cliini), Goping (King's Coll. 580, 586). 

.1. scmibiirinnatum Wall. In tidal river mud. Johor, 
Castlewood (Ridley 12225), Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; 
Muar, Sungei Segal (Ridley 12218); Perak (Scorte- 
chini) ; Pcnang (ride Beddome). Distrib. Malaya. 

*1. subtriphyllum, Hook. Perak, Goping (King's Coll. 4713), 
Tambun near Ipoh (Ridley 9512). 

A. variolosum Wall. Singapore, Bajau (Kidlev 2119), Bukit 
Mandai, Bukit Timah (9566, 8939); johor, Gunong 
Pulai (Kidlev 12129); Selangor, Bukit Kudah (Ridley 
1684), Batu 'Caves (KU8), Langat (1685); Pcrak, Go- 
ping (King's Coll. 5908); Pcnang (King's Coll. 4862), 
Waterfall (Curtis 1608). Distrib. India. 

*i. inhjmorphum. Wall. "Paku Kikir." Selangor, Kuala 
Lumpur (Ridley 2409) ; Sungei Ujong (Hullett), Bukit 
Sulu (Cant lev's Coll.) ; Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 
22S9, 2395). " Distrib. Africa, India, Malay isles. 

A. repandum Willd. Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 6305). 
Distrib. Malava. 

A. imhiipliyllnm Kze. Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 1816, 
2347), Maxwell's Hill (Scort. 218, 493). Distrib. 

B. A. Soc., No. 60, 1008. 

* 8 


A. dccurrcns Prcsl. Pcrak, Bujong Malacca (Bidlcy 9535) ; 
Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado). Distrib. India, Malaya, 
China, Polynesia. 

A. ckutarium Sw. Woods, " Paku Larat," " Paku Sagala," 
"Paku Tembaga." Singapore, Bukit Timah, Pulau 
Ubin (Ridley 4396); Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley 
109 TC)); Malacca, Sungei Hudang; Sungei Ujong, 
Bukit Payong, Bukit Danan (Cantley). Distrib. all 
tropical countries. 

A. multicaudalum Wall. Pcrak, Larut (King'6 Coll. 229?), 
Upper Terak (Wray 3604). 

A. tcmatum Bak. Fahang, Pckan (Ridley). Distrib. 


P. incmbranifolia Prcsl. Selangor, Batu Caves (Ridley 
8149) ; Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley) ; Ferak, Goping 
(King's Coll. 5811). Distrib. India/ 

P. membranacca Hook. Selangor, Batu Caves (Ridley 8140, 
813G, 8643); Pcrak Scortcchini). Distrib. Malaya, 

P. Lenzeatia Hook. Singapore, Cascade Valley, Bukit Timah 
(Matthew) ; Malacca (Cantley) ; Perak, Larut (King's 
Coll. 2093), Goping (720). Distrib. Indo-Malaya, 
China, Australia. 

P. gigantca Bl. Singapore, Bukit Timah (Ridley) ; Negri 
Scmbilan, Tampin (Goodcnough) ; Pcnang, Pulau Bu- 
tong (Curtis 3401). 

P. mcgalocarjM Hook. Perak, Larut 2-3000 feet alt. (King's 
Coll. 2236). Distrib. Java. 


L. gracilesccns Bl. Rare. Pcrak (Scortcchini). Distrib. 
India, China, Malaya. 

Jour. Straiti Branch, 


L. iuiniersa Bl. In Woods. Pahang, Kuala Tahan (Kid- 
ley) ; Sclangor, Bukit Kutu (Ridley 7848) at the Batu 
Caves and on the Tras route (8658) ; Perak, Batu Gajah, 
Kul (King's Coll. 10502). Distrib. Malay islands. 

L. cahvrata Bl. Hill woods. Fahang, Tahan Eivcr (Rid- 

var. sericca. Larut (King's Collector 1571). 

var. ciliata. Kcdah, at Yan (Ridley 5161). Distrib. 

L. (Dryoptcris) Ridtcyi Christ. Perak, Bujong Malacca 
(Ridlev 9600) ; Pahang, Kuala Tahan; Malacca, Base of 
Mt. Ophir; Sclangor, Bukit Hitain (Ridley 7849). 

This plant was identified first as L. viscosa by Dr. 
Christ, later he distinguishes it as a species. It much 
resembles L. calcarata in many points. The first number 
quoted is that of the type. The other plants seem to me 
to be identical with it. 

L. unidcntala Bedd. Perak, Gunong Bubu (King's Coll. 
7131). Endemic. 

L. Thvlyptcris Desv. Rare. Perak, Tea Gardens (Ridley 
3058). Dibtrib. Europe, Asia, S. Africa, New Zealand. 

L. crassifolia Bl. Common " Paku Knau." Singapore, 
Sungei Morai (Ridley 1397), Bukit Panjang (12532); 
Johor, Tanjong Kupang (Ridley Hooii) ; Malacca, Sungei 
Hudang (Goodenough), Ulu Bumban (Hervcy), Gunong 
Mering, Ophir (Ridley 3335); Pahang, Kota Glanggi 
(Ridlev 2159) ; Sclangor, Pahang Track (Ridley 8654) ; 
Perak/ Larut (King's Coll. 3814), Maxwell's Hill (Scor- 
techini 221); Penang (Ridley). 

L. ochthodes Kzc. Singapore, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 
9813); Penang, Balik Pulau (Ridley 95T9). 

L. Dayi Bedd. Singapore (Bishop Hose) ; Tenang (Mat- 
thew) ; Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Day, Kunstler 2126). 

L. sinfjalancnais Bak. Perak, Thaiping (King's Coll. 3520 

B. A. Soc., Xo. 60, 1008. 


L. fuscipcs Wall. Singapore, Bukit Timah (Ridley 5874) ; 
Perak, Ulu Kerling (King's Coll. 8742), Upper Perak 
(Wray 3712). Distrib. Burma, Malaya. 

L. padangensis Bcddome. River bank close to water's edge. 
Perak, Batang Padang, Padang River (King's Coll.). 

L. syrmatica Willd. Perak, Goping (King's Coll. 8178) ; 
Pcnang, Penara Bukit (Ridley). Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 

L. tcncrivaulis Wall. Penang (King's Coll. 1493) ; Sing- 
apore, established in Tanglin. Distrib. India, China, 

L. intermedia Bl. Perak (Day); Penang (Curtis). 

var. Blumci. Perak (Scortcchini), Larut (King's 
Coll. 6952). 

L. mcgaplu/Ua Bak. Perak, Larut at 3000 feet alt. (King's 
Coll. 2822, 6952, 2822). 


N. unit urn L. Damp spots, " Paku Hudang." Singapore, 
Selitar (Ridley 4394). Galang (4392); Malacca, Ayer 
Panas; Perak, at sea level (Day, King). Distrib. All 

N. pteroides Retz. 2V. terminans Wall. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah ; Johor, Bukit Soga, Batu Pahat (Ridley 10973) ; 
Dindings, Pulau Sembilan (Ridley 3145) ; Perak, Max- 
well's Hill (Ridley 5187); Laiikawi (Ridley 8346). 
Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 

N. externum Bl. Penang Hill (Ridley). Distrib. Indo- 

N. cucullatum Bl. Singapore, behind the General Hospital 
(Ridley), Chan Chu Kang, Changi 3596a, 2602); 
Malacca, Bukit Bruang; Negri Sembilan, Seremban 
(Ridley 9873). Distrib. Mascarene, Indo-Malaya, Poly- 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


X. aridum Don. Singapore, Jurong, Kranji (Ridley), 
Green Hill (Huilett); Johor, Castlewood (Ridley); 
Pahang, Pekan (Ridley) ; Perak (King 1025). Distrib. 

A T . glandulosum Hook. Perak, Ulu Kerling (King's Coll. 
8660). Distrib. Java. 

JV\ Hneatum Bl. Perak (Day, Scortechini, King's Coll. 
497). Distrib. Malaya. 

N. vrophyJhtm Wall. Common in woods, " Paku Gajah," 
"Paku Merah." Singapore, Bukit Timah (Ridley 
5870); Malaeca, Bukit Besar, Mt. Ophir (Ridley), 
Bukit Bruang (Derry 681) ; Pahang, Temerloh, Kota 
Glanggi, Tahan River (Ridley 2398); Sungei Ujong, 
Bukit Danan (Cantley's Coll.), Bukit Putus (Ridley) ; 
Selangor, Batu Caves (Ridlev 8154), Ginting Bidai 
(T839) ; Perak, Slim (King's Coll.), Upper Perak (Wray 
3592) ; Penang Hill (Ridley) ; Lankawi, Gunong Raya 
(Curtis). Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 
var. Pinwillpi. Malacca (Pinwill) ; Perak (Day). 

N. moulmeinensc Bedd. Johor, Gunong Pulai (Ridley 

N. costatum Wall. Poly podium pcnangianum Hook. Pe- 
nang (Beddome). Distrib. India. 

xV. pcnnigerum Bl. Singapore, Rifle Range (Ridley) ; Johor, 
Pinerong (Cantley) ; Selangor, Dusun Tua (Ridley 
7861); Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Scortechini 237); Pe- 
nang Hill (Huilett). 

var. Malayense. Perak (Scortechini, Day, King's 
Coll. 2360). Distrib. Indo-Malaya, Africa. 

N. molle Desv. Singapore, common Selitar (Ridley 4395), 
Chan Chu Kang (6120), Bukit Timah (5893), Changi 
(6037), Pulau Brani (Huilett); Johor, Castlewood 
(Ridley) ; Selangor, Bukit Hitam (Ridley 7854) ; Perak, 
Ulu Bubong (King's Coll. 10127), Ulu Kerling (8657) ; 
Penang (King's Coll. 1570). Distrib. whole world. 

B. A. Soc„ No. 60, 1906. 

\ - ■ ■" ■ ■..■■■ .-..^r 

. • 


N. amboineti8e Presl. Singapore, Green Hill "(Hullett) ; 
Paliang, Khol, Tembeling River (Ridley) ; Selangor, 
Dusun Tua; Perak, Telok Pinang (Ridley 539), Bernam 
River (King 8800). Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 

N. tectum (Wall.) Singapore (Wallich 394 and 354 past), 
Bukit Timah (Ridley 9567) ; Perak, Ulu Kerling (King 
8C50T), Ulu Bubang (10157? 1205, 8757). 

N. crinipes Hook. Perak (Scortechini, King's Coll. 7126). 
Distrib. India. 

N. ferox Moore. Hill forests. Selangor, Ginting Peras 
0854) ; Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 4064) ; Penang Hill 
(Ridley 7080). Distrib. India, Malaya. 

iV. Ridleyi Christ. Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Traek 
(Ridley 8655); Perak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley 9536). 
Endemic. This very closely resembles N. ferox. 

N. truncafum Presl. Singapore, Sungei Jurong (Ridley 
10774); Johor, Batu Pahat; Selangor, Batu Caves 
Ridley 8137); Perak, Telok Pinang (Ridley 9540) and 
Tambun (9544), Goping (King's Coll 556), Maxwell's 
Hill (Scortechini); Penang, Waterfall (Curtis). 

var. subintegra Christ. Penang (Ridley 10136). 
Distrib. Indo-Malaya, Australia. 

N. brachtjodon Hook. Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Scortechini 
221)', Bujong Malacca (Ridley 953?) . Distrib. West 
Indies and Peru. 

A r . sakayense Zeiller. Perak, Valley of Kiang River near 
Riam Mountain (Scortechini). Endemic. 

A T . heterocarpm Bl. Singapore, Green Hill (Hullett) ; 
Negri Sembilan, Perhentian Tinggi (Ridley 9869) ; 
Perak, Larut (Scortechini, King's Coll. 6345) ; Penang 
Hill (Ridley 9225). 

N. laruiense Bedd. Selangor, Rawang (Ridley 7850), loth 
mile Pahang Track (Ridley 8632) ; Perak (Day, King's 
Coll. 850, 2398). 

Joui. Straita Branch. 


N. glaucostipes Bedd. Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 2046). 

N. perakense Bedd. Perak, Thaiping Hills, Birch's Hill 
(Day). Endemic. 

N. Ilaenleanum Presl. Singapore, Bukit Mandai (Ridley 
1655), Bukit Timah (Matthew). 

Nephbolepis. ^ 

N. exaltata L. Very common in open country. " Paku 
Pinang." Singapore, Holland Boad, Ang Mo Kio (Bid- 
ley) ; Malacca, Pulau Besar, Lubok Kedondong, St. 
John's Hill (Ridley) ; Selangor, Kuala Lumpur (Ridley, 
a curious crested form) ; Perak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley 
960?), Larut (King's Coll. 5220) ; Penang Hill (Ridley 

var. hirsutula. Singapore, Tanglin; Malacca (Her- 

var. pilosula. Selangor, Kuala Lumpur (Ridley 
2408). Distrib. Tropics of oljd world. 

N. rolubilis Smith. " Paku Baging," " Paku Raeha," " Paku 
M'rah," " Paku Ningck." Climbing on trees in damp 
spots. Singapore, Rochor, Sungei Morai (Ridley 4405) ; 
Johor, Tanjong Kupang (Ridley) ; Malacca, Ayer Keroh, 
Jus (Goodenough) ; Perak, Batu Kurau (Curtis) ; Din- 
dings, Pulau Sembilan (Ridley) ; Tringanu, Bundi (Ros- 
tado) ; Lankawi, Kwah (Curtis). Distrib. India, 

X. acuta Presl. Johor, Tanjong Kupang; Pahang, Tahan 
River (Ridley 2373); Selangor, Batu Caves; Perak 
(Wray 2826, King's Coll. 165, 4955). 

var. lancifolia Christ. Malacca, Pulau Besar (Ridley 
2422). Distrib. Africa, India. 

A T . davallioides Kze. Selangor, Bukit Hitam (Ridley) ; 
Perak, Thaiping (Scortechini), Larut (King's Collectors 
6325 and 500T). Distrib. Java. 

R. A. Soc., No. 60, 1908. 



0. neriiformis Cav. Common from 3000 feet and upwards. 
Malacca, Mt. Ophir; Selangor, Bukit Hitam (Ridley 
7832), Ulu Semangko; Perak, Ulu Batang Padang 
(Wray 1G01), Thaiping Hills Cottage (Hervey, Wray, 
etc.) ; Kedah, Gunong Jerai (fonning dense thickets) 
(Ridiey) ; Lankawi (Curtis). Distrib. India, America. 

0. Cumingii Sm. Kcdah Peak (Ridley 5172) with the 
variety longipes. Distrib. Burmah, China, Malaya. 

0. m mac folia Kze. Perak (Scortechini). Distrib. India. 



P. punctatum, Thunb. "Paku Resam Paya." Fronds used 
for poulticing boils. Selangor, Ginting Bidai (Ridley 
7867): Perak, Larut (Kings Coll. 5015, Scortechini), 
Caulfield\s Hill (Scortechini 396), Maxwell's Hill 
(Fo.x); Malacca, Bukit Kanding (Cantley's Coll.); 
Pcnang, Balik Pulau (Ridley DUO). Distrib. Tropics 
and subtropics. 

P. Kiugii Bodd. Perak, Larut (King's Collector 2250). 

P. laser piiii folia Scort. Perak (Scortechini, King's Coll. 
2208). Endemic. 


D. llarberi Hook. Common in woods. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah (Ridlev 10778); Malacca (Beddome) ; Selangor, 
Rawang (Ridley 7840). Distrib. Malaya. 

D. cliff or mi* Bl. " Paku Siar." Malacca (Hervey); Pa- 
hang, Tanjong Antan, Pahang River (Ridley) ; Negri 
Sembilan, Seremban (Cantlev's Coll.) ; Selangor, loth 
mile Pahang Track (Ridley 8631) ; Perak (Scortechini). 
Distrib. Burma, Malaya. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


D. polycarpa Mett. Malacca (fide Beddome) who says how- 
over he has not seen this species and doubts if there is a 
specimen in Europe. (Divtyopteris heterosora Baker is 
Aspidium vast urn). 


§ 1. Fronds entire. 

P. parasiiicum Mett. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Hullett) ; Pe- 
nang Hill (Fox). Distrib. India. 

P. subevenosum Bak. Johor, Gunong Pnlai; Gunong Pantai 
(Ridley); Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Hullett, Ridley 8961); 
Pahang, River Ban Tahan (Ridley) ; Perak (Scorte- 
chini) Endemic. 

P. hirMlum, Bl. Malacca, Mt. Ophir, Gunong Mering (Rid- 
ley 3354) ; Perak (Scortechini), Tea Gardens, Thaiping 
Hill (Ridley), Gunong Brumber; Pahang (Wray 1553). 
Distrib. Ceylon, Malaya. 

P. sessilifofiuw Hook. Penang Hill (Ridley 101T2, 7131). 
Distrib. Malava. 

P. universe Bak. Richmond Pool (Matthew) ; Penang (Cur- 
tis). Endemic. 

P. Ridley* Christ. A very small plant with entire fronds thin 
and undulate when drv ; on knots on Baccaurea parviflora 
on Gunong Pulai, Johor (Ridley 12136). 

P. adspprsHm Bl. Singapore (Lobb), probably wrongly local- 

P. sctiyentm Bl. Singapore (Moore's Herbarium). 

§ 2. Fronds lobed. 

P. trirhomnrwides Sw. Malacca, Mt. Ophir, Mering (Ridley 
9863) "forma fronde glabra, Boris subterminalibus " 
(Christ) ; Selangor, Hulu Semangkok (Ridley 12035). 
Distrib. India, Africa. 

R. A. Soc., No. 60, 1908. 

40 ferns of the malay pesiksila. 


0. neriiformii Ca' om 3000 feet and upwards, 

Malacca, Mi. Ophir; Selangor, Bukit Hitain (Ridley 
1 *:»->). Din Semangko ; Perak, Tin iiatang I'adang 
(Wra) 1601), Thatping Hills Cottage (Hen 
etc.); Sedan, Qunong Jerai (forming denf* thickets) 
(Kulli'vl; Lniikiiwi (Ctutis). Dietrib. India, America. 

0. Cumino* Sn;. Kedah Peak (Ridley 51?S) with the 
ntriety longiptt, Dfstnb, Burmah, China, Malaya, 
\efolia K.-v- Persk (Scorteehini), Distrib. India. 



P. punctiitum, Tliunli. " Paku Beeam Pays." Frond 
fin' poulticing boils. Selangor, Gil 




P. papillosum Bl. Porak, Larut (King's Coll. 1904), Gu- 
nong Ha ram Parah (Seortoehini CG."> ) , Kinta on lime- 
stone rocks 500 to 1000 feet alt. (King's Coll. ;206), 
Distrib. Malaya. 

P. tenuiserlum Bl. Perak (Seortcehini). Distrib. Java. 


0. subaurkulotum Bl. Perak (Seortcehini) ; Sclangor, Se- 
mangkok Pass (Itidley 12033, differs in its pinnules 
being sessile and somewhat decurrent). Distrib, Indo- 
Malaya, Australia. 

0. verrvrosuw Wall. Common in open country. Singapore, 
Pnsir Panjang, Bukit Mandai (Ridley 3597a); Johor, 
Gunong Pnlai (Hnllett) ; Sclangor, Dusun Tua, Batu 
Caves (Ridley 8138) ; Perak, Unit (Kings Coll. 5559), 
Sungoi Raya (King's Coll. 905), Thaiping Hills Cottage 
(Hervey) ; Lankawi (Curtis). Distrib. Malaya. 

O. Korthahi Mett. Perak, Larut on trees (King's Coll. 
294.1), Thaiping Hills Cottage (Hervev) ; Penang Hill 


N. adnatcens Sw. " Sakat Batu " on rocks and trees. Sing- 
apore, Pulau Ubin (Ridley 9510), Changi Beach (4347) ; 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hullctt) ; Malacca, Pulau Undan 
(Cantley's Coll.), Aycr Keroh ; Dindings, Lumut (Itidley 
10145) ; Perak, Harum Parah (Scortechini 844), Kamu- 
ning (Macliado) ; Penang Hill (Ridley). 

var. longifolius. Perak, Thaiping (King's Coll. 8330). 
Distrib. Africa, India, Malaya, China, Polynesia. 
, tirrottichoideg Sw. Common on trees in open country. 
Singapore, Tanglin, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 0684) ; 
Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley), Jatnbu Larang (Fielding) ; 
Malacca, Mt. Ophir; Pahang, Kuala Pahang; Porak, 
Gunong Batu Putih (Wray 1238). Distrib. Bunnah. 



0. neriiformis Cav. Common from 3000 feet and upwards. 
Malacca, Mt. Ophir; Sclangor, Bukit Hitam (Ridley 
7832), Ulu Scmangko; Pcrak, Ulu Batang Padang 
(Wray 1601), Thaiping Hills Cottage (Hervey, Wray, 
etc.) ; Kedab, Gunong Jerai (forming dense thickets) 
(Ridley); Lankawi (Curtis). Distrib. India, America. 

0. Cumingii Sm. Kedab Peak (Ridley 5172) with the 
variety longipes. Distrib. Burmah, China, Malaya. 

0. musac folia Kze. Perak (Scortechini). Distrib. India. 



P. punctatum, Thunb. " Paku Resam Paya." Fronds used 
for poulticing boils. Selangor, Ginting Bidai (Ridley 
?867); Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 5015, Scortechini), 
Canlfield's Hill (Scortccbini 396), Maxwell's Hill 
(Fox); Malacca, Bukit Kanding (Cantley's Coll.); 
Penang, Balik Pulau (Ridley 94 U>). Distrib. Tropics 
and sub tropics. 

P. Kingii Bedd. Pcrak, Larut (King's Collector 2250). 

P. laser pitiifolia Scort. Pcrak (Scortechini, King's Coll. 
2208). Endemic. 


D. Barhevi Hook. Common in woods. Singapore, Bukit 
Timab (Ridlev 10718); Malacca (Beddome) ; Sclangor, 
Rawang (Ridley 7840). Distrib. Malaya. 

D. diffonni* Bl. <; Paku Siar." Malacca (Hervey); Pa- 
hang, Tanjong Antan, Pabang River (Ridley); Negri 
Sembilan. Seremban (Cantlev's Coll.) ; Selangor, 15th 
mile Pahang Track (Ridley 8631) ; Perak (Scortechini). 
Distrib. Burma, Malaya. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


P. papillosum Bl. Perak, Larut (Kings Coll. 1994), Gu- 
nong Haram Parah (Scorteehini 665), Kinta on lime- 
stone rooks 500 to 1000 feet alt. (King's Coll. 7206). 
Distrib. Malaya. 

P. tenuisectum Bl. Perak (Scorteehini). Distrib. Java. 


O. subauriculatum Bl. Perak (Scorteehini) ; Selangor, Se- 
mangkok Pass (Ridley 12033, differs in its pinnules 
being sessile and somewhat decurrent). Distrib. Indo- 
Malaya, Australia. 

G. verrxicosum Wall. Common in open country. Singapore, 
Pasir Panjang, Bukit Mandai (Kidley 3597(7) ; Johor, 
Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; Selangor, Dusun Tua, Batu 
Caves (Kidley 8138) ; Perak, Larut (Kings Coll. 5559), 
Sungei Raya (King's Coll. 965), Thaiping Hills Cottage 
(Hcrvey) ; Lankawi (Curtis). Distrib. Malaya. 

O. Korthahi Mett. Perak, Larut on trees (King's Coll. 
2943), Thaiping Hills Cottage (Hervev) ; Penang Hill 


N. adnascens Sw. " Sakat Batu " on rocks and trees. Sing- 
apore, Pulau Ubin (Ridley 9510), Changi Beach (4347) ; 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; Malacca, Pulau Undan 
(Cantley's Coll.), Ayer Keroh; Dindings, Lumut (Ridley 
10145) ; Perak, Harum Parah (Scorteehini 844), Kamu- 
ning (Machado) ; Penang Hill (Ridley). 

var. 1ongifo1itt8. Perak, Thaiping (King's Coll. 8336). 
Distrib. Africa, India, Malaya, China, Polynesia. 

iY. acrostichoides Sw. Common on trees in open country. 
Singapore, Tanglin, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 6684) ; 
Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley), Jambu Larang (Fielding) ; 
Malacca, Mt. Ophir; Pahang, Kuala Pahang; Perak, 
Gunong Batu Putih (Wray 1232). Distrib. Burmali. 

E. A- Set., No. 60, 1906. 


P. cucullaium Noes. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Hullett) ; Pahang. 
Kluang Terbang (BarneB) ; Selangor, Bukit Kutu (Rid- 
ley 7877) ; Perak Bujong Malacca on rocks in a stream 
(Ridley 9612). Distrib. Coylon. 

P. triangulare Scort. Perak (Scortechini), Gunong Batu 
Putih (Wray 294). Endemic. 

P. cornigerum Bak. Perak, Thaiping Hills, Gunong Hijau 
(Day, Scortechini). Distrib. Ceylon. 

P. streptophyllum Bak. Singapore (Murton) not seen since. 

P. Khasyamim Hook. Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; 
Perak at 4000 feet alt. (Day). Distrib. India. 

P. obliquatum Bl. Perak, Larut at 3-3300 feet alt. (King's 
Coll. 2094), Thaiping Hills (Scortechini, Hervey). 
Distrib. India. 

P. nutans Bl. Malacca, Mt. Ophir on trees (Moore's Her- 
barium). Distrib. Java. 

P. subfahatum Bl. Perak, at 3-4000 feet (Scortechini, Day). 
Distrib. India. 

P. decorum Brack. On trees in mangrove swamps, and on 
mountain tops. Singapore, Kranji (Ridley) ; Johor, 
Gunong Panti, Gunong Pulai, (Kidley 3704) and Tan- 
jong Bunga; Malacca, Mt. Ophir, and Gunong Mering 
(Ridlev 3342 and 3343); Perak, Gunong Keledang 
(Ridley 9558); Penang Hill; Kedah Peak (Ridley). 
Distrib. Indo-Malava, Polvnesia. 

P. ma/accanum Baker. Malacca, Mt. Ophir, Gunong Mering 
(Ridley 3345), Gunong Ledang (9884). Endemic. 

P. fuscatum Bl. Perak (Scortechini), Gunong Bubu 
(Wray); Kedah Peak (Ridley). 

P. alternidem Cesati. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Ridley 9862) ; 
Perak, Thaiping Hills, Tea Gardens (Ridley). Distrib. 

P. sy^y t y t jiatifidum Bl. Perak, Gunong Kerbau (De Mor- 
gan) '^istrib. Java, Polynesia. 

\^ , - Jour. Straits Branch. 





P. papillosum Bl. Perak, Larut (Kings Coll. 1994), Gu- 
nong Haram Pa rah (Scortechini 665), Kinta on lime- 
stone rooks 500 to 1000 feet alt. (Kings Coll. 7206). 
Distrib. Malava. 

P. tenuisectum Bl. Perak (Scortechini). Distrib. Java. 


O. subauriculatum Bl. Perak (Scortechini) ; Selangor, Se- 
mangkok Pass (Ridley 12033, differs in its pinnules 
being sessile and somewhat decurrent). Distrib. Indo- 
Malaya, Australia. 

C. rerrucosum Wall. Common in open country. Singapore, 
Pasir Panjang, Bukit Mandai (Ridley 3597a) ; Johor, 
Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; Selangor, Dusun Tua, Batu 
Caves (Ridlev 8138) ; Perak, Larut (Kings Coll. 5359), 
Sungei Raya'(Kings Coll. 965), Thaiping Hills Cottage 
(Hervey) ; Lankawi (Curtis). Distrib. Malaya. 

O. Korthalsi Mett. Perak, Larut on trees (King's Coll. 
2913), Thaiping Hills Cottage (Hervev) ; Penang Hill 


N. adnascens Sw. " Sakat Batu " on rocks and trees. Sing- 
apore, Pulau Ubin (Ridley 9510), Changi Beach (4347) ; 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; Malacca, Pulau Undan 
(Cantley\s Coll.), Ayer Keroh; Dindings, Lumut (Ridley 
10145) ; Perak, Harum Parah (Scortechini 844), Kamu- 
ning (Machado) ; Penang Hill (Ridley). 

var. longifolius. Perak, Thaiping (King's Coll. 8336). 
Distrib. Africa, India, Malaya, China, Polynesia. 

X. acrostirhoides Sw. Common on trees in open country. 
Singapore, Tanglin, Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 6684) ; 
Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley), Jambu Larang (Fielding) ; 
Malacca, Mt. Ophir; Pahang, Kuala Pahang; Perak, 
Gunong Batu Putih (Wray 1232). Distrib. Burmah. 

B. A- Sot., No. 60, 1906. 


N. Heleractis Mett. Perak, Knala Dipang (King's Coll. 
8275). Distrib. India. 

N. stigmosum Sw. Perak, Gunong Pondok (King's Coll. 
8361), Batu Kurau (Scortechini). Distrib. India. 

N. penangianns Hook. Pahang, Kota Glanggi (Ridley) ; 
Solangor, Kuala Lumpur (Curtis) ; Perak, Kinta 
(King's Coll. 7083) ; Penang, just above the waterfall 
( Hullett ) . Distrib. Burmah. 

N. hoyaefolium T. Moore. Singapore, Woodlands (Mat- 
thew) ; Johor, Mt. Austin (Eidley). 

N. nummulariaefolius Sw. On trees, " Berunas Jantan." 
Pahang, Kuala Pahang (Ridley) ; Sungei Ujong, Bukit 
Sulu (Cantley) ; Perak, Tambuan near Tpoh (Ridley 
9829), Kuala Dipang (King's Coll. 82T0). Distrib. 


D. Horsfieldii Br. On rocks by the sea, and also on mountain 
tops. Singapore, Harbour, Kranji (Ridley 1673), Pulau 
Tekong (-1227 ) : Johor, Gunong Pulai, Gunong Panti, 
and by the Scudai River (Ridley) ; Malacca, Mt. Ophir; 
Solangor, Pahang route (Maehado), Hulu Semangkok 
(Ridley); Perak (Seorteehini) ; Penang Hill (Hullett, 
etc.) : kedah Peak (Ridley). Distrib. Malay isles, Poly- 

D. Lobhiana Hook. On banks of streams. Johor, Gunong 
Panti (Ridley 4141); Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley 
2170) ; Malacca, Mt. Ophir (l)erry) ; Perak (Scortechini, 
Wray 2920), Bujong Malacca (Ridley) ; Kodak Peak 
Ridley). Distrib. Borneo. 


D. splendens Hook. Singapore (fide Beddome). 

D. quern folia L. Common on trees, " Sakat Laipang." The 
leaves are burnt and applied to the stomach for mis- 

Jour. Strait* Branch. 


carriage. Singapore, Pulau Ubin (Ridley 9484), Bukit 
Timah, Tras (1673); Johor, Scudai River (Ridley 
12223); Pahang, Tcmbcling River; Malacca, Bukit 
Bruang (Cantley) ; Perak (Seorleehini), Batang Padang 
(King's Coll.); Penang Hill (Ridley). Distrib. Indo- 

D. Linnaei Bory. Singapore, Cliangi, Serangoon (Ridley 
4352), Tanjong Gol; Pahang, Pulau Datoh, Pulau 
Chengei (Ridlev) ; Perak, Batang Padang (King's Coll. 
8087) ; Penang* near the Bath (Ridley 7077) ; Tringanu, 
Bundi (Rostado). Distrib. India. 

D. HcrnclcutH Kze. " Paku Sulo." Johor, Tanjong Kupang 
(Ridlev 4353) ; Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Seorleehini 228), 
Larut '(King's Coll. 6302), Box Hill (Fox). 

D. riyidula S\v. On rock* and trees. Selangor, 15th mile 
Pahang track (Ridley) ; Perak (Scortechini), Bujong 
Malacca (Ridley 9552); Tenang, Penara Bukit (Ridley 
6945) : Kedah Peak on Precipices (Ridley 5151). Dis- 
trib. Malaya, Australasia. 


PL avccJens Bl. Sungei Ujong (Hullett) ; Selangor, 15th 
mile Pahang Track (Ridlev) ; Perak. Bujong Malacca 
(Ridley 9016), Larut (King's Coll. 1900), Kuala Kang- 
wi (Ridley). Distrib. Malaya, Polynesia. 

P. Wrayi Bak. Pahang, Kluang Tcrbang (Barnes) ; Perak, 
Gunong Hijau, Cottage and the Tea Gardens, Thaiping 
Hills (Day, Scortechini, Wray, King 2358, 3673, Ridley, 
Her vey ) . Endemic. 

P. stcnophylla Bl. High up on lofty trees in the low country, 
on rocks and low trees in the hills. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah (Ridley 4350) ; Johor, Gunong Banag, Bukit 
Pahat (Ridley 1255) ; Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Scorte- 
chini 263); Penang (Cantley); Kedah Peak (Ridley). 
Distrib. Malava. 

B. A Soc., St. 50, 1908. 


PL sinuoma Wall. On trees common in the south, remarkable 
for the thick hollow rhizomes full of biting ants. Sing- 
apore, Gardens, Bukit Timah, Jurong (Ridley 5864) ; 
Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; Penang (Curtis 10137). 
Distrib. Malaya. 

PL rupestris Bl. Perak at 4000 feet alt. (Scortechini 251, 
King 7355), Gunong Inas at 5000 feet (Wray 4123). 

PL longifolia Mett. Singapore, Sungei Morai, Bukit Tiinah 
(Ridley) ; Johor, Tcbing Tinggi (Ridley), Gunong Pulai 
(Hullett) ; Negri Sembilan, Perhentian Tinggi (Ridley 
10820) ; Perak, Larut (King's Coll. 1904, 2741), Water- 
loo (Curtis), Bujong Malacca (Ridley 1)614). Distrib. 

PL superficialis Bl. Perak, Larut 3 to 4000 feet (King's 
Coll. 2180, Scortechini), Maxwell's Hill (Ridley). Dis- 
trib. India, China. 

PL angustata Sw. " Paku Hilan," common on trees. Sing- 
apore, Gardens (Ridley 10162), Pulau Ubin (King's 
Coll. 201); Sungei Morai, Bajau, Changi (a forked 
form) ; Johor, Tanjong Bunga, 4th mile from Johor 
Ridley) ; Perak, Tliaiping Hills (Ridley, Scortechini 
1082),Kuala Kangsa (Ridley) ; Penang, Government 
Hill, Convalescent Bungalow (Ridley). Distrib. India, 

PL platyphylla Sw. On rocks and trees at high elevations, 
a beautiful species. Selangor, Pahang Track (Ridley 
8653) and Semangkok Pass; Perak, Gunong Haram 
Pa rah (Scortechini); Kedah, Yan (Ridley 5169). 

PL membranacca Don. Perak (Scortechini). 

PL punctata L. PL irioides. Common on low trees and 
stumps. Singapore, Chan Chu Kang, Serangoon (Rid- 
ley 81)35), Sungei Buloli, Gardens, etc; Malacca, Pulau 
Besar ; Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Track (Ridley 8657) ; 
Perak, Tliaiping (Scortechini 538) ; Penang (King's 
Coll. 5060), Pulau Badak (Curtis 3058). Distrib. 
Tropics of Old World. 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


P. musae folium Bl. Selangor, Ginting Bidai, Batu Caves 
(Kidlcv) ; Perak, Sungei Ravah (King's Coll. 862) and 
Larut 181H)) . Distrib. Malava. 

P. Scortechinii Bcdd. Pcrak, Maxwell's Hill (Scortcchini 
2161), Thaiping (King's Coll. 8382). Endemic. 

PL ptcropus Bl. Perak (Scortcchini), Kinta River (King's 
Coll. 386). Distrib. lndo-Malaya, China. 

PL invurcata Bl. On rocks and trees at high elevations. 
Selangor, Bukit Hitam; Pcrak, Bujong Malacca (Rid- 
ley), Cottage Thaiping Hills (Hcrvcy) ; Kedah Peak 
(Ridley) one form with simple ovate sterile fronds, and 
simple linear fertile ones. Distrib. Malaya. 

PL insignis Bl. Malacca (fide Bcddomc). 

PL Phymalodcs L. " Pulau Wangi," « Sakat Hitam." A 
very common and variable fern. The sweetly scented 
fronds have an odour of Coumarin when dry and are 
used for putting among clothes to scent them by natives. 
Singapore, Gardens, Passir Panjang, Tampinis River, 
Changi (Kidlcv 2681), Pulau Ubin (4360), Bukit Timah 
4359) ; Johor; Pahang, Kuala Pahang (Ridley 1448), 
Pekan (1581) ; Malacca, Pengkalan Minyak; and Bukit 
Panchur (Cantley) ; Pcrak, Thaiping (Scortcchini 539) ; 
Dindings, Lumut (Kidlcv) ; Pcnang, Top of the Hill 
(Ridley ;oo5) ; Lankawi (Curtis). Distrib. All the 
Tropics of the Old World. 

PL longimma Bl. Perak, Kinta River (King's Coll. 402). 
Distrib. Indo-Malava. 

PL nigresrens Bl. " Paku Chiai." Singapore, Bukit Timah 
(Ridley, King's Collector 349) ; Sungei Ujong, Bukit 
Sulu (Cantley 's Coll.) ; Selangor, Batu Caves (Ridley) ; 
Perak (Scortcchini); Tringanu, Bundi (Kostado). 
Distrib. India. 

PL laciniata Bl. Perak, Thaiping Hills, Coulfield's Hill 
(King's Coll. Day). 

B. ▲• Soc., No. 50, 1908. 


PL palmata Bl. Perak, Gunong Batu Putih (Wray 580), 
Maxwell's Hill (Seortechini) ; Penang Hill (Bidley 
7154) ; Prov. Wellesley, Bukit Panchur (Ridley 12639). 
Distrib. Malay islands. 



31. imradoxa Fee. Penang Hill, rocks at Richmond Pool 
(Ridley 7135). Distrib. Ceylon, Malaya, Australia. 

31. trirhoidca Sm. Rocks in forest. Singapore, Bukit Timak 
(Ridley) ; Sclangor, Pahang track, 15th mile (Ridley). 
Distrib. Philippines. 

31. dareaccarpa Hook. A minute hair-like plant. Singapore 
Bukit Timah, on rocks at the base of the hill (Matthew). 
Distrib. Borneo. 


S. aspidiuides Hook. Perak, Kinta (King's Coll. 720*). 
Distrib. Indo-Malava. 



G. calomelanos Kaulf. " Paku Merak." Probably intro- 
duced but now scattered widely over the whole Peninsula 
and often far from cultivation.* Singapore, Chan Chu 
Kang, Pulau Ubin, etc. (Ridley) ; Johor, Tanjong Ku- 
pang; Malacca (Ilervey) ; Selangor, Rawang (Ridley 
7834), Kuala Lumpur (Goodenough) ; Penang, Water- 
fall Hill (Ridley 30G4) ; Tringanu, Bundi (Kotrtado). 


£. fraxinca Don. Perak, Larut at 2-2300 feet elevation 
(King's Coll. 2251, Scortechini). Distrib. Africa, Indo- 
Malaya, Polynesia, Japan. 

^. Lobbiana Hook. Johor, Gunong Panti (King 205). 

Jour. Straiti Branch. 


5. Wallichii Hook. Damp places in forests. Singapore, 
Bukit Timah (Ridley 5869) a variety with branched 
fronds is not rare, Chua Chu Kang (Ridley 10604) ; 
Johor, Tanjong Kupang; Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Kid- 
ley) ; Penang Hill. Distrib. Borneo. 

5. alismae folia Hook. " Paku Tombak." Less common than 
the last but really hardly distinct. Singapore, Chan 
Chu Kang; Malacca, Merlimau (Cantley's Coll.), Ayer 
Keroh (Ridley); Negri Sembilan, Bukit Kayu Arang 
( Cant lev ) ; Perak, Thaiping (Seortechini). Distrib. 

$. Dayii Bedd. Perak Pass between Kuala Kangsa and Kinta 
at 2000 feet elevation (Day). Endemic. 


£. Fori Hook. On trees low down. Common in mangrove 
swamps. ik Paku Galah Hantu Lain." Singapore, 
Kranji, etc.: Johor, (iunong Pulai: Malacca, Batu Tiga 
(I)orrv) : Pahang. Talian River (Ridlev) : Perak, Larut 
(Kings Coll 3!) 12), Box Hill (Fox),' Bujong Malacca 
(Ridlev): Penang Hill (a branched form). Distrib. 
Ma lava. 

S. nirmbranaccn Hook. Singapore (Moore's herbarium) ; 
Perak, Ulu Kerling (King's Coil. 8841, 948, 2086), 
Upper Perak (Wray 3638). Distrib. Malaya. 

5. Maingayi Baker. Malacca (Beddomc). Endemic. 

S. campyhneuroides Bak. Perak, Selama River (King's 
Coll. 3112), Hoping on shrubs (8145). Distrib. Borneo. 


L. lanceolata Sw. Malacca, Bukit Tampin (Goodenough) ; 
Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Track (Ridley 8646); 
Perak, Kinta (Kings Coll. 4754), Larut (2235), Bujong 
Malacca (Ridley 1)615). Distrib. Africa, Indo-Malaya, 
China, Polynesia. 

R. A. 8oc., No. jO, 190S. 


L. in valuta Don. Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Track, Ba- 
wang Camphor woods (Ridlev <831); Sungei Ujong 
(Hullett); Perak, Kuala Dipang (King's Coll. 8280), 
Kinta (Kunstler 373), Cottage Thaiping Hills (Her- 
vey). Distrib. Indo-Malaya, Polynesia. 

L. avenia Bak. Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley's Collector); 
Selangor, 15th mile Pahang Track (Ridlev); Penang 
Hill (Ridley). Distrib. Malaya. 


Br. insignia Hook. On the ground near the sea. Dindings, 
Pulau Sembilan (Curtis and Ridley 3056). Distrib. 
India, Hongkong. 


3/. triphyllum S\v. Singapore, Ditches near Macpherson 
Road (Ridley 9146); Pahang, Tahan River (Ridley); 
Perak, Upper Perak (Wray 3522). Distrib. Indo- 
Malaya, China. 

.V. cusjridafum Bl. Singapore, Bukit Timah, Chan Chn 
Kang, Tapper Mandai (Ridlev 4301) ) ; Johor (Hullett), 
Batu Pahat on Bukit Soga '(Ridley 10972) ; Malacca, 
Sungei lludang Road (Dcrry 8(>) ; Sungei Ujong, Tam- 
]>in (Goodcnough) Penang, Government Hill (Ridley). 
Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 

.1/. sal ici folium Wall. On rocks. Singapore, Selitar (Bishop 
Hose); Perak, Relau Tujor (Wray 183), Bujong Ma- 
lacca (Ridley); Tenang, Government Hill (Ridley). 

Jl/. sp. Perak, Larut Hills (Curtis 3T17). 


I doubt if any of these species are specifically distinct 
except perhaps the last. 

J. rctivulalum Kaulf. On rocks. Singapore, Bukit Timah, 
Selitar (Ridley -1315); Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley 

Jour. Strain Brunch. 


110(59): Pahang, Tahan, Kota Glanggi (Ridley); 
Malacca, Alor Gajah: Selangor, Gunong Hijau (Good- 
enough), Labu River, Batu Cave* (Ridley); Perak 
(Scorteehini), Bujong Malacca (Ridley) ; Penang Hill, 
var. jxirvuluM Bl. Perak (Hullett). Distrib. India, 

A. plantagineum Kaulf. Penang Hill (Ridley). Distrib. 
Indo-Malava, Polvnesia. 

• • 

A. scmicostatuw Bl. Dindings, Lnmut (Ridlev) ; Perak, 
Maxwell's Hill (Scorteehini 237). Distrib. Malaya, 

A. Inti folium Bl. Sungei Fjong (Hullett); Perak (Scorte- 
ehini). Distrib. Indo-Malava. 


V. plan gala Sw. Common on tree?. Singapore (King's Coll. 
223), Thomson Road (Murton), Green Hill (Hullett), 
Passir Panjang. Sungei Morai. etc. (Ridley); Johor, 
Pengaram (Ridley): Muar. Sungei Pauh : Malacca. 
Sclandan, Mt. Ophir (Ridley) : Pahang, Pekan (Ridley) ; 
Selangor. dinting Bidai : Perak. Bujong Malacca (Rid- 
ley). Distrib. Tropics of Old World. 

T\ lineata Sw. Common on trees. Selangor, Ulu Selangor 
(Goodenough); Kedah (Kings Coll. 1739). Distrib. 
All Tropics. 

V. sulcata Kuhn. On trees at high altitudes. Selangor, 
Bukit Ilitam (Ridley) ; Malacca, Gunong Mcring, Ophir 
(Ridley 3352) ; Perak (Scorteehini) ; Kedah Peak (Rid- 
lev). Distrib. Cevlon. 

T\ falcata Kze. Malacca, Gunong Tunduk, Ophir (Ridley 
98G4) ; Pahang, Keluang Tcrbang (Barnes) ; Selangor, 
Hulu Semangkok; Perak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley). 

V. srnlopcndrina Prcsl. Singapore, Kranji, Tanglin, Chua 
Chu Kang (Ridley 1030) ; Pahang, Tahan River (Rid- 
lev) : Perak, Maxwell's Hill (Scorteehini), Goping 
(Bishop Hose), Gunong Batu Putih (Wray 1132); 

K. A. Hoc., No. 60, 1901 


Kedah (Curtis) : Lankawi, Gunong Baya at 2500 feet 
(Curtis). Crested and branched forms occur in Tanglin 
and elsewhere in Singapore. Distrib. Africa, Indo- 


T. blechnoides Sw. Common in woods all over the Peninsula, 
and very variable. " Paku Pijai," " Paku Balu." 

var. a. Fronds simple. Malacca, Mt. Ophir (Ridley 
3366) and Mering. A branched form occurs on Ophir; 
Selangor, Pahang Track (Ridley). 

var. b. Fronds pinnate narrow. The commonest 
form. Singapore, Garden jungle, Sungei Morai, Selitar 
(Ridlev 4334) ; Johor, Gunong Pulai (Ridley) ; Malacca, 
St. John's Hill, Pulau Besar (Ridley 4335) ; Pahang, 
Tahan River, Kuala Semantan (Ridley) ; Perak (Scorte- 
chini 34) ; Kedah Peak. 

var. c. Fronds pinnate verv broad. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah, Tras (Ridley 8568) and Changi (2683). Dis- 
trib. India, Malava. 


D. piloseJhides Presl. Extremely common on trees, and very 
troublesome, covering the branches " Sakat Ribu-Ribu." 
A curious crested form on the trees of the Cathedral 
close (Bishop Hose). Singapore, evervwhere Bukit 
Mandai (Ridley 6032), Teban (4346)/ Pulau Ubin, 
Tanglin, etc.; Johor, common; Malacca, Ayer Panas; 
Perak, Thaiping (Scortechini), Kamuning (Machado) ; 
Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado). Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 


II. arifolia Burn. In limestone districts usually on the rocks. 
Perak, Kamuning on the ground (Ridlev), Larut 
(King's Coll. 41M) ; Lankawi (Curtis). Distrib. Indo- 

//. *p. Selangor, Gua Batn (Ridley 8135). 

Jour. Straits Branch. 




Most of the local species much resemble each other, and 
are rather dillicult to separate. The species are not so rare 
as might appear but seldom fruit. 

Ij. laurifulium Bedd. E. fafifolium Bedd. Singapore, 
Kranji (mangrove swamps) ; Pahang, Tahan River 
(Ridley), Kluang Terbang (Barnes); Perak, Top of 
Gunong Batu Putih (Wrav l\VJ) ; Kedah, Gunong Jerai 
(Ridley r>l<jS). 

£\ confonnc S\v. Pahang. Tahan River (Ridlev) ; Penang 
Hill (\V. Fox). 

b\ Xorrisii ilook. Malacca, Ml. Ophir (Ridlev .mi, J)870) ; 
Penang (Kidley); Perak (King's Coll. 2232). Ende- 


&\ palustn: L. One of the commonest ferns, "' Paku Ramu," 
" P. Mesin. or P. Miding or Lanriding/' The young 
leaves very popular as a vegetable. Singapore, Tanglin, 
Balesticr Road (Kidley <tg-l!)) ; Johor. Tanjong Kupang 
(Ridley WM) and Kota Tinggi ; Malacca (Ilcrvey), 
Pulau I'ndan (Cantlev's Coll.) : Perak, (toping (King's 
Coll. H:M), Waterfall thaiping (Wray, Seortechini 109) ; 
Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado). Distrib. India, China, 


fc\ aorbi folia L. Common in forests. The variation in the 
form of the fronds is very remarkable. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah; Johor, Gunong Pulai (Hullett) ; Pahang, Tahan 
River (Ridley) ; Selangor, Semangkok Pass, Ulu Langat, 
Batu Caves (Ridlev); Perak (Scortcchini), Larut 
(Kings Colo. m>.V)/Upper Perak (Wrav 3;u3), Water- 
fall Hill. Maxwell's Jlill, etc. Distrib. All tropics. 

£'. [irrvknw! Bcdd. Perak, Thaiping, (King's Coll. 83 io). 

B, A. 3oc„ Xo. 60, 1908. 



P. appeiidiaihita Willd. On rocks in forest. Singapore, 
Bukit Timah (King's Coll. o35) and all other collectors, 
abundant. Dindings, Luinut (Ridley) ; Perak (Scorte- 
c-hini); Lankawi (Curtis). 

var. subintcgra Bedd. Johor, Batu Pahat (Ridley). 
Distrib. Indo-Malaya, China. 


8. auritu (Sw.) Limestone Bocks. Pahang, Kota Glanggi 
(Ridley) ; Selangor, Batu Caves (Ridley) ; Perak, Kwala 
Dipang (Ridley 934;), (loping (King's Collector 442). 
Distrib. Malay islands to the Solomon isles. 

•>'. sp. Peuang Hill (Ridley lOVS). 


G. variabilis Hook. Perak, Kinta (Scortechiui ilOJ). 

var. axillaris. Perak, I'lu Bubong (King's Coll. 
1W28). Distrib. India. 

G. s]>i<ata Linn. ill. Not verv common. Pulau Tioman 
(Ridley) ; Perak, Ma. well's' Hill, Cottage Thaiping Hills 
(Ridley. King's Collection WIS) ; Penang Hill rocks on 
the top (Rid icy. King's Coll. l«>y<); Kedah. Distrib. 
I nd i if. 

G. fhiffrllifi'va Wall. In muddy spots by streams. Singapore, 
Stagmount (Ridley), Pulau Tioman; Selangor, Ra- 
wang; Perak (Scortechiui). Coping (King's Collection 
1097). Distrib. India. 

G. subrepanda Hook. Singapore, Bukit Timah (Ridley) ; 
Perak, Chanderiang (King's Collection 5797), Upper 
Perak (Wray 3G79), Thaiping Hills Cottage (Ridley). 

G. Prvslmna Hook. In dense forests. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah (Hullett, Ridley, etc.). Distrib. Conean and 

Jour, tttraiti Branch. 


G. conto mi nans Wall. Perak (Seortechini). 

G. vofitatum Wall. Penang, Balik Pulau (Curtis). Distrib. 
India and Burmah. 


L. pcrakcnsis Bedd. Perak at 400 feet elevation (Day, 
King's Collector 8315). Endemic. 


A. aureum L. Common in tidal rivers, but sometimes long 
persisting after the river has disappeared. I have seen 
it thu* in open places far inland as at the base of Gunong 
Paiitai (Johor), Bukit Asahan (Malacca) and in the Bo- 
tanic Gardens in Singapore. It is abundant in Singapore 
even in the town canals; Johor, Batu Pahat, etc.; Din- 
dings at Luinut; Selangor, Klang, etc.; Perak; Kcdah; 
Penang. Distrib. All tropics. 


Ph. rigida Wall. On boughs of trees overhanging rivers and 
mangrove swamps. Singapore, Kranji, Woodlands 
(Matthew) ; Johor; Perak, Goping (King's Coll. 8G1) ; 
Penang (Curtis). Distrib. Malaya. 

P. drynarioidrs Hook. Bare. Penang Hill (Bishop Hose). 
Distrib. Malay isles. 


Ch. bicitspc Hook. In mossy spots by streams at 3000 feet 
elevation. Malacca, Mount Ophir on the banks of the 
stream above Padang Batu (Ridley 9872) ; Perak, Thai- 
ping Hills (Ridley). Distrib. Java and Formosa. 


PL f/r'tndr Sin. Singapore (fide Bcddomc, but no one else 
seems to have seen it here) ; Lankawi islands, Curtis 

R. A- Soc., No. 50. 1908. 


found one or two plants there. Distrib. Malaya, Aus- 

PL bifonne Bl. The common elk's horn fern, abundant every 
where and attaining a very large .size. Singapore, Tang- 
lin, Selitar (Ridley 3.VJ.V), Bukit Timali (Bidloy 4351, 
80-ill). All over the peninsula. Distrib. indo-Malaya. 
var. crceta. A much smaller plant with the fertile 
fronds erect and short. Sterile amending fronds a foot 
long and as wide, very strongly ribbed, rounded in out- 
line, and dotted over with hairs arranged stellately, fertile 
fronds stiffly erect 8 to 18 inches long, 8 inches across, 
dichotomously branched, the tips of the branches round- 
ed, fertile lobe spathulate or obovate pedicel led 2-3 inches 
long and as wide in the widest part. Singapore, Bukit 
Timah on very lofty branches of trees (liidley 10830). 
Bishop Hose first pointed out this plant to me some years 
ago on perfectly inaccessible boughs of a lofty tfhorca tree 
100 feet or more from the ground. Then* are a number 
of plants on the boughs, all are quite similar and there 
are no typical specimens of P/atyceriiun bi forme on the 
tree though it is abbundant in the surrounding forests. 
1 have onlv been able to obtain fallen fronds. Mr. C J. 
Matthew took specimeus to Kew and Mr. Wright notes 
on them a* follows. *' 1 do not think this can be 
separated as a distinct species from Platycerium bifonne 
Bl. but is a form produced by growing in exposed situ- 
ations and is worthy of a varetal name. It has also been 


collected in Borneo by Motley who remarks " on the high- 
est branches of trees in very exposed places perhaps only 
[a form] of the long drooping plant growing in damp 
and shade." The plant is certainly most closely allied 
to P. bifonne Bl., but 1 hardly think it can be classed 
as merely a form or state of that plant. I have seen the 
ordinary form growing in quite exposed places, on lofty 
trees and showing no variation. The variety with its 
short stiff erect fronds, has a most curious appearance, 
and really looks more distinct from the typical form than 
any other Platycerium I have seen. I note however that 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


ill 1\ bifonne the young branched fronds when first pro- 
truded point directly upwards and then first spread out 
horizontally, then dellex. On the same trees which bear 
this curious fern, grows also Lcvmioptcris carnusa the 
onlv lowland locality I know for this plant. 

v v X 



£. malacrana Bak. Mossy plaecs at 1000 feet elevation. 
Malacca, Mt. Opliir (Ridley !>860) ; Kedah Teak (Rid- 
ley). lMstrib. Malay isles. 

S. dirhufoma Sw. Common in dry woods or sandy spots, 
whole ])cninsula, ** Paku Tunibar," " Paku Jarum." 
Singapore, Toas, Passir Panjang, Kranji, etc. (Ridley) ; 
Johor, Pengarani. Gunong Pulai (Ridley); Pahang, 
K wan tan (Craddock). Rumpin River, Pekan (Uidley); 
Malacca, Rrisu and Sungei Iludang (R. Derrv); Perak, 
Ulu Kul (Kings Coll. 107351). Distrib. nearly all the 

£. diyitaiu Sw. Common in woods. Singapore, Garden 
Jungle. Reservoir Woods, etc. (Ridley) ; Johor, Tana 
Runto (Ridley): Pahang, Kuala Teinbcling; Malacca, 
Pengkalan Ampat, Selandau (Ridley) ; Negri Scmbilan, 
Kuala Pedas; Sclangor, llatu Caves on the top of the 
rocks; Perak (Scortechini), Thaiping Hills, Tea Gardens 
(Ridley), Waterfall Hill (Wray) ; Penang Hill; Kedah 
Peak. Distrib. lndo-Malava. Polynesia. 


L. cirdnatum Sw. L. dichotomum Bedd. One of the com- 
monest and best known ferns, u Ribu-Ribu Dudok," or 
" Rukit," "Paku Jari Merah " (Tringanu). leaves 
used for headache. Singapore, Tanglin, Bajau, Chan 
Chu Kang (Ridley 4229, 8U«5T"), etc.; Malacca, Sungei 
Udang, Chabau (Ridley M)l)j Pahang, Tahan River j 

R. A. Soc, No. W, 1908. 


Perak, Waterfall Hill (Wray 2324), Larut (King's Cull. 
?j03) ; Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado) ; Lankawi (Curtis). 
Distrib. Indo-Malaya, China. 

L. microphyUum Br. Not rare in open grassy places. Sing- 
apore, Kranji, Botanic Gardens (Ridley 0917) ; Johor, 
Kampong Bahru, Tebing Tinggi (Ridley) ; Perak 
(Scort echini). Distrib. Indo-Malaya. 

L. fcxuosum Sw. Common in the low country, " Akar 
Sidin," " Ribu-Ribu Gajah.'' Singapore, Botanic Gar- 
dens; Pahang, Kuala Tembcling (Kidley); Malacca, 
Pcngkalan Minvak, Gunong Berumbun (Cantlcv's 
Coll.); Peiiang" Hill, Telok Bahang (Curtis G25*) ; 
Tringanu, Bundi (Rostado) : Kedah Peak (Ridley); 
Kelautan, Kuala Lcbir (Dr. Gimlette). 

var. alta Clarke. Perak (King's Coll. 29<-5). Dis- 
trib. Indo-Malava, Africa, Australia. 

L. polys loch yum Wall. Pahang. Kuala Tembcling (Ridley 
21.*>0) ; Perak, Upper Perak (Wray) ; Penang, Waterfall 
(llullett). Distrib. Burmah. 



A. cvevfa IIofTin. Xot rare in woods, commonly known local- 
ly as the elephant fern. Singapore, Bukit Timah (Hul- 
lett, etc.) ; Pahang, Pekan (Ridlev) ; Perak, Maxwell's 
Hill (Scortechini 219, King's Coll. 5203). Distrib. 
Indo-Malaya, Australia, Madagascar. 


K. acsculifolia Bl. Terrestrial in damp spots or on rocks. 
Sclangor, Batu Caves covering the ground in great 
masses, in damp spots (Ridley 8010) ; Perak, Thaipiug 
Hills (Curtis ;U1S, Ridley, Scortechini) on rocks or the 
ground, Kinta (King's Coll. 4<81). Distrib. Indo- 

Jour. Strata Branch 




0. rciirulutunt L. Pcnang in drv spots in the waterfall valley 
(Ridley 9837, 11394). Distrib. Eastern Tropics. 

0. Hitilicauh' L. iil. In grassy spots. Singapore, Bukit Pan- 
jang (Ridley 420.3)', Chan Chu Kang (Ridley 2121). 
Distrib. Tropics*. 

0. pendulum L. Singapore, Tanglin, Bukit Mandai, etc. 
(Ridlcv) ; Selangor, Rawang, Camphor Woods (Ridley) ; 
Perak,* Guuong Batu Putih (Wray 1133). This plant 
usually grows on Plat yceri tint but also on trees. It has 
a habit of suddenly appearing and spreading widely and 
then apparently disappearing. At one time the only 
locality I knew for it was on a tree in the Barracks 
({rounds. This died and the plant disappeared there, 
but then appeared in the Botanic Gardens, and spread 
rapidly. Distrib. Eastern Tropics. 


11. zeylan iva L. In damp muddy spots in open country in 
thickets. Malacca, Brisu ( berry) ; Pahang, common 
along the Pahang River, Pekan, Pulau Mania, Pulau 
Jcllam. Kuala Tembeling; Selangor, near the Batu Caves 
(Kidley 8152); Perak (Scort echini), Blanja (Wray 
140); Tringanu, Ismail Rantau (Down). Distrib. 

Eastern Tropics. 


Ahophila glabra Hook. Bukit Timah and other forests in 
Singapore in damp spots. This is the plant mentioned as 
Ant pi tropin in altera us from Singapore. It is named by 
Mr. Matthew. 

R. A Hoc., No. 30, 190*. 


Some Visits to Batam Island. 

C. Boden Kloss, F.Z.S. 

Pulo Batam though so close to Singapore and frequently 
visited by pig-shooters, has never been investigated by a 
naturalist, so perhaps the following extracts from journals— 
though of trivial happenings as must necessarily be the ease 
where the fauna. of small islands is concerned — kept during 
two short visits I paid to it to collect animals may bo of 

This island is 9 miles distant from Singapore, about 1 •*» 
miles long and 10 miles broad. Hie northern side is indented 
and elsewhere it is closely surrounded by other inlands. 
There are hills in the interior covered with jungle, when* large 
outcrops of quartz occur and the boulders are a quartz grit. 
Much of the low land which has at one time been cleared in 
swampy or sandy and very poor but where red lateritc soil 
occurs pineapples tlouri>h under the cultivation of Chinese 
and Bugis settlers. Many young get ah trees, (l)ichojtsin np. ) 
are found in the forests where roam a tribe of Proto-Malavs 
still little affected bv outside influences. 

My first visit was paid in September 1905. I left Sing- 
apore in a 10-ton cutter-yacht at 11 a.m., got caught in a 
squall off Pulo Sambu in the afternoon, ran on to a sand-bank 
at low tide later on but poled off, and anchored off a kampong 
at the head of Senimba Bay at 5.30 p.m. The upper part of 
the bav is verv shoal and at low water wide mud-flats are 
exposed all round. I collected some interesting small sponges 
of bright colours on them. There were seven houses in the 
kampong and others building further along the shore. 

After getting the baggage landed next morning we found 
a deserted Chinese shop behind the village. This we broke 
open and throwing all the rubbish it contained into a side 
compartment, I set up my bed, table and chair in the centre 
room while the boy fixed up his kitchen and sleeping place 

Jwiir. straits Branch, R. A. Soc., No. 50, 1908. 


in a third. There was a hole of good drinking water at hand 
and a bathing well a little farther off so we felt verv com- 

A row of wooded hills ran south-easterlv towards the 
centre of the island, a river debouched at the head of the 
bay and across the water a couple of miles away were the 
slopes of a long peninsula. 

As T sat talking to the natives in the doorway of my 
house in the afternoon we saw the eves of a large crocodile 
above the calm water about 140 vards awav and I was asked to 
shoot it but refused since my gun was only sighted to 100 
yards. However, l>eing pressed, T took a very full sight and 
fired from my chair; there was a furious turmoil and the 
reptile disappeared. The natives said it was hit, and indeed 
three or four days later we found it in the mangroves with its 
brains flicked out — a IB-footer. When afterwards invited to 
repeat the performance I was not to be tempted — it was a 
case of lolling well alone. 

At 3 p.m. I went out with a parang and found a path 
going up the hills; cleared it and set 3 dozen traps. Coming 
hack found a pair of fc * tupai tanah " (Tupniti frmtf/inra hata- 
maim sp. now) just caught and saw several small pigs. 
Skinned tupaia and after dinner went along the shore for pig 
but saw none. 

fc% KJth. Set olF at .">.;to a.m. to examine the traps which 
contained a number of rats (Mutt linyensis) and some tupaia, 
all much ant-eaten. Found this hill jungle practically lifeless 
as the forest was poor being without fruit trees, but got a 
species of civet cat (Aretngalulia simplex) which was a valu- 
able prize, and a horn-bill — the " burong klinking" (Anthra- 
coceroM conir.rus). Skinned till 5.30 and then reset traps. 
Lent the gun in the evening to a man who wanted to try for 
pigs in his plantation. 

u 17th. No pig seen by the natives. Very little in traps 
so brought some away and set them lower down amongst 
coconuts. Wot a pair of horn-bills and some squirrels 
(Sriunis vilt(itns) with the .HO gun amongst the palms; both 
th<>se are numerous near the village and horn-bill steak is 

Jour. Straits Drancb. 


very good. Some men went to set "jerats" for nnpu and 
borrowed the gun in order to try for lotong and krawar 
(Iiatufa sp.) and coining down myself from setting traps 
without it 1 saw a large bearded pig ! 

" 18th. Some fresh rats from the coconuts: one appears 
to be Mum jarak and the other rather like Mm yrisri center of 
Johor. Went to the Bugis plantations inland to the S. W. 
of the range. They are on poor Hat land and consist of 
pines, bananas and tapioca: the forest beyond, which was 
swampy and largely composed of Melaleuca trees, was quite 
empty. The napu-t rappers had no luck. 

u liHh. A couple of small concolorous rats from the coco- 
nuts. Away to another patch of jungle beyond the gardens 
but was disappointed as it was merely a small clump with 
swamp on the far side. A boy brought some " tikus padi " 
caught in his house. In afternoon went along foot of hills 
after pig: saw monkeys only but couldn't get near as they 
went to ground at once, which makes me think they were 
** bcrohs/' 23 skins to date. 

"20th. Set off for the distant jungle beyond the hills 
and almost immediately got a " klabu v in the mangroves near 
the house — a female rrisfaia, weight 11 lbs. Ilacl much 
trouble getting through secondary growth and " resam v fern 
but finally entered the forest and found a path running along 
a deep gully where a Diih/iitorar/nis with violet flowers was 
growing amongst the rocks. Saw a few common birds but no 
animals, except another lotong which I got. Found a better 
way home where two napus were awaiting me, both very large 
and bright with clear orange necks. Set traps and waited 
again for pig. 

"21st. Heavy rain all morning so stopped in and skinned 
the napus. Went out later along the ridge of the hills but 
got nothing. The view of land and water, north and west 
was very line but could see very little jungle in the interior. 

" 22nd. Oif to the far jungle where I saw absolutely 
nothing but think 1 heard the cry of a Ratufa. The few 
traps out had l>ccn interfered with by a pig. 30 animal skins. 

B. A. Koe., No. 60, 1906. 



" 23rd. Hi rod a large leaky boat and paddled and sailed 
to Pulo Sambu where we found a launch going to Singapore 
which gave us a lift : arrived home !■> p.m." 

My second visit to Batam was the outcome of a desire 
to collect on Bulang Peak. I left Singapore hn March 18th 
1906. I had a Malay prau on this occasion which didn't sail 
anything like as well as the cutter and we had to do a lot of 
rowing, particularly amongst the tide-rips behind Pulo 
Sambu. However we got to Pulo Boyan, where the Con- 
troleur is stationed, at seven o'clock and anchored in the 
strong tide of the Batu Hadji Straits for the night. 

I found that the Controleur, who was newly appointed, 
could give me no information about Bulang but he courteous- 
ly offered me the services of a constable for the trip which I 
refused as a useless encumbrance. There was a strong tide 
against us and no wind all the morning so we passed the time 
in filling our water-jars from a well on Bulang. as there is no 
water on the small island, and in the afternoon when the 
tide slackened we made sail again, reaching at night-fall the 
kampong where I bad hoped to put up. It was in ruins and 
bad evidently been deserted for a long time but I was less 
disappointed, in that next morning when 1 made a trip to 
the Peak I found the way thither to be through swamps while 
the hill itself bad been cleared except on the top. and there 
was no sign of animal life anywhere. So we sailed back again 
looking for a place to stop at, but both sides of the strait had 
been long cleared and were no use for collecting and as I was 
not provided with any sort of material to form a shelter I 
decided to put in at Tel ok Senimba once more — as T was 
particularly anxious to shoot the bearded pig — and see if I 
could not add to my former list of specimens, though the 
locality was not a good one as there was so much cleared land 
and swamps while the accessible jungle was on hill sides and 
exceedingly poor. There are no doubt more satisfactory 
places in the interior but thither one would have to go pre- 
pared to camp out. 

After leaving the sheltered strait we had a lively time 
against a strong bead wind: the prau, with peak dropped. 

Jour. Straits Brancfe. 


wouldn't tack in the rough weather and we had to wear every 
time but when we got into Senimba Bay it was a nice reach 
down to the kampong. It was low tide and there was a pig 
on the mud as we arrived so I paddled off towards him with 
the gun but lost his track in the mangroves. I had been at 
the tiller for eight hours without a spell and was painfully 

My old dwelling place had been pulled down but another 
Chinaman had built another unsuccessful shop so we appro- 
priated the empty place as before; and then 1 had a most 
glorious bath, hitherto having to l>e content with a dip in the 
Bea of nights which was a great discomfort but this occasion 
squared it all. 

" 22nd. Went along the range at day-break but saw only 
"krahs": cut a path down the far side along the bed of a 
dry ravine in hopes of finding jungle beyond but there were 
only stretches of dense scrub. Spent the afternoon on the 
mud collecting stone-corals and sponges, small kinds of every 
possible shape and colour. The kamj>ong women catch shell 
fish in a rather ingenious manner: they search the exposed 
mud for the hole in which the mollusc lives and then push 
down a stout piece of the midrib of a rattan palm about 
twenty inches long and armed at the end with a pair of 
revered thorns, and the bivalve lying open at the bottom of 
the hole closes on the thorns when touched and is drawn up. 
Got my traps out towards evening and then watched for pig, 
with no success. 

" 23rd. Found a Mas firmus in the traps; this was not in 
the last collection. A blank morning on the hill except for 
a specimen of the beautiful rose-breasted pigeon (Ptilopus 
jambu). Tried a small island across the mud flats where pig 
were reported but saw none: the mud was fearful stuff to 
travel through. ... 

'* 21th.. . An ajj&olutely blank morning in the- jungle but 
two napus were brought in and gave something to do. Full 
moon is said by all hands to be the best time for catching 
mouse-deer. Lint a gun to a would-be shooter who as usual 
swore to whole rafta of pig6 which never 6eem to materialise. 

B, A. Soc, Ko. £C, Iff*. 


Found that the new lantern I intended to do night shooting 
with had no wick so made some out of a piece of towel and 
went for a long walk with it on mv belt after dinner: no 
result except that I was nearly choked by the smell of burning 

"25th. A futile morning in the forest : found a collection 
of old shelters, Malay pondok type, probably made by the 
" orang utau " of Batam. Half a dozen rats, but all badly 
damaged by ants. Sat out all the evening in a deserted 
garden and just before dark a medium-sized " nang-oi " 
trotted up. Fired at 60- 10 yards and found immediately — 
not for the first time — i had forgotten to put the rifle lever 
over. Pig cleared away into laliang warmed up by slugs: 
nothing else put in an appearance except mosquitoes. Mjr 
gun-borrowing friend said with truth pigs were to be seen in 
the clearings if watched for long enough ! 

" 26th. Nothing in the traps and only monkeys in the 
jungle. Set some large traps for musang and afterwards 
watched for pig. Went for a walk with bulls-eye after dinner 
but saw nothing. 

'' 27th. Only two specimens in the traps: had to shoot 
squirrels to make work. The pig-shooter returned his gun; 
says he has sat up for three nights without seeing anything. 
A large trap caught a tortoise (Cyrtemys platynota) later in 
the day. No luck with the pigs again. Found a large centi- 
pede in my mosquito net which should evidently have been 
taken as a sign that the bed was not safe as in the night a 
coconut crashed through the roof and landed on my pillow 
(Memo, always to strip coco-palms before dwelling beneath 

u 28th. The usual frost in the jungle. A young napu 
was brought in and another tortoise got into the traps; evi- 
dently these reptiles are attracted of the putrid meat. which 
forms the bait. A pig had also been caught but he success- 
fully pulled out." 

This 6ort of thing went on for several days during which 
I got nothing but monkeys, rats, squirrels and tupaia. . Traces 
of pigs were everywhere, huge tracks some of .them, . and I 

Jour. Struts Branch. 


twice stampeded the animals in dense vegetation but I was 
never able to catch sight of them and the spring-guns I set 
were never effective. However 1 got a new rat in some beach 
forest, a very beautiful specimen of the jerdoni type which 
made me feel glad I had come to the island again. 

One afternoon 1 went up the river which after some 
distance turned completely on itself and ran south. It was 
entirely mangrove bordered, though once or twice there were 
glimpses of old clearings. A number of small side streams 
were probably only drainage of the swamp. We landed on 
an isolated hill where were paths and found some old " jerats " 
for mouse-deer. The jungle trees were nearly all of a bark- 
shedding kind but I saw a quantity of the red stemmed palm 
(C yrtostach ys sp.) and collected some orchids — Urammatu- 
phyl/ums being plentiful on the mangroves. 

As I appeared to have exhausted the district after having 
made 41) mammal skins, many of the species reported appar- 
ently not occuring there, on April 3rd we loaded the prau 
and rowed down the bay to its head where we got a slight 
breeze. Outside a strong ebb set us to the eastward but as 
we nearcd Singapore Island we met the flood which carried 
us into the harbour in time to get everything home before 

I obtained thirteen species of mammals during the two 
visits and observed two others, while nine more were reported 
to exist. Thus Batam is by no means exhausted : for if they 
really occur, the determination of the reported Presbytes, M. 
HcmcstriHa, Paradox ur us, &< iurvptcrus and liatufa will be 
interesting, but to obtain this it would probably be necessary 
to camp in the middle of the island where good jungle may 
still exist. 

Mammals of Batam. 

1. Prcsbytcs cristata (Raffles) is fairly common in small 

herbs both in forest and mangroves. It is known to 
the natives by the name of " Klabu." 

2. Presbytcs species. A "Kaka" with a 'white breast was 

reported to occur. If this is a fact I am inclined to 

& A. Soc, Ko. W, 1908. 


think it will be the P. cana, Miller, of Pulo Kundur 
and E. Sumatra rather than P. rhionis, Miller, of 
Bintang Island. These are local forms of P. femoralis 
which, though found in the Peninsula and Sumatra, 
does not occur on the islands of the Bio-Lingga Archi- 

3. Macaca nemestrina, Linn. The " beroh " was said to 

occur but has not yet been taken in the Archipelago. 

4. M. fnsciailaris, (Panics). The "krah" is common 


5. Cynopterns monfanoi, Itobin. Bats, apparently of this 

species, were fairly common and were the only kind I 
obtained. Malay nama " klawar." 


6. GalcopHhccus volants, Linn. Hie " kubong " was said to 


7. Tit paid fvrruginca lata ma no, Lyon. This new sub- 

species of the " tupai tanah *' was exceedingly common. 
Externally it only differs from T. frmtyhmi, Paifles, 
in its slightly greyer tail. It is easily separated how- 
ever by its longer and wider skull. 

8. Arctogaliilia simplex, Miller. This is the Archipelago 

form. A specimen, the third known, was shot early 
one morning while it was running along the branch of 
a high tret?. As the people called it a u musang " 
which they said was common I presume that 

ii. Paradoxums henna phrodit us, Pallus, or an allied form 

10. Mus concolor, Blyth was taken in the Kampongs where 
it was not uncommon. 

J 1. Mus firmus, Miller, is the Sumatran form of the Penin- 
sula M. validus, Miller. I have never taken these 
except ou the banks of fresh water streams. 

12. Mus lingensis, Miller. The Sumatran form of Mus 
surifer, Miller. A dry jungle rat and exceedingly 
common. It seems to begin feeding at early twilight 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



as traps specimens are always more damaged by ants 
than any other kind. 

13. Mus sp. near rati us. The rats provisionally grouped 

under this heading are most perplexing. They fall 
readily into two groups which handle in the flesh as 
extremely distinct. The one division, almost black 
above with whitish bellies, are finely built animals with 
very pointed noses and closely resemble M. jarak, 
Bonhote, from Johore. The others with greyish bellies 
and backs rather like M. twrvegicus are coarsely built 
and muzzled and somewhat approximate to M. grise* 
venter, Bonn., of Johore. All these were taken in 
swampy ground near the sea as was Mus jarak which 
I found only amongst mangroves. Mus griseiventer 
however is a Kampong rat. 

14. Mus batamanus, Lyon. This new species is of the 

jerdoni type. It is a very beautiful shaped rat and 
the only specimen I obtained was captured in damp 
littoral forest. Swampy ground seems the habitat of 
all this group. 

15. Mus musculus, Linn. Some specimens of the "tikus 

padi v were brought me by a Bugis boy who had cap- 
tured them in his house. 

16. Sriuropterus, sp. Reported; possibly the amoenus, Mil- 

ler of Kundur island. 

IT. Petaurista, sp. The %i kuhin " was said to occur. 

18. Ratufa, sp. Rejw»rted. A yellow type, probably near 

R. insiyni*. Miller, of Pulo Sugi. 

19. ticiurus cithilus, I iu files. Exceedingly common in the 

coco-nuts where it was verv destructive. Cannot be 
distinguished in any way from Sumatran and Penin- 
sula forms. 

20. Scrums tennih Baffles. Reported as very rare. I only 

know of one specimen from the Archipelago, taken on 
Lingga Island. 

R. A. Soc., No. 50, 1908. 


21. Sus rhionis, Miller. Observed. This is the "babi 

bakau " of the natives and is common everywhere. It 
is the island form of S. vittatus. 

22. Sus oi, Miller. Observed. The " nang-oi " is plentiful 

but to a solitary collector pigs are difficult to obtain. 
Generally one is only aware of their presence by a rush 
through the undergrowth and distant snorts and unless 
one is lucky in meeting them in the open they rarely 
figure in collections. The " nang-oi " does great 
damage to the pineapple plantations and is said to be 
far less timid than other pigs: in fact the natives 
reported that boars often merely grunted when they 
tried to scare them away. They are afraid to shoot 
it with their ineffective ammunition as it charges when 
wounded. It ranges from Batam to Banka and 
throughout the swamp of E. Sumatra. 

23. Tragulus lanchil, sp. A " pelandoc " is said to occur. 

24. Tragulus javanicus perflavus, Miller. This new species 

is a strongly marked form having very bright pelage 
and a pure orange neck entirely free from black shad- 
ing. 1 have it also from Pulo Galang and it has been 
taken since on Bulang. It affords a particularly good 
illustration of local variation as T. formosus, Miller of 
Bintang Island, only five miles away, is exceedingly 
dark with a collar strongly washed with black. 
Thus the mammal fauna of Batam is Sumatran and 
not Peninsular for the above definitely identified species 
Mus con color and Cynopterus montanoi alone are from the 
lVninsula only. On the other hand, Mus lingensis, M. firmns 
and Sus oi are known from the Sumatra and the Rio-Lingga 
Archipelago only. Arctogalidia simplex, Sus rhionis and 
Tragulus perflavus are found elsewhere only in the Archi- 
pelago while Tupaia ferruginea balamana and Mvs batamanus 
are so far known from Batam alone. 

I am inclined to think that Batam, Bulang, Rempang 
and Galang form a small group which faunistically is more 
nearly related to the islands to the westward than to Bintang 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


on the east, though Pulo Sauh forms a stepping stone to the 
latter which is only five miles away. Bintang, however, when 
it is fully investigated will prove to be by far the most 
interesting island of the whole archipelago. A bank of less 
than 20 fathoms connects all these islands with both Sumatra 
and the Peninsula, but the 10 fathom contour lines break them 
up into various groups of which that above noted is one of the 

I have no notes of value about birds for they were scarce 
and of common species and I soon left off shooting them. 

Small collections of reptiles and insects were made but 
they contained nothing remarkable. 

I preserved a few plants during my visits and two of 
them, which were new, have lately been described by Mr. H. 
N. Ridley, viz: — Xeckia Klossii and Dldymocarpus battam- 
ensis. 1 The latter is interesting since it grows at sea-level 
while I l>elieve that the habitat of the Didymocarpi, in this 
locality at least, is at some altitude. 

A few notes on the inhabitants of Batam are given else- 
where in this Journal. 

1. J. S. B. K. A. S. No. 49. 

E. A. Sot., No. 10, 1*0 



Some Ethnological Notes. 

C. Bodex Kloss, f.r.a.i. 

In the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 
Vol. XXXVII., Mr. F. W. Knocker in the course of some 
notes on the aborigines of Sungei Ujong — the Orang Belanas 
— relates that they tell in respect of the Sakais, how "the 
parents plant a parang in the fore-arm of the young, both 
male and female, projecting a few inches beyond the elbow. 
The flesh grows round it and it eventually become part of the 
fore-limb. In after life this limb weapon is used to clear the 
jungle and not for hostile purposes." 

I am able to go one better than this. When living in 
Johore, it was my practice when travelling in the jungle to 
endeavour to ascertain whether there were current any tradi- 
tions of the existence of the orang utan (Simia satyrus) in 
that part of the peninsula. The native name for this great 
ape is " mawas." In the swampy country south of Gunong 
Pulai I found that the name was known and the people of the 
locality told me tales of its possessor. The information was 
interesting but not quite what I then wanted. The Orang 
Mawas were a kind of devil-men who lived in the swamps 
where their foot-prints might sometimes be seen. Their feet 
were turned backwards and, with sharp parangs which grew 
from their elbows like spurs, they killed any human beings 
thev met and afterwards devoured the bodies. 

Nothing discouraged I continued my enquiries elsewhere 
and learned that the Jakuns of the Endau Sembrong were 
also acquainted with a strange beast that seemed to be of the 
kind I was after. This was a huge red hairy man who lived 
in the trees and was called tuhu. I felt I was on the right 
track at last, but unfortunately the story went on to the effect 
that the tuhu spoke Chinese to a Chinaman when it met him 
in the jungle, Malay to a Malay, and the Jakun dialect to a 

B. A. 8*„ N* M, MM. 


The head-men o£ the Belanas are given as 1, Batin; 2, 
Jinang; 3, Jukrah — the usual titles among the southern in* 
land tribes. 1 find that a variant of the latter also occurs 
among the Proto-Mafays of the Kallang estuary in Singapore, 
a fact which Messrs. Skeat and Ridley failed to elect during 
their short visit thither (J. S. B. It. A. S. No. 33). 

Those enquirers state that the head-men of the Kampong 
they visited were 1, Jinang; 2, Batin. I further find in the 
neighbourhood one Kampong administered by 1, Batin; B, 
Dukrah: and another under 1, Penghulu; 2, Jinang. At 
Telok Senimba , Pulo Batam, a dozen miles away, the people 
who are a branch of the "Orang Sabimba" referred to by 
Logan (Journal of the India Archipelago Vol. I.) have 1, 
Penghulu; 2, Batin. 

The communities of the Kallang River have evidently 
been drawn from various sources and some guidance may be 
afforded by these titles as to their derivation. 

Amongst these primitive tribes the title of Batin extends 
throughout their range from the farthest north of Biliton, and 
in the islands appears to be the only one except where they 
have come under the influence of the ruling Malays, in which 
cases a Malay has often been appointed as Penghulu. 

In the Peninsula how r ever there are amongst themselves 
officials subordinate to the Batin known as Jinang and Jukrah. 
Where (according to Logan and others) a Malay has been 
appointed to supervise them he also is called, possibly because 
of his functions, Jinang, and it is needless to say that in these 
cases the title would occasionally become the superior one. 
This might account for the reversed " Table of Precedency " 
noted by Messrs. Ridley and Skeat, as Kampong Roko is a 
small village hedged in by dominant Malays. The anomaly 
of Penghulu and Jinang noticed by myself in another Kam- 
pong 1 can only account for by supposing that long ago the 
title of Batin dropped out of use. 

The word bidoh, boat (also the name of a stream in 
Singapore) given as a Non-Malay expression, is in 
common use amongst the Malays of the west coast of 

Jour. Strait* Branch 


Messrs. Skeat and Bidley suggest that " the Sea-gypsies 
of Singapore owe their origin largely from " Sakai " hill- 
tribes of the Bio-Lingga Archipelago " and class the Belandas 
as " Sakai " also : surely this is a slip and should be Jakun 
or Proto-Malayan or some other equivalent of these ! 

It is regrettable that all those English writers who have 
dealt so interestingly with the primitive people should be re- 
stricted in experience to the Peninsula for the Jakuns are only 
the mainland representatives — and probably least pure— of 
that large family that is spread throughout a great part of 
Eastern Sumatra and the islands adjacent. Such, for in- 
stance, are the Orang Akit of Bengkalis and Rupat Islands, 
the Palong of the upper tributaries of the Siak Biver, the 
Mantong and many others of the Bio-Lingga Archipelago, 
the Orang Ounong of Banka and the Sika of Biliton. The 
Kubus and Lubus of the interior of Sumatra also appear to 
be members of the same family. 

To Journal 41 of the Society Dr. W. L. Abbott con- 
tributes a note on " Human Images among the Orang Man- 

According to an old inhabitant of a Kampong at Tanjong 
Bu, an Oorang Laut by descent — though he would never 
admit himself to be other than a pure Orang Malayu — these 
images are called " Tukar Ganti " and, in common with the 
" Kapal Hantu " and " Bumah Sakit," are constructed, to his 
knowledge, by all the inhabitants of the Bhio Archipelago 
and of the creeks round Singapore in times of sickness. 
When the Tukar Ganti is completed the "penyakit" (sick- 
ness) is induced to enter it and it is then taken away to the 
jungle or some distant spot and there left. Further, all these 
objects — and this was unknown to me and perhaps is so to 
others — are used for prophylaxis as well as cure. A current 
instance was related. 

" r J en days ago the village pawang came to the people, 
' I see the evil spirits/ said he, 'the hantus are gathering 
thickly to afflict the Kampong. Now if we want to escape 
their machinations every house must contribute 40 cents so 
that a large vessel may be built into which the hantus will 

R. A. Hoc. No. 60, 1906. 


enter and can then be sent away to sea/ On the day it is 
sent off the pawang's house will he under a pantang (tabu) 
to Europeans and all strangers." 

My acquaintance also said that once these objects pass 
from the charge of their makers their superstitious attributes 
end and no one who takes possession of them is affected in any 
way. He observed that Europeans called his people idiots for 
practising such ceremonies. " But," 1 asked, " what docs the 
Imam say ? " " Oh he laughs at us or is angry and says 
that we are idiots too, for such hantus don't exist and such 
practices are not compatible with Islamism. But our pawang 
tells us otiierwise and as it is a thing we have always done we 
shall continue to do so." 

Mention has been made of the Orang Senimba (Sa- 
biinba). They are the people of whom Logan (Jour. Ind. 
Arch. Vol. 1. p. 295) records that a portion were trans- 
ferred from Batam Island to Johore and settled on the 
Tebrau River. In Johore all trace of them as a distinct 
tribe has now disappeared and the names seems forgotten 
also. Such also I found to be the case with the Biduanda 
Kallang settled once on the Pulai River. Nevertheless, all 
the creeks of the Old Straits and of the Johore River estuary 
are occupied by people who, although now Islamised, are still 
primitive in habits and appearance and quite distinct from the 
dominant Orang Malavu by whom thev have been absorbed. 

These are the people once known as Orang Seletar (J. I. 
A. Vol. I.) and they, with all the above, belong to the Sea- 
Jakun, or Orang Laut, branch of the Proto-Malays. Except 
for a small party on the Sungei Masai, merely brought down 
by a Chinaman to cut fire-wood, I could ascertain no traces of 
the inland division south of a line drawn between the Batu 
Pahat and Sedili Rivers. In this latitude they are to be 
found on the Lenggiu and Sayong streams, the head waters 
of the Johore. In this- connection the cropping up of the 
parong legend given above is interesting as it shows that the 
state of affairs was other in the past. 

The remaining Orang Senimba live on the shores of 
Senimba Bay, behind Pulo Sambu — though Logan speaks of 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


them as essentially a forest people — and do a little fishing, 
cultivating and fire-wood cutting. They are now Moham- 
medans which is to say that they have lost all ethnographical 

But in the interior of Batam still exist an almost un- 
spoilt people who, although the island is so small and they 
are nomadic, never come down to the sea. These are evident- 
ly Logan's "Orang Muka Kuning" (for his other tribe the 
Treng-Bubong " appear to have shared the fate of the Sa- 
bimba) although the name seems unknown to the shore 
people. I have not seen them personally, for living in tem- 
porary shelters and wandering about, they are not easily met 
with during a short visit but it was stated that they are less 
than a hundred in number. They trade a little jungle pro- 
duce occasionally and wear bark chawats when they possess 
no cotton garments. 

The most interesting fact in connection with them is 
that they still use the sumpitan and ipoh poison. They do 
not themselves manufacture the weapon but use one of a 
Borneo pattern obtained by trading. My informants assured 
me that though the poisoned darts were effective against wild 
animals yet they would never kill a fowl. 

A similar tribe occupies the interior of Pulo Galang 
where a Belgian Planting Company has recently had some 
communication with them. 

As these are probably the only island tribes who have 
maintained practically uncorrupted their paganism and their 
isolation, speedy investigation is most desirable. 

R. A >cc, Ko.iO, 19C8. 

The White-Handed Gibbon. 

So far as I am aware the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates 
lar) has been regarded as an animal restricted in range to the 
mainland of Asia, inhabiting there the Tenasserim Province 
and the Malay Peninsula only. I therefore wish to place on 
record its occurrence in the swampy regions of East Sumatra, 
where it has been met with in large numbers by Dr. W. L. 
Abbott and myself, particularly in the Siak and Indragiri 

It occurs there, as elsewhere, in the biscuit-coloured, in 
brown and in sooty pelage, and as far as my observations are 
worth anything it is impossible to consider these varieties as 
colour races in any way. I have several times noted, though 
this does not seem to be general, dark females with pale 
infants and vice versa and have also shot pie-bald adults with 
the colours so distributed that it would be impossible to say 
whether they are dark-furred individuals becoming pale or 
pale becoming dark. As however the pale form is com- 
paratively scarce it is to be inferred that the latter metamor- 
phosis is what is happening and that the light specimens are 
born so. 

The statement that gibbons are monogamous is one that 
I thoroughly agree with: whether however they divorce each 
other and take new partners from time to time we have yet 
to learn. The point is interesting since such an able reasoner 
as Westermarck (The Origin of Human Marriage) has come 
to the conclusion that the marriages of mankind are an in- 
heritance from some ape-like progenitor. 

I do not ever remember meeting Malayan gibbons in 
parties of more than five at a time, but the most usual 
numbers are four or less. A small district mav often contain 
a large number of apes but the little groups seem to live quite 
independently of each other and do not combine. These 
parties consist of two parents and their off-spring of different 

R. A Soc., No. 50, 1908. 


births, but as a rule it seems that about the time the third 
infant appears the eldest is sufficiently adult to take a partner 
with whom it starts life on its own account. 

It is thus rather interesting to note that while the lower 
monkeys of nearly all species go about in bands — Presbytes 
obscurus is inclined to pair, however — in the case of the man- 
like apes (with the exception of the chimpanzee, perhaps the 
most intelligent of them all; the siamang and the Indian 
hoolock) the social unit is the family. This is, by many 
authorities, held to have been the state of primitive man 
before he became intellectual enough to recognise the advan- 
tages derived from union. 

While their inactive habits compelled the gorilla and 
orang and possibly primitive man to be practically solitary 
as otherwise they Mould have exhausted their food supplies, 
this is not the case with the gibbon the most agile of all the 
apes. I hope to contribute to a forth-coming journal some 
notes on the relationship between the gibbon's structure and 
its habits. 

C. B. K. 

Jour. Straiti Brftfiefet 

Curriculum of a Course in Malay in Paris. 

Hotel du Mont Blanc Les Rasses s/ Ste. Croix 

Switzerland, 3/2/08. 
The Honorary Secretary, 

Straits Branch, Eoyal Asiatic Society, 
Singapore, Straits Settlements. 
Dear Sir, 

I am permitted by the Professor of Malay at the Paris 
School of Oriental Languages to communicate to you the 
enclosed programme of the curriculum of his department, 
which I venture to think may be of interest to some of the 
members of the Society. Should it be desired to print this 
programme in the Journal for the information of members, I 
am authorised to add that Professor Cabaton has (at my 
suggestion) given his consent thereto. 

It is rather remarkable that France, which has very few 
Malay-speaking subjects, should possess a Professorship of 
Malay (once filled, it may be remembered, by the Abb6 Favre, 
whose name is still held in honour in the East), whereas 
England has made no move in this direction. The fact seems 
hardly creditable to ourselves. 

I am, 

Yours very truly, 

C. Otto Blagden. 

Ecole des Lanoues Oriextales Cours de Malais 1907-8. 

Premiere annee. Programme du cours: Elements de malais 
classique (Principes de grammaire: a) Phonetique ou 
Etude des sons; b) Ecriture: alphabet arabico-malais 
et ses transcriptions en caracteres latins; c) Ety- 
mologie on Formation des mots; d) Morphologic on 
Etude des formes grammat icales ; e) Syntaxe). Ex- 
ercices practiques. 

ft. A. 8oe. t No. *o, 1901. 


Examen ecrit : Version et theme malais. 

Examen oral: Explication de textes prepares k V 
avance; a) Interrogations sur la grammaire; b) sur 
F liistoire, la geographic et lcs moeurs dcs Malais 

Textes k preparer: Maleisch Leesboek voor Eerstbegin- 
nenden (Livre de lecture, en malais, pour les debu- 
tants), fasc. I, p. 1-20; f. II, p. 5-25, 

Ouvrages a consulter: Keelus (Elisee), G6ographie uni- 
verselle , t. VIII, p. 715 sqq. Swettenham (Frank), 
British Malaya, London, 1906. Dennys (N. B.), 
Dictionary of British Malaya. Montano (Dr.), Voy- 
age aux Philippines et en Malaisie. 

Deuxieme anncc. Programme du coins: Le malais, langue 
d' echange de F Extr.-Orient. a) Grammaire et syn- 
taxe (Revision) ; b) Explication de textes tir6s du 
Blocmlezing de G. K. Niemann; c) Exercises pra- 
tiques: Dictees au tableau, themes oraux, exercices de 
conversation; d) Traduction de lettres et de docu- 

Examen ecrit : Version et theme malais. 

Examen oral: Interrogations sur la grammaire, la 
geographie, F liistoire et la religion des Malais. 

Textes a preparer : Bloemlezing uit Malaische Geschrif- 
ten, door G. K. Niemann. Pt. stuk (La Haye, M. 
Nijhotf) [Onthologie d' auteurs malais]. 

Ouvrages a consulter: Eeclus (E.), Geogr. univ., t. XIV, 
Insulinde, p. 193-411. Wilkinson (R. J.), Malay 
beliefs.., London, Luzac, 1906. Skeat (W. W.), 
Malay Magic, L. 1900. Hondas (O.), L' Islam. 
Chantepic dc la Saussaye, Manuel d' liistoire des Reli- 
gions: U Islam, p. 253-312; Les Hindous, p. 313-432. 
Chailley-Bert (J.), Java et ses habitants, P., Colin, 
1899, in-18. Leclercq (J.), Un sejour dans F ile de 
Java, P. Plon, 1898, in-18. 

Jour. Straiti Bramefa. 


Troisiemc annee (Diplome). Programme du cours. Etude 
du malais dassique et usuel; a) Place du malais 
parmi les langues malayo-polynesiennes. Affinites du 
malais et de phisicurs dialectes de 1' Indo-Chine 
Francaise; b) Dechiffrenient et explication de manus- 
crits et documents relatifs a la geographie, a V histoire 
et aux mceurs des pays malais et de V Indo-Chine; c) 
Particularity du malais parle au Cambodge. Notions 
sur les dialectes malayo-polynesiens de Y Indo-Chine 
(Cam, jarai, radeh, etc.) ; d) Exercices practique. 

Examen ecrit : Version, dictee et theme malais. 

Examen oral : lecture et explication d' un texte manus- 
crit. Interogations sur la grammaire malaise, la 
geographic V histoire et les mceurs des Malais de la 
Peninsulect de P Insulindc. 

Ouvrages a consulter: Backer (L. de), U Archipel In- 
dien. Dulaurier (E.), Des langues et de la litterature 
de 1' Archipel <P Asic, (in Revue des Deux-Mondes, 15 
juill. 1841). Et tous les ouvrages indigues ci-dessus. 

Grammaires malaises de Tugault et de Favre (en fran- 
cais) ; de Dennys et Maxwell (en anglais) ; de Gerth van Wijk 
et Tcndeloo, (en hollandais). — Diction naires de Favre, de 
Tugault, de Klinkert, de Pijnappel, de von de Wall et van der 
Tunk (ees o dcrnicrs en hollandais). 

E. A. 8oc„ No. 50, 1006. 

Father Civet. 

By R. 0. WlNSTEDT. 

This tale is not to be confused with that rollicking farce 
Musang Birjanggut, " The Bearded Civet-Cat ;" it is merely 
a beast fable of the Aesop type. The tale and language is so 
simple that a literal translation would be tiresome. The 
following is the gist of it. Some villagers moved from their 
kampong up to a hill rice-clearing and left behind them a hen 
and two chicken which they could not catch. One day hen 
and chicken were looking for food in the scrub, when the 
chicken wandered away from the hen and met a huge civet- 
cat. Said the civet-cat, " How would you like me for a step- 
father, you fatherless little chicks? Tell me where your 
mother roosts to-night and I will come and woo her." " We 
all sleep at the end of the threshold to-night," chirped the 
chicken. " All right I'll come and meet your mother," said 
civet-cat. So the chicken went back to the hen and the elder 
chicken chirped all about their meeting with civet-cat and 
how civet-cat was coming to visit them at ' the end of the 
threshold ' that very night. " Oh you very naughty tell-tale 
chicken" clacked the hen and removed with them to a cross- 
beam under the roof. And civet prowled in vain that night 
all round the threshold. The next morning civet-cat met the 
chicken again and scolded them for their deceit. " All 
mother's fault " chirped the chicken, " she was angry with us 
for telling you her roosting-} >lace and moved to the roof 
beam." " Oh," said civet-cat, " well, where does your mother 
roost to-night : T am longing to meet her." " On the cross- 
}>eam under the roof ?% chirped the chicken. When they re- 
turned to their mother, she asked where they had been and 
they told the whole story. Then the hen was very angry and 
beat them lor telling civet-cat of the roost ing-place and remov- 
ed and slept on the ridge-pole. In vain civet-cat searched that 

J. Mir. strata Branch, R. A. So**.. No .so, 1908. 


night also. Next morning the bigger chicken said to the tiny 
chick, " Come, let us go and tell civet-cat all about it or he'll 
be angry with us just because of mother's whims." So they 
set off and found civet-cat furious but appeased him by pro- 
testing their innocence and telling him of their new roosting- 
place on the roof -tree; and they vowed not to tell their whim- 
sical mother that they had met him or had told him of her 
roosting-place. Then that night civet-cat crept up on the 
roof -tree and devoured the poor hen and her "silly chicken. 

Cherita Pa Musang-. 

Sa-burmula, niaka konnn ada-lali orang peladang tiga 
heranak berpindah dari kampong-nya diam di-ladang, habis- 
lah di-bnwa-nya dengan ayam itck-nya semua sa-kali; ter- 
tinggal-luh tiga ekur ayain-nya wi-ekur ibu-nya dua ekur 
anak-nya baharii sa-besai' tekukur liGtina tiada-Jali dapat di- 
tangkap oldi peladang itu karna terlaln a mat liur-nya. Maka 
ayani yang tiga beranak itu pun tinggal-lah di-rumah yang 
kampong itu. Maka ada pun ka-pada suatu liari ia menchari 
makim ka-dalam semak-semak di-darat runiah tuan-nya itu 
bcrcherai-cherai jauli scdikit anak ayam yang dua ekur itu 
dengan emak-nya. Maka ayam itu pun bcrjumpa dengan 
sa-ckur musaiifi iltIhIu bC'sar-nya. Demi di-lihat anak ayam 
itu, maka ia kedtia beradek terlaln ketakutan-nya hendak lari. 
Sa-telah di-lihat ololi musang akan anak ayam dua ekur itu 
terlalu suka-chita hati-nya sambil tersenyum menegur anak 
ayam itu dengan perkataan yang halus manis dan kelakuan- 
nya yang lemah lembut kata-nya, "Hai anak ayam jangan- 
lab iakut akan aku ini, karna akn sudali bertobat bSrbuat 
aniaya ka-pada liamba Allah taala." Maka kata pula ayam 
yang kedua, " Apa pula sahaya takutkan, karna sahaya k&dua 
ini tiada berbapa ; eniiik sahaya ada bujang." Maka sahut 
musang itu, "Jikalau bagitu, ada-kah emak anak ayam 
lagi?" Kata anak ayam, "Ada emak sahaya." Maka kata 
Jour. Straits Branch. 


musang, " Jikalau bagitu, mau-kah anak ayam berbapa tiri 
akari aku, karna aku pun bujang juga tiada berbini : khabar- 
kan ka-pada emak anak ayam katakan aku h£ndak mSminang 
dia. Di-mana emak anak ayam tidur pada malam ini?" 
Maka kata anak ayam, " Sahaya dengan emak sahaya tidur 
di-ujong bendul rumah itu." Maka kata musang, " Baik-lah 
aku datang malam sekarang liendak berjumpa dengan emak 
kamu liendak mC?mutuskan perjanjian kahwin itu; biar-lah 
aku chakap sa-mulut." Maka kata anak ayam itu " Mari- 
lah sekarang 'pa musang berjumpa dengan emak." Maka 
kata musang, " Baik-lah anak, 'pa musang datang sekarang." 
Sa-telah sudah berkata-kata itu, maka anak ayam itu pun 
balek-lah mendapatkan emak-nya. Hari pun petang-lah. 
Maka ibu ayam pun pulang-lah bertiga beranak lalu terbang 
liendak tidur di-ujong bendul rumah itu. Maka kata anak 
ayam yang tua itu, 4i 'Mak 'niak, aku tadi berjumpa dengan 
? pa musang; kata-nya liendak meminang emak dan bSrtanya- 
kan tempat emak tidur, ia liendak datang sekarang." Kata 
aku ' di-ujong bendul.' " Sa-telah di-dengar oleh ibu ayam 
itu, ia pun marah-lah akan anak-nya, kata-nya, " Kamu ini 
terlalu amat pundai bijak sangat." Maka ibu ayam pun 
beraleh-lah pula tidur ka-atas alang rumah itu. Hata sa- 
ketika lagi hari pun malam-lah. Maka musang itu pun 
datang-lah menchari ibu ayam itu di-ujong bendul rumah itu 
tiada-lah di-juinpa-nya. Maka musang pun sangat-lah marah 
akan anak ayam itu oleh sehab menipu dia; berfikir di-dalam 
hati-nya ' Baik-lah engkau aku perdayakan juga baharu puas 
hati-ku.' Sa-ketika hari pun siang, masok-lah musang ka- 
dalam hutan yang herhampiran di-belakang rumah itu juga 
bersenibunyikan diri-nya liendak menantikan ibu ayam de- 
ngan anak-nya menchari makan. 

Hata, hari pun therah. Ibu ayam dengan anak-nya pun 
terbang-lah turun ka-tanah menohari makan kais ka-sana kais 
ka-mari dapat-lah seinut-semut itu di-berikan-nya ka-pada 
anak-nya dua ekur itu ; anak-nya pun makan-lah, ibu-nya 
nienthari pula ka-tempat yang lain. Maka takdir Allah 
subhana wa-taala terbang-lah dua ekur belalang kerennyat 
hampir dengan anak ayam itu. Maka di-kejar oleh anak 

B. A. Soc„ No. 50, 1908. 


ayam. Maka belalang itu pun hinggap-lah dSkat musang itu, 
Maka anak ayam itu pun sampai-lah. TSlah di-lihat oleh 
musang akan anak ayam kedua beradek datang dekat dia, 
maka musang berkata dengan marah-nya, " Hai anak ayam, 
apa bahasa kamu menipu aku ? Sa-malam aku datang hen- 
dak ljerjumpa dengan emak kamu; jenoh aku chari tiap-tiap 
ujong bendul, tiada aku jumpa." Maka sahut anak ayam 
itu dengan ketakutan-nya, " Ayobai 'pa muBang ; jangan-lah 
sahaya di-marah; sudah sahaya khabarkan ka-pada £mak 
sahava : emak sahava pun marab akan sahava berkhabarkan 
tempat tidur ka-pada ? pa musang langsong emak sahaya mSm- 
bawa sahaya kedua beradek ini beraleh tidur ki-atas alang 
rumab itu." Sa-telah di-dengar oleli 'pa musang itu padam- 
lali marah-nva akan anak ayam itu serta bSrkata pula dengan 
lemah lembut-nya, " Ayohai anak ayam malam sekarang di- 
mana emak kamu tidur khabarkan ka-pada aku benar-benar 
karna 'pa musang sangat-lah rindu dendam hendak Wrjumpa 
dengan emak kamu itu. v Sa-telah di-dengar oleh anak ayam 
kedua beradek itu akan perkataan musang itu, sangat-lah 
kesukaan hati-nya kata-nya, ' k Benar-benar ? pa musang malam 
sekarang emak saliaya tidur di-atas alang rumah itu juga." 
Maka kata musang " Baik-lah, aku datang malam sekarang." 
Sa-telah sudah berkata-kata, anak ayam itu pun lalu-lah 
tangkap belalang dapat-lah ia sa-ekur sa-orang lain di-bawa- 
nva ka-pada emak-nva. Maka di-tanva oleh ibu avam itu 
ka-pada anak-nva, u Ka-mana pergi hilang lama sangat tadi." 
Maka lalu-lali di-eheritakan oleh anak-nva dari-pada awal sa- 
liingga ka-akhir-nya seperti perkataan musang itu. Maka 
sangat-lah ma rah ihu ayam akan anak-nya lalu di-pukul-nya 
kedua-nya anak-nya itu. Maka anak-nya pun minta ampun- 
lah mengatakan tiada berkhabar lagi. Sa-ketika hari pun 
malam-lah ; itu ayam pun membawa anak-nya terbang pula 
tidur ka-atas tulang billing rumah itu. Hata sa-telah jauh 
malam sedikit, musang itu pun datang-lah memanjat ka-atas 
alang rumah itu rata di-ehari-nya tiada her jumpa juga sam- 
pai-lah siang di-ehari-nya tiada jumpa, bau-bau ayam itu 
sa-imbas-imbas terehium juga oleh musang itu, makin sangat 
marab hati-nya. Telah hari siang, musang itu pun pulang- 

Jour. Straite Branch. 


lah ka-dalam hutan di-darat rumah itu. Maka d£ngan lapar 
dahaga-nya tiada-lah terhingga lagi marah-nya akan anak 
ayam itu dua kali sudah ia kena tipu. 

Sa-telah liari siang ihu ayam pun menchari makan juga 
sejnjrti kelaziman sa-hari-hari itu. Maka anak ayam yang 
tua itu pun bermuafakat dengan adck-nya, kata-nya, " Adek, 
biar-lah kita cliari 'pa musang berkhabarkan ka-pada-nya 
jangan kita di-marah-nya ; akan kelakuan emak kita, kita 
pula di-marah 'pa musang itu." Maka kata adck-nya, " Mari- 
lah, kita berjumpa 'pa musang." Maka pergi-lah anak ayam 
itu kedua bSradek-nya ka-tempat musang makan. Demi di- 
liliat oleh musang anak ayam itu datang, maka ia pun marah 
hendak mSnangkap anak ayam itu hendak di-makan-nya. 
Kata anak ayam, " Hai 'pa musang jangan-lah sahaya di- 
marah, bukan-nya salah sahaya ; emak sahaya sa-olah-olah-nya 
tiada mau berlakikan 'pa musang, makin ia beraleh tempat 
tidur sa-malam ka-atas Imbong pula." Maka kata musang, 
'' Kamu berkhabarkan ka-pada dia pula, aku hendak da- 
tang? " Maka kata anak ayam, " Macham mana pula sahaya 
tiada Infrkhahar biar emak Mrsiap akan tempat tidur 'pa 
musang." Maka kata musang, " Sekarang usah-lah khabar- 
kan lagi ka-pada emak kamu aku hendak datang, diam-diam 
sahaja : jikalau di-tanya emak kamu pun, usah-lah di-chakap- 
kan malam sekarang." Maka kata anak ayam itu, " Emak 
sahaya tidur di-tulang bubong juga; datang-lah 'pa musang 
sekarang tiada saliaya bSrkhabar lagi ka-pada £mak sahaya 
itu." Maka kata musang, " Baik-lah anak, boleh-lah 'pa 
musang datang, jangan-lah khabarkan ka-pada emak kamu 
lagi." Maka kata anak ayam itu, " Baik-lah 'pa musang." 
Maka sa-telah sudah l>erkata-kata itu, maka anak ayam kedua 
bSradek pun pulang-lah mendapatkan emak-nya. Maka di- 
tanva emak-nya akan anak-nya tiada di-khabarkan-nya di- 
daleh-nya menchari makan juga. Maka emak-nya pun diam- 

Hata sa-ketika lagi, liari pun petang-lah. Maka ibu 
ayam pun membawa anak-nya ketlua-nya itu terbang tidur 
di-atas tulang bubong juga. Telah had pun jauh malam, 
maka musang itu pun datang merayap-rayap pdrlahan-per- 

S. A. Sot., No. M, 190 


lahan memanjat atap rumah itu. Maka sampai-lah musang 
ka-atas tulang buhong, maka di-lihat-nya ibu ayam itu tidur 
ketiga beranak. Maka tengah musang itu hSndak menangkap 
ibu ayam itu, maka terjaga-lah ibu ayam itu menengarkan 
atap itu serok-serak bunyi-nya bekas kaki musang berjalan. 
Maka di-lihat olcli ibu ayam sa-okur musang jantan datang 
hendak menangkap dia. Maka ibu ayam kStiga beranak pun 
tSrbang-lah kelalak tiada tentu hala di-dalam gelap gulita. 
Maka musang itu pun terjun-lah dari tulang bubong meng- 
ikut tSrbang ayam itu. Maka ayam itu pun jatoh ka-tanah 
ketiga beranak-nya. Maka musang itu pun datang-lah me- 
nangkap ibu ayam*serta anak-nya yang kedua ekur itu di- 
mamah-nya kepala-nya. Maka ketiga-nya pun mati-lah di- 
makan oleh musang itu di-bawa-nya ka-tempat ia di-belakang 
rumah itu dengan kesukaan-nya. Sa-telah berbiasa penat 
lelah-nya sa-lama ini tadi, bSroleh rezki yang telah di-chari- 
chari itu, di-peroleh-nya juga. Ada-nya. 

(Di-karangkan oleh Penghulu Raja Uaji Yahya bin Raja 
Muhammad AH, di-mnkim Chendriang di-dalam ntglri 

Jour. Strait* Branch. 

Sindbad's Old Man of The Sea. 

By W. Georoe Maxwell. 

It was in the fifth voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, after 
the shipwreck caused by the bereaved and vengeful roc, that 
he found himself upon an island where he met " an old man, 
" a comely person, who was clad from the waist downwards 
" with a covering made of the leaves of trees." The old man 
was sitting by the side of the stream sighing; and in answer 
to Sindbad's questions made signs, by dumb show, that he 
wished to be carried across the stream to some fruit trees on 
the further side. Sindbad, in pity, took him up on his 
shoulders, whereupon the old man twisted his legs "which 
were like the hide of a buffaloe in blackness and roughness " 
round Sindbad's neck. " I was frightened at him," " Sind- 
" bad's narrative continues " and desired to throw him down 
"from my shoulders; but he pressed upon my neck with his 
" feet, and squeezed my throat, so that the world became black 
" before my face, and I was unconscious of my existence, fall- 
ing upon the ground in a fit like one dead. He then raised 
his legs, and beat me upon my back and my shoulders and 
" I suffered violent pain ; wherefore I rose with him. He still 
" kept his seat upon my shoulders, and I had become fatigued 
" with tearing him ; and he made a sign to me that I should 
"go in among the trees, to the best of the fruits. When I 
"disobeyed him, he inflicted upon me, with his feet, blows 
" more violent than those of whips ; and he ceased not to direct 
" me with his hands to every place to which he desired to go, 
" and to that place I went with him. If I loitered, or went 
" leisurely, he beat me; and I was as a captive to him. We 
" went into the midst of the island, among the trees, and he 
" descended not from my shoulders by night nor by day ; when 
" he desired to sleep, he would wind his legs round my neck, 
" and sleep a little, and then he would arise and beat me, 

R. A. Soc., No. 50, 1908. 




" whereupon I would arise with him quickly, unable to disobey 
" him, hy reason of the severity of that which I suffered from 
'■him."* It will be remembered that eventually, after many 
days of heatings and ill treatment, Sindbad got rid of the old 
man hy making him intoxicated with fermented grape juice, 
' and then beating out his brain* with a stone. 

After his escape Sindbad wandered for some days upon 
the island until Ik 1 met some merchants who, when they had 
heard his story, told him who it was that he encountered. 
" This man " they told him " who rode upon thy shoulders is 
culled the Old Man of the Sea, and no one ever was beneath 
his limbs and escaped from him excepting thee." 

The whole of Sindbad's personal narrative points to his 
adventure having been with an orang utan (simia satyrus) : 
the difficulty, the only difficulty, but the whole difficulty, is 
the name aseril>ed to his persecutor by the people whom he 
met after his escape. Hole, in his commentary, suggested 
that the " (lid Man " was an orang utan, hut the qualifying 
words ''of the Sea " so baffled him that he was prepared to 
consider them a mistake. "I would willingly suppose" he 
wrote, " the phrase ' of the sea ' In l>e an addition of the trans- 
" lator, not countenanced by the original: or that it was 
'■'applied to Es-Sindbad's persecutor merely on account of his 
" insular abode, or usual appearance hy the sea side. If 
"either of these conjectures he allowed we may pronounce 
"him, without any hesitation to be an ornng oulait." Hole 
then goes on to give bis reasons for his opinion. 

Jjine agreed with Hole thai the "Old Man"' was an 
orang ulan, and supported the theory that the words "of the 
sea " merely denoted the insular abode. 

Burton scoffed at the idea : " the inevitable orang-utan " 
was his jeering comment. But his own suggestion does not 
seem worthy of much support. The story is, he says "a 
" jocose exaggeration of a custom prevailing in parts of Asia 
" and especially in the African interior where the tsetse fly 
"prevents the breeding of burden-beasts In 

* Lane's translation. 


" Central Africa the kinglet rides on a slave, and on cere- 
" monious occasion mounts his Prime Minister." The weak- 
ness of the connection of ideas is however apparent. The 
custom of one man being carried by another does not convey 
the impression of the unnatural, clinging, unshakeable, 
creature with which Sindbad was saddled. For an ex- 
planation of the expression " of the Sea " Burton had 
recourse to the classics. '* The classicists," he wrote " of 
course, find the Shaykh of the Sea in the Tritons and 
Xereus, and Bochart (Hiero ii 858, 880) notices the home 
aquaticus, Soncx Judaeus and Senex Marinus." 

But he has made no attempt to show any connection of 
ideas between the Man-riding Man and the Water-Man. The 
live arguments which Hole adduces in favour of the orang 
utan theory mav be briefly enumerated as follows: — 

1. The old man never speaks, but expresses his wishes 
by signs. 

2. lie apparently lives solely on fruit. 

3. Though his face is like that of a human being, the 
hide of his legs is like that of an animal. 

4. The " pressing," the " squeezing " the " winding " of 
Any one who has kept a pet orang utan, wah- 

wah (llylobates lar) or siamang (II. syndactylus) as a pet 
knows the almost wild despair with which it clings to its 
master, as if it would suffer itself to be torn to pieces rather 
than be removed.] 

5. The well known partiality of apes and monkeys to 
intoxicants, and the extreme quickness with which they be- 
come intoxicated. 

A sixth point, which was probably unknown to Hole, but 
to which considerable weight may be attached is that stories 
similar to Sindbad's story arc told to his day of the orang 
utan by the Dyaks. Hugh Clifford's 4< Story of Gulling, the 
l>yak" is very like the adventure of Sindbad. dialing, it 
will be remembered, was carried off by a female orang utan to 
its platform on a forest tree, and for many days was unable to 
effect his escape. 

ft. A. Soe. No. 60, 1908. 

the legs. — 


The principal objection to the orang utan theory is that 
Siinia satyrus is red, and not black. But in explanation of 
this I would suggest that there has been some confusion be- 
tween Siinia satyrus, which is red, and hylobatcs lar whicli 
is black. *At the risk being considered fanciful, I am even 
prepared to suggest that the white beard, with which some 
some old versions of the Arabian Story and the modern illus- 
trator to Lane's translation have adorned the " Old Man " 
are an cinbelishment of the white ruff of Hylobatcs lar. A 
minor objection is the fact that grapes do not grow in the 
countries where the orang utan is found. Toddy, however, 
and other similar intoxicants are well known; and it is not 
improbable that the words " grape juice " were inserted by 
some copyist. 

Let us take it that Sindbad's persecutor was an orang 
utan. How do we get from orang utan to u Man of the 
Sea"? Simply, I think; through the Malay. " Man of the 
Sea " (orang laut) is a mistake for " Man of the Forest " 
(orang utan). 

It is well known that orang utan has two meanings: 
it is the name for the ape, and is also the generic name for the 
aborigines. They are known as orang utan; orang bukit, 
(men of the hills) ; or, in the case of the tribes driven inland, 
orang dalam (men of the interior), or orang darat (men of 
the land) ; whilst in contradistinction to the latter, the trilnss 
driven to the coast are known as orang laut (men of the sea). 

Thus the Sakci arc divided into Sakei laut and Sakei 
darat, in the same way that Dyaks are divided into Sea-Dyaks 
and Land-Dyaks. 

* In the account of Sindbad's adventure in his third voyage, in 
the Island of Apes, Lane's translation describes the apes as being 
"covered with hair like black felt/' while in the Calcutta edition and 
Lang) to' edition they are described as "red downy creatures." I 
suggest that the manner who described the animals as red was think- 
ing of the orang utan, and that the other who described tfoini as 
black was thinking of the wah-wah. A similar confusion seems to 
have been made in the case of the " Old Man." 

Jour. Straits Branch, 


It is easily therefore to make a mistake between a " man 
of the sea" and a "man of the forest," for both are of the same 
stock; and it is equally easy to make a mistake between the 
aboriginal and the ape, for both are known by the same name. 
And this is the mistake that I think has been made. The 
position may be briefly put thus : — what the merchant said to 
Sindbad was " you've met an orang utan : " what Sindbad has 
recorded is " you've met orang laut." 

If this is conceded, it would appear that Borneo is the 
island of the adventure with the " Old Man," (Lane suggested 
Sumatra, where the orang utan is also found) and that Sind- 
bad's tale and Hugh Clifford's tale are but slightly different 
versions of the story (founded perhaps on fact) which is told 
by the Dyaks regarding the gigantic ape that, to this day, 
is the most typical inhabitant of their forests. 

Postscript. 1 have, since this note was set up in 
tyi>e, come across a mistake which is exactly similar but even 
more extraordinary. On page 175 of Volume II. of " Asiatick 
Researches " will be found a curious confusion between the 
Thibetan Yak and the manatel or dugong. Two more dis- 
similar animals could hardly be imagined; but one is the 
" Mountain-Cow " and the other is the " Sea-Cow ; " and 
" Mountain-Cow " and " Sea-Cow " have been confused in 
exactly the same way that "Forest-Man" and "Sea-Man" 
have (I suggest) been confused. 

W. G. M. 

B. A. Soc., No. 60, 1108. 


One of the first words that a visitor to Java or Sumatra 
hears is " spada." It is, in the hotels of the Dutch Colonies, 
the common call for a servant ; a person shouts " spada " in 
the same wav that in this Colonv he shouts " boy " and in 
the same curious way the servant, wherever he may Ik?, shouts 
hack " tuan/' The word is not a native one, and is not used 
by the natives. 

The derivation usually given of the word is a corruption 
of two Malay words " siapa ada " (is anyone there?). 

I do not know however whether any one has suggested 
that the word dates from, and is a survival of, the days of 
British rule in the island now under the Dutch flag. Such 
however is probably the case. The use in the Bengal Presi- 
dency of the call " koi hai " (is anyone there?) is so well 
known that a civil servant of that Presidency is generally 
known as '• Qui-hai."* I suggest that " siapa ada '* is merely 
the translation of " koi hai " and that it was introduced bv the 
servants of the Honourable East India Company who had 
served in Calcutta before they came further east. " Siapa 
ada " certainly is not idiomatic Malay, and would not or- 
dinarily be used by Malays in the sense in which, in this case 
4fc spada " is. 

Probably it is this very fact, quite as much as the open 
vowel sounds of the syllables, that have led to its present cor- 
rupted and corrected form. 

If my suggestion is correct, two curious facts are worthy 
of note: lirst. that in India it is the caller and in the Nether- 
lands Indies it is the person called that is known (in each cum. 1 

* It has even passed into the French language. 

In the " Correspondance avec sa famille" of Victor Jacqnemont 
there is the following passage Vol : II. page 308 :) 

" J'ai vu dans vos gazettes de Calcutta let clamours de quoihact 
(sobiquet des Europeens Bengalis de ce cote) sur la chaleur." 

Jour. Stnits Branch, R. A. Soc., tfo. 50, 1906. 




by the alien nation) by the words of the call ; and second, that 
the call survives only in a country that has ceased to be under 
British rule, and uoos not survive (if indeed it ever waa 
known) in the Colony of the Straits Settlements. 

W. Q. M. 

Jaw. Strain Branch. 

Two New Species of Cicindela (Tiger beetles) 

from Borneo. 

By Dr. Walter Horn*. f 

Cicindela HewUtii, new species. 

Cicindela phalangioide, Sehw. Geb. affinis differt sta- 
tura majore latioreque, tota fere labri latitudine punetis 
setigeris occupatis (parte marginali solummodo impunc- 
tata) elipei angulo laterali, l'ronte supra antennarum 
insertionem et discoidalitcr intra anticos oeulorum mar- 
gines (his sparsissimc) pilosis, inter oeulos multe minus 
excavta; pronoti disco planiore, sulci* transversis (proe- 
cipue antico) evidenter minus profundis, apicc basique 
declivibus strangulationem basalem versus abruptius con- 
stricte (marginibus lateralibus), in parte media magis 
parallel is) lateraliter sat late sparsimque piloso, elytris 
pone anguhim externum apicalem minus sinuatis; pune- 
tis insculptis (postice vix) antice paullo minus pro- 
fundis ut sculptara tota valde (aequalis videatur) ; pedi- 
bus Iwrvioribus (sed longis) femoribus distalitet minus 
late flavescentibus. Tota corporis superficies cum femo- 
ribus cupreo-brunnea, tibiis (proximaliter plus minusve 
flavescentibus) tarsisque caeruleo-viridibus, 4 primis an- 
tennarum articulis viridescentibus, (hie inde cuprassen- 
tibus) corpore subtus viridiaeneo, hinc inde paullulum 
caeruleo varicgato) lateraliter plus minusve cuprassea- 
tihus. Long GJ mm (sine labro) 1 mascula; Kuching, 
Borneo VI. 1003 A. Dom. J. K. A. I^ewis captus. 

The three first articulations of the maxillar palps hard- 
ly, the trochanters mostly greenish. Anterior margin of 
the labrum a little concave and without any teeth. Yel- 
low margin of the elytra thin running from the shoul- 
ders up to the apical spine but a little interrupted be- 

R. A. Soc., No. 50. 1908. 


hind the shoulder. Cheeks, presternum and episterna 
of pro. and mesothorax sparingly covered with long 
bristles. Mesosternum anteriorly bald, posteriorly short- 
ly and sparing pilose. Disk of the metasternum (pos- 
terior part of it bald)' of the postrior coxae (the same 
for the unier part of them) and of the abdomen 
densely covered with short bristles. 

The meta-cspisterna and lateral part of the posterior 
coxae, of the mcta-sternum and of the abdomen with 
moderately long bristles closely set. Antennae and in- 
termediate coxae and the humeral part of the epipleura 
of the elytra moderately pilose. Head and prothorax 
dull, elytra moderately shining with a very short sutural 

The species is very remarkable by the prominent eyes, 
form of the middle part of the pronotum, the moderately 
shining elytra: the pubescence of the clypeus, cheeks, 
frons, lateral margin of the pronotum, pro-and metas- 
ternum and coxae. 

It gives me great pleasure to dedicate it to the amiable 
director of the Museum of Sarawak who was kind enough 
to present me with the only specimen. 

Cicindela spinicolJis, n. sp. 

Civindela denlicoUis, similis, differt labro non recte 
truncato sed ant ice an\so, f route pronotoque perparum 
grossing anguloso, gen is antioe sparsim irregulariter 
punctato-foveolatis; pronoto parte intermedia planiore 
angustissime longiore lateribus rectis anticem versim 
inagis convergentibus, impressionibus transversis longi- 
tudinal ique media levioribus, angulis posticis simili in 
modo dentiformibus, -ed hoc dente visu verticali) magis 
lateral iter directo (declivitate postica minus anguli 
paullo minus alta et grossim rugata; plica ilia antebasali 
in ilia specie a dente oriente et transversa liter intus 
ducta, in nova specie paullo manus evidente et post 
dentem originem habente) elytros faeminae macula nigri- 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


canto solummodo submicante discoidali ornate, spina 
suturali magis retract a et longiorc totis densius, in- 
distinct i usque punctatis; signatura flavescente valde re- 
ducta; macula basali media perparva, vix percipienda, 
linea tcnui humerali marginali brcvi, alteraque angusta 
apicali a spina usque ad angulum apicalem extrorsum 
ducta. Long 8J mm. 

One female from Xortli Borneo. The lal)rum is yel- 
low without any distinct tooth, clypeus and frons bald 
and finely rugulose, the eyes indistinctly striolated. The 
pronotum shows a little before the hind angles a laterally 
prominent tooth, which stands about the same height at 
the ordinary basal transversal impression; about in the 
middle between this tooth and the basal margin runs an 
indistinct elevation (accompanied by a sulcus behind it). 
In C. dcntiroHis this elevation is better developed and 
takes its origin just *from the basal tooth (the whole 
middle pronotum is also much broader transverse, etc.) 
The colouration of the upper side of C. spiukvliis is a 
little darker and more duskv brownish brassy than in (.'. 
dcnticollif; the puncture of the elytra is liner and less 
distinctly developed. The cheeks are finely lineated and 
have at their anterior half some irregular punctiform 
impressions. The episterna of the prothorax arc only 
at their inner part (sparingly those of the meso and 
metathorax everywhere moderately densely pilose; the 
lateral part of the nictasternum, posterior coxae and 
abdomen are densely pilose. The posterior end of the 
yellow humeral slope and the anterior end of the apical 
one arc indistinct. The four basal articulations of the 
feeler coppery brassy, femora greenish brassy with the 
extreme base and a longer part of the apex yellow. Tro- 
chanters yellow. My only specimen does not show any 

* The same for C. Wallace i Bat., where the antebasal elevation 
it about as indistinctly developed as in the new species, bnt the 
pronotum of Bates, species is broader an anteriorly not narrowed, the 
elytra are much longer and more parallel etc., C. Waltaacei Bates 
occurs in Celebes. 

ft. A. Soc, Not 50, X908, 

. '■# t 


bristles at the lateral margins of the pronotum but they 
might 1)0 spoiled. 

Some time ago 1 became doubtful whether the locality, 
1 had once given for Cicindela dcntiroJ/ia (i.e. New 
Guinea) was exact, as I have never seen other specimens 
but the two types, the question has to be kept still in 

Jour. Straits Branch. 

Bats in a Bamboo. 

A largo clump oi! the bamboo Demlroculamua pcndulus 
IJidley which had died after flowering in the Botanical 
(■aniens Singapore was being cut down in May and one of 
the coolies while cutting the culms up into lengths and split- 
ting them noticed a strange noise within a joint." On split- 
ting it up three or four bats flew out but there being more 
inside he brought it to me tied up. On taking it to the 
museum and carefully opening it Dr. Hanitsch and I found no 
less than twentv-three bats of which four were adult females 
and nineteen were young ones. One of these was still cling- 
ing to the mother and sucking. The joint of bamboo in 
which these bats were enclosed was a foot in length and the 
diameter of the hollow inside was 2 inches. The septa at 
each node were perfect and unbroken, and the only possible 
entrance was made bv a crack on one side which allowed of 
a narrow slip to be pushed outwards so that a triangular 
aperture a quarter of an inch across in its widest parts appear- 
ed in the upper septum. 

Through this very small space all these bats must have 
crept. The inside of the bamboo was wet and dark coloured 
and there were some dipterous larvae within. 

In another clump of the same kind of bamboo, two other 
joints containing young bats of apparently the same kinds 
were opened. In one joint when opened, it having been felled 
and left for some davs in the sun all the bats were dead and 
decomposed. They nearly filled the joint and were apparent- 
lv about thirtv in number. In the other several bats had 

ft v 

escaped but there were a number of young ones and one half 
grown. Specimen* of these bats were sent to the British 
Museum where Mr. Oldfield Thomas examined them and 
found them to be Tylonyvicrte pavhypm, (Vespcrugo fxtchy- 
pus Dobson). He writes, "This bat has an exceedingly 
flattened skull and thus many account for its ability to get 

JL A. Soc., No. 50, xpl, 



through a crack only a quarter of an inch wide. I never 
heard of specimens found in such a place before." 

H. N. tilDLEY. 

Jour. StrtiU Branch. 

The Labiates of the Malay Peninsula. 

By H. X. Ridley. 

The Labia tac in the Materials for a Flora of the Malay 
peninsula have l>een described by Dr. Prain who gives 
eighteen genera and thirty species of this order as occurring 
in the Malay peninsula. Like the Comptmtac the Labiates 
are very poorly represented all through the rain forest 
region. They are inhabitants of open country and being all 
small plants and being dispersed chiefly by the mere sprink- 
ling of their seeds as the wind blows, can neither push their 
wav into our dense forests nor establish themselves there in 
the thick shade if they did get there. The only forest species 
indeed that we possess, the Gomphostcminas, have l>een so far 
modified for forest life that their fruits are developed into 
small white pulpy drupes, which can be eaten by birds and so 
the seeds dispersed. An analogous ease among the Hubiaeeoc 
with capsular fruit is seen here too in Hedyotis congesta be- 
longing to an open country group of capsular seeded weeds in 
which also the fruit is developed into a small white pulpy 

The species recorded in the Materials are as follows: 

Ocimum sanctum, L. 0. Basilicum, L. 0. gratis- 
simum, L. (and 0. canum might be added.) Orthosiphon 
slamineux, Benth. II y pi is brcvipes, Poit. //. suavcolens, 
Poit. Plectranthus Kunstleri, Prain! Co/ens alropur par- 
vus, Benth! Pogostemon Heyncanus, Benth! P. Cablin, 
Benth. Dysophylla auricularia, Bl ! Mentha jaranica, Bl. 
Calami at ha gracilis, Benth! Latvia coccinea, Juss. S. ph- 
bcia, Br. Scutellaria discolor, Colebr! Anisomelrs ovala, Br! 
A. malabarica, Br. Leonolis nepclifolia, Br. Leucas mar- 
tiniceusis, Br. A. zeylanica, Br! L. lavanduli folia, Sm! 
Leon ur us sibiricus, L. Paraphlomis rugosa, Prain! Gom- 
phostemma microcalyx, Prain! (?. crinitum, Wall! (7, 

R. A. Sot, No. 50, 1906' 


Scorlcchini, Train! G. Curtisii, Prain! Cymaria didto- 
tomn, Benth! Aery m ia ojuyi flora, Prain! Those marked " !"' 
are the onlv one.s which can claim to be reallv indigenous. 

The Basils, Oanium and the Mint, Mentha javanica 
are garden pot herbs which can hardly be said to have es- 
tablished themselves anywhere. The Mint quoted only from 
Malacca. (Jrillith, has long been cultivated. It seldom flowers 
here, and 1 have never seen it outside a garden plot, Salvia 
con inea, .hiss, and (Jiihosiphon slaiuineus as far as our region 
is concerned are onlv to be met with in flower beds. The 
Orlhosiphon " Kumis Kuching " of the Malay is however a 
native of Siam and mav be found wild across our borders in 
the extreme north. 

Lconurus nepctifolia, Br. is also a cultivated plant only 
to be found in gardens. 

Aiiisoinrlcx mulubarica. Br. onlv met with in Penan;? 
town .suburbs, is obviously an introduction from India prob- 
ably by Tamils. It was collected in 1823 in Penang bv 

Leon urns sibirirus is brought in and cultivated by Chi- 
nese who used it in medicine. 

Salvia plcbcia, Br. is only recorded from Malacca without 
collector's name, probably the specimen was from an in- 
troduced plant. Lauras mar Unit cutis, Br. is also an in- 
troduction. It lias only been obtained by Scortechini in 

None of these plants have ever established themselves as 
weeds, and can only Ik; classed as Garden escapes. 

Thoroughly established here as all over the tropics are 
the two American llyplis, A. suaveolms and //. brevipes. 

The rcM: of the list fall into three groups (1) herbs 
occurring as weeds only in cleared ground near cultivation, 
but certainly natives of this area. These are Colcus atropur- 
p a re us, Benth., A nisti inch's oca la, Br., Lcncas zcylanica, Br. 
and L. la rand uli folia. Sin. and Calaniinlha yracilis, Benth. 
This latter I found in some quantity at the foot of the 
Thaiping hills in open ground. It was otherwise only been 
found in Java and once in Assam. 

Jour. Strtiti Branch* 


(2). Herbs growing in the jungles and obviously in- 
digenous the Gout phostvm mas, and I believe Poyoateuwn 
lleyucanus, Benlli. the Indian patchouli. 

The Poyostemou is not so far as I am aware cultivated 
here, but it is possible that it is. I have met with it on 
stream banks in forests, at Uawang in Selangor (Xo. 7 <><>:> of 
my collection) and at Taka Tahan on the Tahan Kiver (Xo. 
2<W1 ) also in Sarawak at Kundu (Xo. 12;>8) and it is in 
IhmlandV collection from IVnkulu Ampat in Sarawak. In 
the Tahan River locality it was growing near Colombia auti- 
quorum at an old Sakai camping ground, and was probably 
carried there by the Sakais, but there was nothing to suggest 
it had been introduced in the other localities. It is known 
to the Malays as liimiput Ituku, Poko Nijao, Nilam Bukit 
and Chilam Bukit. It is used as a poultice in cases of head- 
ache, rheumatism and boils, and in the form of a decoction is 
drunk for dropsy. The flowers the colour of which is not 
given in the materials are pale violet. 

P. Cablin, Benth. the commonly cultivated patchouli is 
described fully in the Materials. Its native home is quite 

Dyso/mylhi nurivutarw, Bl. is undoubtedly wild here, I 
think. It grows in swampy open ground, edges of rivers, etc. 

Scutellaria discolor, Benlh. was once collected by Scor- 
techini in Perak and is probably wild. I have never seen it. 

(o). The third set of indigenous Labiates are all from 
the limestone rock* of Ipoh and near bv. Thev are Plvdran- 
thus KuHstlcrl, Prain., Puru^hloiuis ruynsa, Prain. and 
Cymaria dirliotoma, Benth.. Acrymiu njuyi flora, Prain. The 
occurrence of four species of this order out of so small a 
number of indigenous >pecies on such a limited area as this 
range of limestone hills is verv remarkable. 

Thus this large order is represented in the Malay pe- 
ninsula by only 15 species which can be considered to be truly 

R. A Soc, No. 50, 1908. 

The Crackling Moth. 

By H. N. Bidley. 

Tt is not unfrequent when passing along roads through 
woods, just after dusk lias sot in to hear all around a strange 
crackling sound not very loud but quite distinct and resemb- 
ling somewhat Chinese crackers heard at a distance. This is 
produced by a black moth of some size, which seems to be 
hardly distinct from Xyciipao hieroglyphica as figured in 
Hampson's moths of India, and Moore's Ix^pidoptera of 
Ceylon. 1 do not find any mention of the peculiar behaviour 
of this insect made anywhere in these works, so I will give 
some account of it. The moth is three and a half inches 
across the wings, which are rather longshaped and scolloped 
along the edges, wings and body are of a deep brown black, 
al>ove and below and on the upper wing near the tip' is a 
yellow mark something like an 8 but with the loops more ob- 
long and angled and the neck more distinct. In the centre 
of the upper wing is a faint shadowy eye formed of two rings 
of black one inside the other, the centre of a slightly paler 
brown colour than the rest of the wing. On the underside 
the yellow spot is seen but not so bright in colour, the pea- 
cock's eye is invisible and there is another small yellow spot 
lower down on the upper wing. The. body is cylindric black, 
and the antennae are wiry and black. The insect differs 
from the figure of the Ceylon form, in Moore's Lepidoptera of 
Ceylon, in its darker colour and very indistinct eye, which in 
the Ceylon form has some chestnut red in the centre, (Argiva 
hieroglyphica PI. Km) but it is perhaps a local form. The 
insect above described is a male. The females have a white 
spot on the upper wing. 

During the day, the moth hides under roots or in crevices 
of rock where it is quite dark, as do most species of the genus, 
and if disturbed dashes off to seek another hiding place. I 

Jour. Strtiti Branch, R. A. Soc., No. so, 1906. 


have seen it thus in the garden rockery, and in the Bukit 
Timali forests. It loaves its resting spot about half past six 
in the evening and betakes itself to an open road or path. 
Here it flies briskly backwards and forwards, in the shadows, 
and at such a pace that owing to this and its dark colour mak- 
ing it so invisible, it is very difficult to capture. Often half 
a dozen or so are dashing about the road at a time and they 
keep to specially favoured spots, night after night. The}' do 
not make any noise when Hying about singly, but when two 
are flying about chasing each other they produce the strange 
crackling sound described above. Owing to the darkness it is 
impossible to see how they do it, neither tun I sure whether it 
is effected bv a pair or bv two males on I v. I have onlv caught 
males. They remain till it is actually quite dark, but 
then seem to disappear. Neither light nor cow-droppings 
which are often attractive to moths engage their attention. 
They keep just out of the light of the road lamps. When by a 
lucky stroke one is secured in the net, it is Usually very quiet 
and dnes not flutter about, so that often one does not notice 
at first that it is trapped, but so fast ii flies and >o hard one 
has to strike at it that the insect is very apt to be damaged 
bv the concussion. 

It appear.* at the end of May. This habit of dashing 
about the mads and its peculiar crackling noise, % are not 
shared with anv other Xvctinaos as far as 1 know. 
A larger species with brown wings ornamented with white 
eyes, is one of our commonest mot lis and often conies to light. 
It rests during the day under rocks or banks, or on beams in 
sheds or house> and though rapid in flight when disturbed, 
merely dashes from one hiding place to another, and I have 
never met with it dashing about the road at night in the way 
that X. liiwH/lyjiltim does. The latter is abundant in Sing- 
apore and I have also met with it in Pahang and other parts 
of the peninsula. 

Nothing appears to be known of the life history of this 

II. X. Ridley. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 

New or Rare Malayan Plants. 

Series IV, 

By H. X. Ridley. 

It will be seen bv this series of novolties that the knowl- 


edge of our flora even of the best known spots is not yet 
complete. Even in Singapore with its nearly exterminated 
native? flora, still some novelties lurk in the few remaining 
bits of forest, thus the Stagmount wood produced the beauti- 
ful new ginger which was found growing in a spot which I 
have frequent lv visited and onlv a few vards from mv usual 
track. The Rati din, the fieri firm and Diospyros described 
herein I have known for manv vears, but thev have not been 

» • « 

described in the Materials and so are now published for the 
first time. 

The well known furniture wood Katinga from the Siam- 
ese borders has long been prized and I obtained leaves and a 
fruit some years ago from Mr. F. G. Penney, who had a fine 
collection of furniture made from its wood. A number of 
young plants were raised in the Botanic Gardens, and I lately 
obtained specimens shewing part^ of the flower from Mr. II. 
(\ Robinson. It proves to he a Miirraya allien! to the well 
known Kamuning wood, so much valued for the handles and 
sheaths of Kri»es. 

The low-lying forest region of Southern Johore, has 
produced several interesting novelties, including a remarkable 
new genus of gingers, but many more curious and interesting 
plants will be found in this unexplored district when time 
serves to investigate it. From Sarawak Mr. Hewitt still con- 
tinues to send many more novelties, and among Sarawak 
plants I am glad to be able to associate the name of the 

R. A. Soc., No. 50. 1906. » 


have seen it thus in the garden rockery, and in the Bnkit 
Timah forests. It loaves its resting spot about half past six 
in the evening and betakes itself to an open road or path. 
Here it flies briskly backwards and forwards, in the shadows, 
and at such a pace that owing to this and its dark colour mak- 
ing it so invisible, it is very difficult lo capture. Often half 
a dozen or so are dashing about the road at a time and they 
keep to specially favoured spots, night after night. They do 
not make any noise when flying about singly, but when two 
are flying about chasing each other they produce the strange 
crackling sound described above. Owing io the darkness it is 
impossible to see bow they do it, neither am I sure whether it 
is elicited by a pair or by two males only. I have only caught 
males. They remain till it is actually quite dark, but 
then seem to disappear. Neither light nor cow-droppings 
which are often attractive to moths engage their attention. 
They keep just out of the light of the road lamps. When by a 
hu-kv stroke one is secured in the net, it is Usually verv uuiet 
and does not 11 utter about, so that often one does not notice 
at first thai it is trapped, but so fast it flies and so hard one 
has to strike at it that the insect is very apt to be damaged 
by the concussion. 

It appears at the end of May. This habit of dashing 
about the loads and its peculiar crackling noise, , arc not 
-bared with any other Xvclipaos as far as I know. 
A larger sprcies with brown wings ornamented with white 
eyes, is one of our commonest moths and often comes to light. 
It rests during the dav under rocks or banks, or on beams in 
sheds or house* and though rapid in flight when disturbed, 
merely dashes from one hiding place to another, and I have 
never met with it dashing about the road at night in the way 
that -V. Iiirrotj/yphini does. The latter is abundant in Sing- 
apore and I have also met with it in Paining and other parts 
of the peninsula. 

Nothing appears to be known of the life history of this 

H. X. KlDLEY. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 

New or Rare Malayan Plants. 

Series IV, 

By H. X. Ridley. 

It will be seen bv this series of novelties that the knowl- 
edge of our flora even of the best known spots is not yet 
complete. Even in Singapore with its nearly exterminated 
native flora, still some novelties lurk in the few remaining 
bits of forest, thus the Stagmount wood produced the beauti- 
ful new ginger which was found growing in a spot which I 
have frequent lv visited and onlv a few vards from mv usual 
track. The Rnnd'w. the IJerltlom and Dioxpyro* descril>ed 
herein I have known for manv vears, but thev have not been 

• • • 

described in the Materials and so are now published for the 
first time. 

The well known furniture wood Katinga from the Siam- 
ese borders has long been prized and I obtained leaves and a 
fruit some vears ago from Mr. F. 0. Penncv, who had a fine 
collection of furniture made from its wood. A number of 
young plants were raised in the Botanic Gardens, and I lately 
obtained s]K»cimens shewing parts of the flower from Mr. II. 
0. Robinson. It proves to be a Murrnya allied to the well 
known Kamuning wood, so much valued for the handles and 
sheaths of K rises. 

The low-lying forest region of Southern Johore, has 
produced several interesting novelties, including a remarkable 
new genus of gingers, but many more curious and interesting 
plants will be found in this unexplored district when time 
serves to investigate it. From Sarawak Mr. Hewitt still con- 
tinues to send many more novelties, and among Sarawak 
plants I am glad to be able to associate the name of the 

R. A. Soc., No. 50. 1906. 


Founder of our Society with the beautiful climber, Hosea 
Lobbiana, the ladder to the moon, (Tanga Bulan) of the 
Malays. This charming plant abundant in the swamps near 
Kuching, has boon more or less known for a long time. 
Thomas Lobb while collecting plants for cultivation for 
Yeitch found it and dried a spray of it which is now at Kew, 
but Lobb docs not seem to have troubled to put localities on 
the tickets of bis dried specimens, and when bis collections 
were received at Kew. many were wrongly localised, and this 
plant was .supposed to have come from lVnang, and was des- 
cribed as thence bv Clarke in the Flora of British India as 
C/erodendron Lobbiana, (the peculiar fruit however prevents 
it from being a Clerodendron). 

Miss North saw it at Kuching and made a drawing of 
it, which however was not recognized as l^obb's plant. Bishop 
Hose brought plants of it into his garden at Kuching, and 
some years ago gave one to the Botanic (wardens in Singapore 
where it has been cultivated. It seom> of slow growth and 
not very easy to propagate, so that it has not been found 
possible as yet to distribute it to other gardens. It is a most 
attractive plant with its red upper leaves and salmon-orange 
flowers. A contrast to it is the dwarf Ch'rodrndron jiuhii* 
////// from the road banks of Matang mountain in Sarawak, 
perhap> the smallest of clcrodendrons, though with a fairly 
large i uft of white and pink flowers. 


Urritirra vlula, n. sp. 

A gigantic tree H>0 feet tall 2 feet through with 
strong hut tresses, bark grey flaky. leaves coriaceous 
elliptic obtuse with a round or truncate base 4 inches 
long :V\ inches wide smooth shining above, coppery scaly 
beneath, nerves .*> pairs elevated beneath, inconspicuous 
beneath, petiole \-\ inch long. Panicles axillary 
on the branches in the axils of fallen leaves about five 
inches long, lax many flowered about t inches long, all 

Jour. Straits Branch 


densely covered with stellate hairs. Male flowers pink 
eampanulate shortly 5 lobed ! / 3 inch long, covered with 
. stellate hairs outside. Androecium very slender $ the 
length of the tube, anthers in a whorl 5 : disc large circu- 
lar. Fruit on stout woody peduncles, obovate woody 
brown, with a subtriangular woody wing running to a 
point obtuse, 1£ inch long, wing \ inch long. Seed ob- 
long, cotyledons fleshy, no albumen. 

Singapore: Gardens (Ridley 6015). 

There are two or three of these fine trees in the Garden 
Jungle. The finest is a conspicuous object by the plant 
sheds growing close to a still taller Palaquium bancanum. 
The underside of the leaves is covered with a layer of 
coppery silvery scales circular in outline with numerous 
irregular teeth on the margin. These scales also occur 
on the upper surface of the young leaves. The Male 
flowers are produced in great abundance rosy pink in 
color. The females seem much scarcer. I have failed 
to find any on my specimens. The fruit has a much 
more distinct wing than has //. Httoralis the common 
sea shore tree, but it is not sufficiently large to act in 
dispersing the plant. The fruits indeed simply fall in 
great quantities beneath the tree and most of them 
perish after a short time. 


Murrnya caloxylon, n. sp. 

A tree of considerable size the branches covered with a 
pale flaky bark. Leaves 8 inches or more long with 13 
leaflets, rachis flattened and winged narrow, leaflets 
3-3i inches long or less by 1] inch wide, alternate 
oblanceolate obtusely acuminate with a triangular base, 
minutely petiolate inaquilateral thin bright deep green. 
Flowers pale yellowish green several together in small 
panicles, in the upper axils of a branch, about an inch 
long. Sepals connate ovate acute f Q inch long. Petals 

H. A. Soc., No. 50. 1906. 

* 8 


and stamens not seen. Ovary stalked, hairy, style rather 
stout hairy, stigma capitulate. Fruit oblong rounded 
at both ends, 4 inches long and three inches in diameter, 
the pericarp dotted and warty greenish eventually be- 
coming yellow, half an inch thick, lemon yellow inside, 
full of long resin cells narrowed at the mouth and dilated 
below, cells .">, with rather thick tough walls, pulp of 
transparent flattened sticky fibres olive green in colour 
and tasteless. Seeds numerous about 5 in a section ovate 
flattened half an inch long £ inch thick, olive grey. 

Southern Siam: Patani (Penney); Upper Perak: 
Kenering at 500 feet elevation (Robinson 5548). 

This tree known as the Katinga is famous in the Malay 
peninsula for its beautiful wood. This handsome wood 
is of light yellow color, ornamented with dark brown 
streaks and strains, fairly hard in texture and taking a 
good polish. Mr. F. Penney obtained a considerable 
quantity of the wood from Siamese territory North of 
Province Wellesley, from which lie had made furniture, 
boxes, etc., which was very highly valued on account of 
its lx'auty. Lie obtained also leaves and fruit of the 
tree. For the flowers 1 am indebted to Mr. H. C. 
liobin^on, who met with it in Upper Perak. 

It differs from other species of the genus in the greater 
size of the leaves, the conspicuously stalked ovary, and 
the remarkable fruit which resembles a citron. The 
rind has a bitter terpentine}' flavour, and the com- 
paratively scanty pulp is quite tasteless. The fruit i9 
so entirely different from that of any other species of the 
genus that the plant might almost be separated gener- 

Osbeclia chinensis, L. 

Has been sent by Mr. Fox from Setul in Southern 
Siam where it was collected by Mohammed Aniff, the 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


Foreman Gardener of Penang Gardens. This is a very 
widely distributed and variable herb occuring all oter 
tropical Asia from India and Ceylon to New Guinea 
and China, but hitherto it has been wanting from the 
Malay peninsula. The Form collated is the narrow 
leaved form represented by 0. an gaMi folia as figured in 
Wallich's Ieones Kariores. 


Randia fraganiimma, n. sp. 

A stout woody climber, stem through bark of branch- 
lets pale. Thorns in pairs strong woody \ to £ inch 
long. Leaves elliptic acute to ovate acute coriaceous 
glabrous 5 to 7 inches long 2£ to 3 J inches wide, nerves 
about 10 pairs; petioles stout \ inch long. Cymes ter- 
minal or lateral 2 inches across, 20 to 30 flowers in each. 
Flowers waxv white, fragrant. Bracts at the base of the 
flowers ovate pubescent, several on each very short pe- 
duncle, the terminal one double and resembling an epi- 
calyx. Calyx campanulate pubescent { inch long teeth 
5 short acute. Corolla tube an inch long cylindric gla- 
brous, 1oIm?s oblong obtuse g inch long, interior of the 
tube silky hairy. Stamens 5. Anthers nearly sessile in 
the mouth of the corolla, linear, base bilobed. Style 
stout longer than the corolla-tube with two flat elliptic 
lobes. Berry J inch long. 

Singapore: Garden Jungle (Ridley 5664), Bnkit 
Timah (13022), Changi, Pulau Tckong; Malacca: 
Selandor (Cantley's Collector), Ayer Panas (Derry 
1056), Bukit Bruang (Derry 274). Native names, 
" Akar Scburus ; " " Akar Kuku lang." 

A very beautiful climber when in flower with its tufts 
of pure white fragrant flowers reminding one of those of 
the Stephanotis. 

R. A. Soc., No. 50, 1906. 


Myrsixeae. a 

Labisia acuta, n. sp. 

Undershrub 18 inches tall, stem flexuous. Leaves 
about 12 lanceolate subacute equally narrowed at both 
ends, herbaceous dark above paler beneath quite entire, 
4 to 6 inches long 1J inch wide, petiole \ inch long 
winged to the base. Panicles in the uppermost axils 
dense-flowered, rufous scaly, 2 inches long lower part 
nude. Bracts lanceolate. Calyx campanulate 5 lobed 
lobes short. Corolla lobes lanceolate acute eglandular. 
Anthers eglandular. 

Johore: Sungei Tehran., March 190? (Ridley 13010). 

This really seems distinct specifically from the com- 
mon and variable L. pothoina, Lindl. (L. pumiln, Benth) 
in its elongate stein and acute petallod eglandular flowers. 

Ardisiti jj suffnitivosa, n. sp. 

A low ascending undershrub little over a foot tall with 
a flexuous stein with brown longitudinally rugose bark. 
Leaves oblanceolate entire narrowed gradually to the 
petiole, apex obtusely acuminate, margins faintly undu- 
late eglandular, glabrous, (bud leaves red pubescent) 
nerves inconspicuous above, beneath about 20 pairs 
slender, slightly elevated, 4-5 inches long 1 inch across, 
petiole slender £ inch long or less. Inflorescence from 
the axil of an upper leaf; peduncle patent slender, 1 inch 
long, red scaly pubescent. Pedicels umbellate £ to J 
inch long, few, about 7 occasionally umbellate. Flowers 
small pink. Calyx lobes 5 very small not overlapping 
lanceolate acute edges glandular ciliate. Petals ^ inch 
long, lanceolate acuminate, obtuse. Stamens little 
shorter, filaments very short, anthers apiculate. Style 
little longer than petals in the open flowers. Fruit glo- 
bose i inch long, terminated by the remains of the style. 

Johore: Sungei Tebrau in sandy woods, covering the 
ground (Ridley 13009) March 1907. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


I'll is species is allied to A. divcrgens but is a much 
smaller plant. 

Diospyros pyriferus, n. sp. 

A tree about thirty feet tall with black bark. Leaves 
glabrous elliptic apex subacute or obtuse, base rounded, 
coriaceous 11-13 inches long 4 inches across, midrib stout 
prominent lxmcath, channelled above lateral nerves prom- 
incut beneath, depressed above about 13 pairs, alternate 
and irregular, meeting in loops within the margin reti- 
culations conspicuous, petiole thick \ inch long. Flow- 
ers in fascicles on the trunk or branches, cream color. 
Cymes j inch long much branched with slender branches 
covered with appressed hairs. Bracts small ovate. 
Calyx lobes small T n inch long ovate hairy 5. Corolla 
male, thick and coriaceous £ inch long, tube flask shaped 
lobes rounded recurved all glabrous. Stamens very 
numerous, about 30 ,in pairs, the front and back ones 
connate in pairs by the filaments, the back one with a 
longer filament than the front one, filaments very short, 
anthers linear, tip acute. Female flowers not seen. 
Fruit pear-shaped glabrous green *U inches long, 2 inches 
through, pericarp inside white, .seeds ten. Calyx broad 
J inch long green glahrescent lobes spreading ovate acute 
inch long. 

Singapore: Bukit Tiinah, forest at the West entrance 
to the Fern Valley (Ridley Nos. 8101, 10847, 10442, 
6118, 8114). Flowering April and October, fruit 

Near D. oblonga, Wall, but with many more stamens 
and a very different fruit like a small pear. 

Logan l acl ae. x ] 

Fngmco rofundi folia, n. sp. 

A shrub with short interuodes and opposite round 
leaves, sometimes subretuse with a small projecting point 

R. A. Soc.. No. $o, 1908. 


in the notch, thickly coriaceous 3 inches long and as wide, 
petiole thick nearly half an inch long. Flowers solitary 
terminal subsessilc. Bracteolcs broad ovate. Calvx 
lobes ovate obtuse an inch long. Corolla tube straight 
tubular slightly dilate near the limb, G inches loug J inch 
through, lobes obovatc rounded rather leathery 1 inch 
long J inch wide, apparently white. Stamens just pro- 
truding from the tube mouth, anthers oblong \ inch long. 
Styles as long as the capitulate. 

Tringanu: Bundi (Rostado). 

This fine plant is allied to F. carnosa, Jack, differing 
in the quite round leaves, and the very much larger 
corolla limb. 

F. raccmosa, var. paucr flora, King and Gamble. 

I should certainly be inclined to consider this plant 
specifically distinct from typical F. raccmosa, 'Hie typ- 
ical plant is a large stout shrub or small tree common in 
the open country with flosh colored flowers in dense 
racemes. The variety jHiuci flora is a tall slender little- 
branched shrub, wilh a slender broken up raceme of 
white or creamy white sweet-scented flowers. It only 
occurs in dense wet forest and is not found with the com- 
mon species. Thus the variety occurs in Bukit Tiniah 
forest, while F. raccmosa does not occur at all in Sing- 

F. Ridlcyi, King and Gamble. 

This i6 not completely described as the authors had not 
6ecn flowers of it. It appears only to have been collected 
by myself once on the lower slopes of Mount Ophir and 
also on Bukit Timah in Singapore. The only plant 
I found in Singapore was growing as an epiphyte on a 
dead tree at the top of the hill. The tree- later fell down 
and I believe the plant quite perished. Before it did so 
however, I managed to obtain a cutting and planted it 
in the Botanic Gardens where it has now developed into 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


a large branching shrub about 12 or 14 feet tall. It first 
flowered in 11)02, and set fruit. The leaves are dark 
green shining above, glaucous beneath, obovate with 
prominent nerves beneath, on the upper surface are scat- 
tered roundish elevations, corresponding to glands of a 
yellowish color beneath. The buds are protected by a 
white resinous secretion which become, buff yellow when 
exposed to the air. The flowers are in cymes of four, 
on short peduncles. Calyx lobes ovate blunt nearly an 
inch long. Corolla tube thick nearly 2 inches long pale 
orange green, the lobes oblong obtuse emarginate rcilex- 
cd, white shaded with green ] inch long A inch wide. 
Stamens long white, anthers oblong rounded pale violet. 
Style rather thick greenish. Stigma capitate emerald 
green conic about o inches long, ending in the stout style. 

F. auririi/aia. Jack. 

This the linest of all the Fagraeas, usually at least 
starts life as an epiphyte and killing its host becomes a 
very large branching .shrub sometimes as much as o0 
feet tall. The branches are straggling and flexuous, 
and armed with short sharp points on either side of the 
auricles of the leaves. Most of the descriptions of this 
plant as taken from herbarium specimens much under- 
rate the si/,e of the leaves and flowers. There seem to be 
two forms however in one of which the flowers are much 
smaller than in the other and commoner forms. 

The flowers during life have the following dimensions. 
Calyx 3 inches long and 2 inches in diameter. Corolla 
tube G inches long and 3 inches across the mouth, lobes 3 
inches across, and j inch thick. The whole corolla is 
eight to 12 inches or more across. The stamens are three 
inches long, the style four inches with an emerald green 
stigma more than half an inch across. 

The flower opens in the early morning and remains 
o]m»ii for two days ljcforc falling, or turning yellow. It 
exhale* a coarse rather musky, scent. The stamens ha>o 

R. A. Sot. j No. /.\ I',i8. 


their anthers at iii>st up-curved, but ere long they full 
and lie on the lower face of the tube. The stigma is then 
not fully developed and not half a* big as it eventually 
becomes. The .stamens dihisce, and produce a quantity 
of white pollen when they are in a prone position. The 
flowers are now visited by the very small Trigom (Tr 
ruficornis). These hover about the stamens, then settle 
and gather pollen, rise hover again and resettle. Oc- 
casionally they rest on the stigma, and deposit pollen 
thereon. Usually however the stigma is not developed 
till the next day, when the pollen is all gone., and if there 
has been rain, wet and spoilt, for it has no protection. 
On the second day, the stigma is fully developed, and has 
attained its full size. 1 have seen no other insect at the 
flower, though I watched for hawkmoths for a long lime 
in the evening, none visited it. 

The fruit is six inches long surrounded at the base by 
the thick green overlapping calyx lobes. These are ellip- 
soid rounded at the top and elevated in the centre, 3 
inches long by 2 inches wide. The fruit is cone-shaped 
with a blunt top. polished lead-colour. When ripe it 
dehisces at the top into five lol>cs. covered with a sweet 
orange pulp in which the seeds arc imbedded. This pulp 
is evidently derived from the placenta. The fruit often 
splitting and leaving the placenta erect in the centre 
and covered with the small seeds imbedded in the pulp. 
The pulp is sweetish with a strong unpleasant bitter taste 
and is very attractive to birds and ants. The seeds are 
irregularly angled, and finely reticulate. The seeds 
when deposited on a tree trunk germinate and the little 
plants as they grow emit long olive yellow roots like those 
of an orchid, which run upwards and downwards on the 
tree trunk, for a length of 6 or 8 feet or more. The 
plant branches from the base sending out 2 or more 
stems. Eventually it appears either to kill the tree or 
descend to the ground forming a tree of some size. The 
largest plant in the gardens has layered itself from one 
of the branches. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


F. oblunga, King and Gamble. 

This is incompletely described in the Materials for a 
Flora of the Malay peninsula, for lack of complete speci- 
mens. I would add the following notes to the descrip- 
tion. It is an epiphyte with rather flaccid leaves for a 
Fagraea. The flowers are borne in pairs on axillary 
peduncles at the ends of the branches. The peduncles 
are an inch long and rather stout, as are the pedicels 
\ inch long. The calyx lobes are ovate blunt ] inch 
long. Corolla white, with a straight tube 1 inch long, 
the lobes J inch long i inch wide oblong obovate with 
rounded tips. Stamens included, anthers oblong. Style 
an inch long, with a peltate stigma. 

The plant occurs at the Tea Gardens and the Cottage 
on the Thaiping Hills and I have also found it at the 
Semangkok Pass in Selangor (Xo. 12069 of my collec- 

F. fragrans, Roxb. 

In the Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula 
the description and quoted collection numbers for this 
plant include a tree very distinct in life but less easily 
separated from herbarium specimens. This species is 
I am pretty certain the plant intended by Blume in his 
Fagraea speciosa (llumphia II. p. 33, tab. 81). 

F. fra grans, Roxb. F. percgrina, Blume. Is a tree about 
GO feet tall with a diameter of 1-2 feet. The bark is 
rough and thick deeply irregularly grooved, and brown. 
The leaves arc elliptic acuminate narrowed at the base 
dark green dull with j>erfectly straight edges, nerves 
8 pairs. The cymes are less lax than those of F. 
speciosa. The calyx lobes arc short and ovate. The 
corolla tube \ inch long, trumpet shaped, the lobes oblong 
obtuse reflexed, as long as the tube. The stamens are 
long protruded, the anthers ovate, horse-shoe shaped, the 
loi'iili having a deep depression between them at the base, 

R. A» Soc, No. $o, 1906. 


The berry globose searlet. Seed irregularly quadrate 
dark brown pustulate. 

This plant is the Tcmbusu of the Malays, and a very 
well known and beautiful tree, whether in flower, covered 
with its masses of creamy white flowers scenting the air, 
or when bearing its bright orange red berries. It occurs 
in open country only, and comes up frequently in secon- 
dary 6crub. In the Botanic Gardens it conies up every- 
where in the grass plots where the seeds has been carried 
by bats or birds, or as I have seen by the fruit-eating ants. 

Specimens have been distributed from the Botanic 
Gardens herbaria under Gardens (Ridley 581i"); Pa- 
hang: Pekan (1028); Penang: Telok Bahang (Curtis 
31 i) ; Malacca: Merlimau ( Perry oo). I have also met 
it wild in the Dindings and Province Wcllesley. 

F. speciosa, Bl. i.s a very different looking tnv, which attains 
a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 3 — 1 feet. The 
bark is curious, being channelled in long straight grooves, 
much less rough than in F. fraywnx. The leaves are lan- 
ceolate gradually narrowed io the petiole and long acu- 
nate, polished light green and conspicuously undulate 
even when dry, nerves five pairs. The cymes are more 
lax than in F. fray runs. The flowers orange yellow, and 
rather smaller. The calyx lobes more lanceolate, obtuse. 
Nerves 5 pairs. The corolla tube .} inch long but nearly 
cylindric, and the lol>cs lanceolate obtuse much narrower 
and shorter than the tube. The filaments are twice as 
long as the corolla lobes. The style is long and yellowish 
with a capitate stigma. The berry is oblong in outline 
and alwavs vcllow. 

This tree is an inhabitant of the dense forests, though 
there are a few in what is now open country in Singapore, 
at Tanglin, they are merely the survivors of an old long 
destroyed forest. The tree is kftowji, as Tembusu paya, 
Tembusu Bukit, and Tembusu Tembaga and is valued 
for its timber which is of much greater size than that of 
F. frayrans. The timber is indeed no durable, that there 

Jour* StraiU Branch 


is in the Garden Jungle, a stump of one of these trees, 
which has heen felled upwards of fifty years ago. The 
wood of this .stump is still very hard, and very resinous. 
On the top of the stump grows a fairly large tree of 
Cu mpataia Malacccnsis. 

This plant has heen distributed under, Singapore: 
Garden Jungle (Ridley 5818, 8921); Malacca: Bukit 
Scbukor (Derry 272). * 

It is by no means as heavy a flowerer as F. fragrans, 
and sets comparatively little fruit. 

I have little doubt that Blume's F. speciosa is this 
plant, though he figures the flowers white. His plant 
was obtained in Java. 


Didymocarpus WinHeri, n. sp. 

Stem stout over three inches tall densely covered with 
appresscd silky hairs, leaves elliptic lanceolate obtuse 
narrowed slightly at the base slightly oblique, covered on 
both surfaces with oppressed silvery silky hairs, G inches 
long and 2J inch wide, |»ctiolc silky hairy tf inches long. 
Scapes strict erect several at the tip of the stem purple 
silky hairy 6 inches long including the inflorescence. 
Bracts linear lanceolate acute hairv narrow. Jnflores- 
cencc paniclcd with short branches. Flowers numerous 
white. Calyx lobes lanceolate acuminate hairy, J inch 
long. Corolla 1J inch long pubescent white, tube thick 
dilated upwards gradually, lobes rounded. Stamens 2, 
filaments sinuous, anthers semi-elliptic. Style nearly as 
long as the stamens, hairy. Stigma cup-shaped. Cap- 
sule cylindric acuminate slender pubescent an inch long. 

Selangor at the Batu Caves near Kwala Lumpur (Dr. 
Winkler March 3. 1908). 

This sj>ecies is allied to D. inalayana differing iu its 
taller s>t»*m. more silky foliage and longer white flowers. 

R. A. Soc, No. SO, 1908. 


It was obtained by Dr. Winkler while making a short 
excursion to the well known caves. 


Polytrcma cuprca, n. sp. 

A slender creeping herb terrestrial. Leaves equal 
opposite ovate rotundatc base rounded scabrid above, sub- 
pubescent beneath, margins pubescent, £-1 inch long and 
about as wide, petiole \ inch long, slender, dark coppery 
brown above paler beneath, nerves sunk on the upper sur- 
face. Flowers three or tour on a short terminal cyme. 
Sepals linear acuminate very narrow spreading in fruit, 
scabrid pubescent brown, inside pinkish. Corolla i inch 
long pale rose, lobes oblong truncate, lower lobe with a 
bright yellow central patch. Stamens 2, filaments gla- 
brous, anther cells oblong acute at both ends parallel. 
Pistil pubescent. Stigma capitate. Capsule A inch 
long clubbed 4 seeded. Seed half orbicular punctate. 

Pcrak: at Telor Pinang near Ipoh. Oct. 1808 (Ridley 

This pretty little creeper has been in cultivation in 
the Botanic Gardens for six years and living plants have 
been sent to Kew. It seems near P. isophyllum, Clarke, 
but that is a tall erect plant with very different and 
larger leaves, and axillary flowers. Like so many plants 
of this kind it constantly produces cleisfcogaiiious tlowers 
so that the corolla is seldom seen. 

Hosea, n. gen. 

A woody climbing shrub, with opposite elliptic ovate 
leaves; petioled ; the terminal leaves on the shoot partly 
or entirely red. Cymes long peduncled, axillary from the 
upper leaf axils, spreading, branches dichotomous. 
Calyx campanulate spathaceous bilobed pubescent, lobes 

Jour. Straits Branch 


ovate. Corolla tube slender long, lobes 4, three obovate 
one linear oblong. Stamens -1, iilaments far extruded, 
anthers rounded. Style as long. Stigma lanceolate. 
Ovarv four-lobed, -1 celled, with an ovule in each of the 
two cells: Fruit one or two in each flower, fusiform 
narrowed at both ends, apex acuminate 2 J inches long, 
pericarp leathery deep purple. Seed solitary elongate. 

//. Lobbiana, n. sp. Clerodendron Lobbiana, Clarke Fl. Brit. 
Ind. Vol. 

A tall slender woody climber. Leaves elliptic ovate 
2-3 inches long 1$ inch wide glabrous polished green. 
Upper leaves on the shoot smaller pubescent, orange red, 
petioles J to 1 inch long. Cymes in the leaf axils of the 
upper leaves spreading on peduncles 4 inches long pubes- 
cent, branches of cyme dichotomous lax, pedicels J inch 
long, all pubescent except the corolla. Calyx eam- 
panulate bilobed half an inch long yellowish green lobes 
about .! the length of the whole calvx, ovate. Corolla 
tube slender nearly an inch long, whitish, lobes four, 3 
rounded obovate ^ inch long -J inch wide, one linear 
oblong smaller all light apricot-orange. Stamens 4 Ali- 
form projecting for 2 inches from the mouth of the 
corolla tube, crimson, anthers smaller rounded black, pol- 
len orange colour. Style filiform as long as the stamens 
crimson. Stigmas very small, lanceolate green. Ovary 
4 lobed, lobes rounded elevated. Fruit one or two elong- 
ate fusiform deep purple three inches long and nearly 
\ inch through in the thickest part. 

Sarawak: in hot open swamps at Kuching abundant 
(Hullett, Haviland b. y. s. d., Ridley 11726). 

This beautiful plant is known to the Malays as Tanga 
bulan, (the moon ladder). It was first partially des- 
cribed by C. B. Clarke as Clerodendron Lobbiana from a 
specimen collected by Lobb and supposed to have come 
from Penang, but doubtless Lobb collected it at the 
locality in Borneo. It was cultivated for many years by 

K. A.lSoc., No. 50. 190S. 


Bishop Hose in his garden at Kuching, and I have much 
pleasure in associating his name with the genus. Plants 
have been cultivated also in the Botanic Gardens in 

The peculiarity of the genus lies in its remarkable 
fruit, which is not baccate as in most species of the 
genus but one-seeded. 

Clerodendron pumihun, n. sp. 


A dwarf plant, suffruticose, stem 2 inches tall, with 
whitish longitudinally ribbed bark, pubescent above. 
Leaves few 2 or 3, broadly ovate acute, base rounded 
broad, margin undulate distantly denticulate 4 to 6 
inches long, 2 to 3 inches wide covered with pale uni- 
cellular hairs on both sides, petiole \ inch long. Pe- 
duncle \ inch long. Cymes in a pair about 2 inches long 
and as much across, many flowered, pedicels and peduncle 
densely pubescent. Sepals 5 lanceolate acute \ inch long 
green tipped with red and covered with red hairs. 
Corolla J inch long, tube cylimlrie dilated at the base 
curved above pinkish, pubescent, upper part crimson 
lobes 5-6 obovati* rounded creamy white, hairy on the 
back. Stamens glabrous crimson over i inch longer than 
the corolla tube, anther linear deeply bifid black. Style 
filiform crimson glabrous long. Stigmas subulate green. 
Overy subglobose obscurely 4 lobed. 

Sarawak: Mt. Matang, above the bungalow on clay 
banks by the road (Hullett, Bidley 12300). 

A pretty little dwarf species of Clerodendron -with a 
large tuft of pink and white flowers. 

Oberonia filaris, n. sp. 

Caulescent, stems flexuous 3-4 inches tall, leaves 7 to 
12 ensiform acuminate 1 inch long £ inch wide. Spike 
very slender 4-8 inches long, floriferous to the base. 
Flowers very minute yellow in approximate half whorls. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


Bracts lanceolate acute. Sepals ovate acute. Petals 
narrower linear oblong obtuse. Lip oblong retuse or 
emarginate as long as the petals. Capsule stalked, ellip- 
tic 3 angled, ^ inch long. 

Sarawak: Kuching (Ridley, Ilullett Sept. 1903). 

This is allied to 0. ti/iolata, Hook. CI. but is a much 
smaller plant, with a very slender filiform spike and more 
minute not ciliolate flowers. 

0. longifolia, n. sp. -1 

Stem less with long fibrous roots. Leaves about 5 
elongate scimitar-shaped linear acuminate, articulated 
and separating from the articulations, when dry 8 inches 
long } inch wide, articulations £ inch long. Spike slen- 
der 8-14 inches long, floriferous nearly to the base, 
flowers minute irregularly arranged. Bracts linear ac- 
cumulate longer than the flower. Sepals ovate acute, 
petals linear obtuse lip three lobed, side lol>es from near 
the base narrow linear, shorter than the midlobe, which 
is ovate* obtuse minutely toothed. Column fairly long 
with short tooth-like stelidia. 

Sarawak: Bukit Tcndang, Busau Sept. 1905 (ISidley), 
Quop March 1908 (Hewitt). 

licmarkable for its long narrow leaves, curved and a- 
cuminate and long spike. 

0. rubra, n. sp. 

Acaulescent. Leaves fleshy ensiform ^-1 inch long, 
| inch wide red. Spike 2-3 inches long, base shortly 
nude above densely floriferous. The flowers in closely 
pacta*! alternate half-whorls below, in complete whorls 
above. Bracts linear acuminate entire as long as the 
flower. Sepals ovate lanceolate. Petals narrower, en- 
tire. Lip ovate entire centre depressed. Capsule stalk- 
ed J inch long subglobose 6 angled, the 6 ribs very pro- 

R. A. Soc., No. 50, 1906. 


Sarawak: on coffee trees on Matang Estate (Bidley). 

I have known this little plant for years but never had 
the luck to find a flower in fit condition. Mr. Hewitt 
sends a specimen in flower, without locality. The whole 
of the little plant is usually red, leaves, flowers and fruit. 
The leaves arc very fleshy. The lip appears to be quite 
entire ovate. 

Platyclinis Bartoni, n. sp. 

Pseudobulbs not seen. Leaf narrow lanceolate acu- 
minate obtuse narrowed at the base, 7 inches long } inch 
wide, keel prominent, ribs less prominent 6. Scape 12 
inches, base 6£ inches nude, raceme lax, flowers inch 
apart. Bracts narrow lanceolate papery } inch long, 
spreading persistent. Pedicels with ovary a little short- 
er. Flowers apparently yellowish with a brown lip \ 
inch across. Sepals lanceolate acuminate acute. Petals 
nearly as long but little more than half as wide. Lip 
shorter than sepals, base narrow, side lolws fairly large 
lanceolate acute, excurved, midlobe much longer ovate 
acute, dilated towards the middle, margin towards apex 
denticulate, 2 elevated keels running from base and dis- 
appearing on the midlobe. Column hood long oblong 
three toothed at the truncate tip. Stelidia large rising 
as a margin to column from base, above triangular lan- 
ceolate with a broad base, tip acute, free from just below 
the stigma. 

British New Guinea, (Major F. 11. Barton No. 5). 

This appears to be the first species of the genus found 
in New Guinea. It is rather remarkable for the long 
curved filament of the anther and longer rostellurn than 

Bvlbophyllum patens, Hook. fil. 

A plant of this species was sent in a collection of 
orchids from Java by Mr. Beauclerk, and flowered in the 
Botanic Gardens, Singapore. The species has not 
hitherto been recorded from anywhere outside the pen- 

Jour. Straits Branch. 

ERRATA .--Page 129, for line 3 substitute— 

B. lasianthum, Lindl. 


insula and is not recorded bv Mr. Smith among the 
Javanese orchids. 

B. (% Monan tha parva) Scintilla, n. sp. 

I met with a large plant of this strange orchid on a 
tree at Kukuh. South Johore, in flower in April 1908. 
It is well known from the rocks on Penang Hill, and I 
have it also from Sumatra. 

B. (8 Monantha i>arva) Scintilla, n. sp. 

Rhizome slender wiry, pseudobulbs curved base pros- 
irate, upper parts ascending \ inch long, leaf oblanceolate 
fleshy \ inch long. Scape very slender 1 inch long. 
Flower fVj inch long. Sepals very narrow lanceolate 
acuminate bright orange. Vpper one much narrower 
than the others. Petals very short linear orange darker 
at the tips. Lip linear acuminate fleshy deep pink nearly 
half a.- long as the >cpals. 

Sarawak: at Kuching (.1. Hewitt). 

A distinct lit lb* >pccics resembling //. mtcnariiun. 
liidl. but with aeiuninale sepals, gibbons below and 
different pseudobulbs. 

II. 1$ Srstochillis) jHliirtutliui, II. sp. 

Pseudobulbs conic 1 inch long, with Jibres of broken 
up sheaths at the base. Ix*af elliptic coriaceous subacute 
base slightly narrowed to petiole 5 inches long 1£ inch 
wide, j>etiole 1 inch. Scape slender ty inches long. 
Flower solitary, upper sepal ovate acuminate J inch long 
\ inch wide yellowish with brown spots, laterals gibbous 
at the base narrower lanceolate linear acute pubescent 
yellow distally with a reddish tinge and red brown spots 
below. Petals lanceolate cuspidate nearly as long as the 
M'pal, btit narrower. Lip short oblong fleshy, base pro- 
longed into 2 red processes, sides high elevated apparent- 
ly purple with a pale broad groove 1h*1wccii. 

Sarawak: Matang (J. Hewitt). 

R. A Soc., No. 50, 1908. 



There seem to be a number of these pretty Bulbophyl- 
lums in Sarawak, Kranzlin describes in Engler's Bot. 
Jahrb. 34. ii. 251 viz. B, cryptophoranthoidcs, B. hy- 
mcnockiluin, B. srandcns all from Matang. This one is 
distinct in having pubescent lower sepals. It is allied to 
B. umijiie, Midi, of Borneo. 

B. (% Raremosae) perpusilluin, n. sp. 

A very small tufted plant, with minute eylindric pseudo- 
bulbs T \j inch long crowded together, and subtended with 
papery lanceolate bracts. Leaf fleshy coriaceous oblan- 
ccolate obtuse, nearly £ inch long ^ inch wide, narrowed 
into a petiole at the base, tip usually rounded with a 
minute mucro. Scapes slender as long as the leaves 
bearing one flower at the top. Bracts 2 the lowest lan- 
ceolate, the upper one narrower. Flower yellow less than 
r \j inch long, pedicel short. Upper sepal lanceolate 
acuminate, laterals gibbous at base above lanceolate acu- 
minate curved. Petals linear half as long. Lip broad, 
thin base oblong with two fleshy ridges enclosing a de- 
pression, lamina ovate subacute apparently white. 
Column with oblong stelidia truncate short. Anther 
rather broad, beak rounded flesh v. 

Sarawak: Bidi (C. J. Brookes) Jan. 1008. Flowers 

A very curious little species, forming minute tufts, 
with the flowers of the racemosae section but only one, 
on each. 

B. ('§ Racrmosac) pumilio, n. sp. 

Rhizome slender short, covered with papery sheaths, 
pseudobulbs eylindric T \j inch long covered with a lan- 
ceolate papery sheath, nearly twice as long. Leaf coria- 
ceous linear subacute 2 inches long, inch wide. Ra- 
ceme slender I-. 1 , inch wide, enclosed at the base with a 
tubular sheath, with a lanceolate limb. Flowers remote 
white, about 10. Bracts lanceolate acuminate about as 
long as the pedicel *q inch long. Sepals J inch long, 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


lanceolate acuminate, lower ones gibbous at the base. 
Petals lanceolate acute half as long. Lip with a narrow 
base limb elliptic lanceolate obtuse margins denticulate. 
Stelidia porrcct oblong rounded at the tip rather large 
for the size of the column. 

Sarawak: Bidi. Jan. 11)08 ((J. Brookes). 

The number of litt/bojihylla of this section seems end- 
less. This small >pecies differs from any other known to 
me in its linear leaves and denticulate tip. 

Bulbophyllum Brookem, n. pp. 

Rhizome thiek and woody with closely appressed sub- 
globose pseudobulbs, with depressed tops, truncate round- 
ed \ inch long. Leaf coriaceous elongate 4 subspathulate 
apex rounded, base gradually narrowed to a thick petiole, 
blade (J inches long •'{ inch wide petiole li inch long. 
Raceme o' inches long slender erect glabrous, with several 
sheaths at the base. Klowers numerous, scattered from 
near the base upwards. Bracts linear acuminate -jVf inch 
long. Pedicels little longer. Sepals lanceolate subacute 
i inch long. Petals very small not longer than the 
column ovate. Lip very small fleshy sides at the base 
and for more than half the length of the lip curved up, 
with a groove l>ctwcen apex ovate thick and fleshy. Co- 
lumn and its foot short. Stelidia short subulate. 

Sarawak: at Bidi (C. J. Brookes). 

This species has somewhat of the appearance of B. 
puberuhtm, Ridl. but is quite glabrous, and has curious 
closely approximated pseudobulbs of a cupshape. 

BitlbophyHum sarcanlhoides, n. sp. 

Rhizome very short, pseudobulbs very small. Leaf 
succulent lorate drying black, falcate acute 1£ inch long 
i inch wide distichous. Racemes very dense J- inch long 
with lanceolate acuminate bracts, comose. Flowers 
yellow J inch long. Sepals lanceolate caudate with a 
Mrong central midrib no lateral veins. Petals wider at 

R. A. So:.. No. 50, 19J8. 


the base lanceolate caudate, rather shorter. Lip half the 
length of the sepal base narrow, lateral lobes ovate curved 
obtuse, midlobe verv narrow acuminate caudate centre 
elevated thickened. Column short and broad winged, 
filament distinct. Anther for the column large oblong 

Johore: Sungei Tcbrau, on trees over the river. 

A very curious plant with the habit of a small Sacvo* 
labium, with flowers in upwards dilated racemes. 

Dendrobium gramineum, n. sp. 

Stems long very slender, branched about J& inch 
through flexuous, branches 6 or more inches long. 
Leaves linear lanceolate -J-1J inch long £ inch wide, 
acute bifid with one acuminate point much longer than 
the other, sheaths } inch long ribbed and thickly nigrohir- 
suto. Flowers solitary with several papery ovate bracts, 
at the base, peduncle slender J inch long. Sepals fit ll ^\i 
long lanceolate threeveined. Mentum long straight pa- 
rallel to the pedicel obtuse } s inch long. Petals narrow 
linear. Lip as long as the sepals base linear, lateral lobes 
triangular acute, short ami broad. Midlobe spathulatc 
with a narrow cloud and a rounded limb, three ridged 
and papillose. Column stelidia broad rounded. 

Sarawak: Matang on trees (Ridley, Hewitt). 

Allied to the terrestrial aquatic D. conostalix, Lindl. 
but an epiphyte branched with very different petals and 

Dendrobium Ardcni, n. sp. 

Stems slender branched, pseudobulbs subeylindric 
slightly flattened olive green 1$ inch long by \ inch wide 
remote. Leaves lanceolate linear 3-4 inches long £-J 
inch wide dark green coriaceous, narrowed at the base 
snbobtuse. Flowers in tufts from the axils of the leaf 
appearing singly or in pairs, as large as those of D. 
KrlsalH, lVdicel pale green j inch long. Sepals oblong 

four. Straits Branch. 


recurved subobtuse rroaiu with faint purplish wins. 
Petals linear acute narrower. Mentum short broad conic 
curved, faintly marked with red veins. Lip as in D. Kel- 
saUl, but, lateral lobes short rounded pink, midloln? with 
a distinct elaw then dilated into a bilotad rounded limb, 
on tbe disc two thick fleshy large semi-ell iptieal cusliions 
deep-purple, rest of the disc and claw violet pink, limb 

creamv Yellow. Column lemon vellow. 

. » »■ 

Johore: Kukub estate, Tempavang Kiver, (Fl. in II. 
B. S. May 22, 1908). 

This resembles D. Kefta/H but differs in the rather 
rather longer recurved sepals, the short rounded lobes of 
the lip, with a distinct claw between the disc and the 
limb, instead of overlapping, and instead of three ridges 
running from the base of the lip to the bane of the mid- 
lolx\ there are two thick fleshy deep purple crimson half 
elliptic cushions with a groove between. The flowers 
are less than half an inch long. 

I). (§ Pcdilonum) Crubm, n. sp. 

Stamens subcylindric dilated upwards, strongly groov- 
ed of about G intemodes 2 to 4 inches long, and } inch 
through when dry. leaves elliptic obtuse 3 inches long 
1 inch wide, slight lv narrowed at the base 1 . Flowers 
borne in the leafless steins on the upper nodes solitary on 
short \ inch pedicels with an ovate bract. Peduncle 
slender 1 inch long pink. Sepals ovate {inch long 
petals similar but shorter and more rounded at the tip. 
Mentum J inch long base narrowed then dilate at the 
base, like the body of a wasp. Lip J inch long, "base 
narow linear then suddenly dilate into two oblong ovate 
rounded lobes f inch across when expanded, then nar- 
rowed linear ending in a rounded reniform limb. Be- 
tween the loin's the veins are thickened into a eallus. 
Column dilated widely. Anther conic blunt, apex thick. 

Stigma cordate large with a broad thick elevated mar- 

R. A. Sue No. $o, 1906 


Sarawak: Matang (June U?, Hewitt). Petals with a 
green tinge, the veins red. Lip and column white. 

This is a fine Pedilonum remarkable for its curious 
nientum narrowed and dilated towards the tip and curved 
like the abdomen of wasp, and for the lip with its two 
broad side loljes about half way from the base and the 
broad fan-shaped terminal lobe. 

D. (§ Pedilonum) muHi/loriun, n. sp. 

Stems slender 18-2 1 inches tall ] inch through slightly 
flcAimus strongly grooved; internodes 1 inch long. 
I/eaves elliptic obtuse nearly sessile \\ inches long by 1 
wide. Paecmcs terminal 2 to -1 inches long many 
Uowered. Bracts narrow lanceolate small. Flowers 
large. Pedicel winged } 2 inch. Sepals elliptic lanceolate 
acute. Petals similar a little smaller. Mentuin long 
curved half an inch long thick blunt. Lip spathulate, 
base linear centre thickened, limb broadly orbicular ovate 
1 inch across distinctly nerved. Nerves at the base of 
the limb elevated into an undulating keel. Column 
rather trill oblong. Anther short and thick. Stigma 
narrow oblong with an elevated margin and two tleshy 
wings outside. Capsules \ inch long elliptic. 

Sarawak: at Quop (March HHW). Petals and lip 
yellow. Sepals red out>idc, the colour more pronounced 
on the mentuin. 

The habit of D. xcvundum, but with very different 

Dendrochihim spathuhttum, n. sp. 

Phizome long much branched slender j^ inch thick, 
yellow, pseudobulbs cylindric yellow and deeply grooved 
when dry 1 inch long ^ inch through. Leaf elliptic 
lanceolate narrowed rather abruptly to the base apex 
obtuse 2 inches long A inch wide. Paecmes slender about 
'I inches long floriferous to the base. Bracts ovate acute 
minute persistent papery half as long as the pedicels. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


Flowers T V inch across. Sepals* linear obtuse fleshy o 
nerved. Petals shorter. Lip less than halt' as long as 
the sepals narrow entire fleshy base oblong with two 
fleshy raised keel, apex subspathulate rounded thin. 
Column very short, upper margin oblong as long as the 
r est of the column, stelidia from near the anther base 
lanceolate acuminate apex subulate as long as the elinan- 
druni margin. Capsule J inch long and nearly as wide 
rounded triquetrous almost cone-shaped. 

Pahang: on the Tahan Uiver in fruit; Sumatra; 
Sungci Kclantan ; Siak (Kidley). 

Certainlv near 1). aurantiacum, Bl. but distinct in the 
very large oblong crest to the column, and spathulate lip. 
1 believe the Pahang plant is identical with the Sumatran 
one though it is only in fruit. 

D. intermedium, n. sp. 

Stems long woody creeping T ! g inch through, pseudo- 
bulbs remote 1A-3 inches apart, cylindric rather slender 
1 inch long. leaves coriaceous elliptic obtuse 14-2 
inches long, by 1-1 J inch wide, petiole J inch long. 
J»acemes slender 4 inches long, 2 to 5 together close to a 
pseudobulb, with numerous lanceolate papery bracts at 
the base, flori fenms to the base, ltachis black pubescent. 
Bracts (floral) minute ovate acute papery as long as the 
pedicels. Pedicels -J^ inch long. Flowers pale yellow 
very small. Sepals elliptic apices rounded. Petals nar- 
rower and shorter. Lip shorter than the sepal J its 
length, linear oblong entire, with two large keels in the 
centre. Column rather small, stelidia linear acute erect 
longer than the column, back of clinandrium ovate. 

Sarawak: Mt. Matang, June 190? (Hewitt). 

This species is allied to D. aurantiacum, Bl. of Java, 
and D. brcvilabratum, Pfitzer collected at Baram by 
Hose. The foliage is quite different from the lanceolate 
leaves of the former, which it resembles in its uigro 
pulx'seont rachis that of D. brcvilabratum being glabrous, 

K A. Sue., No. 50, ip.8, 


Eria curosiavhys, n. sp. 

Stems eyliudric 8 indict tall covered with rather large 
loose sheaths Private with oblique mouth, 1 inch or less 
long. Leaves numerous at the apex narrow lanceolate 
acuminate acute, narrowed to the base l-l> inches long 
-I inch wide. Iiaceiites from upper axils very slender I 
or o inches long entirely ferruginous hairy, floriferous 
ncarlv to the base. Flowers verv small numerous, red 
hairy. Bracts ovate acute feruginous hairy J^ inch. 
Pedicel short and thick as long. Flowers to end of men- 
turn £ inch long. Upper sepal ovate acute cymbiform 
laterals ovate oblique, mentum long straight twice as long 
as the pedicel. Petals linear oblong obtuse shorter than 
the sepals. Lip very narrow spathulate, claw linear limb 
entire cordate obtuse. Column short verv broad, anther 
flattened siibquadrate refuse. Stigma elliptic large. 

Sarawak: Ml. Matang (.1. Hewitt) (June 190; ). 

A mo.*t curious plant with ferruginous spikes of small 
llowers. and leaves drvinir too of a rustv brown. It 
should I think be classed near E. floribiuithi from its 
habit, and form of stem but the hairiness and form of 
the llowers suggests an atlinity with the Aerido>tachya 

E. I r tin i flora, Jiidl. 

I can hardly separate a plant from Kuching from this 
Malay peninsula species. The Borneo plant has more 
acuminate sepals, and a rather wider more rhomboid lip. 

E. BruuJccxii, n. sp. 

Stems cylindrie fleshy -I inches long nearly J inch 
thick. Leaves lanceolate oblong acuminate acute narrow- 
ed into a petiole, nerves prominent, D inches long 11 inch 
wide glabrous. Kaccme dense, from below the foliage, 
1A inch long flowers numerous crowded, peduncle very 
short with ovate papery bracts. Floral bracts oblong 
lanceolate glabrous veined as long as the hairy pedicels 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


i inch long. Sepal, dorsal ovate lanceolate cymbifonn, 
laterals falcate acute mentum as long as the free portion 
all hairy, broad rounded at tip. Petals falcate lanceolate 
acute. Lip claw long linear narrow, lamina ovate obtuse 
obscurely trilobed, side lol>cs shorter than midlobe; two 
elevated nerves run from base of claw diverge on disc 
and meet again on the centre of midlobc where they are 
elevated into a fleshy mass and are here joined by the 
median nerve. Column short but stout, stelidia small. 
Anther broad thin. Pollinia pyriform. 

Sarawak: Bidi March 08 (C. J. Brookes). Flowers 
pale almost fleshy color, midlobc of lip yellow. 

Near E. denta, but with hairy flowers and no basal 
lobes to the lip. The specimen is poor. 

PlovixjJottis hiria, n. sp. 

Stem over half an inch through, covered with long 
pubescent leaves lanceolate 13 inches long 2 J inches wide 
acuminate narrowed at the base to the broad sheath hairv 
on both surfaees ribs .">. ScajM? axillary 15 foot tall hairy, 
at the base a few distant sheaths ribbed acuminate 1 inch 
long, raceme lengthening to about a foot. Bracts comose 
lanceolate acuminate caudate subulate hairy 1-i inch 
long. Pedicels hairy 1 inch long. Sepals and petals 
similar lanceolate caudate hairy outside \ iiu-h long £ 
inch acmss at the base. Lip glabrous Milxpiadratc nar- 
rowed a little at the base, apex with a long linear horn 
from each angle and a central one declined at the tip. 
Towards the base of the lip a pocket is formed by the in- 
volution of a portion of the centre. Column short and 
very broad, clinandnim deep, no arms. Pollen masses 4 
oblong ovoid. 

Sarawak at Bidi <C. J. Brookes). 

A very remarkable plant with apparently a tall leafy 
stem from the axil of which rises a tall slender scape 
ending in a gradually elongating raceme of hairy flowers. 

R. A. Soo, No. $0, 1908. 


The whole plant is very hairy. I have unfortunately no 
note of colour of flowers or height of the plant. 

Geodorum pulchcllum, n. sp. 

Lcafv stem with leaves little over 6 inches tall. Leaves 
1 unequal, the largest elliptic undulate acute herbaceous 
dull dark green about o nerved o inches long, 2 inches 
wide, Racemes 2 to each leaf tuft 3 inches tall, peduncle 
1-2 inches covered with loose lanceolate acute green 
sheaths, raceme nodding flowers about 8. Bracts lan- 
ceolate acuminate ] inch long. Pedicel as loug. Sepals 
oblong lanceolate upper one narrower than the others & 
inch long white. Petals wider oblong lanceolate as long 
white. Lip entire saccate, shortly spurred .] inch long 
apex rounded entire, base outside white, inside tinted 
purplish with 2 short calli or bosses, pustular dark red, 
apex of lip bright orange yellow. Column short, very 
broad and flat with no distinct wings, white with pur- 
ple-madder streaks on the face and edging at base. Stig- 
ma large semi-ovate. Anther low, rounded flat truncal e 
in front, pale yellow with a purple margin at the back 
and edges of cells. Clinamlrum margin elevated ovate. 
Roslellum indistinct nearly entire, Pollinia elliptic. 

Siam: Bangtaphan (Dr. Keith); Singgora (St. V. B. 

This charming little plant flowered in the Botanic 
Gardens Singapore in April 1008. Mr. Down from 
whom I received it states that it grows under bushes 
in sandy spots. 

TucniophylhiHi gracilUmum, n. sp. 

Epiphytic, stem -j^ inch long, roots elongate, very 
narrowly linear obtuse 3 to 5 inches long •£■$ inch wide. 
Scape very slender 1£ inch long, base nude, raceme very 
short, rachis slightly thickened. Bracts minute ovate 
acute. Pedicel and ovary longer. Perianth white T V 
inch long. Sepals lanceolate obtuse. Petals elliptic 
rather wider. Lip entire triangular ovate obtuse much 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


larger than tin* petals. Spur nearly as long as the 
pedicel, pendulous clubbed. Column short. Anther 
skull-shaped. Pollinia 4 hemispheric, pedicel slender 
terete disc very long lanceolate acute, posticous end 
rounded. Roslcllum elongate broad lanceolate. 

Johore: Sungei Tehran (March 1907), Tenipayan 
River; Selangor: Petaling Woods. 

I have two or three, times come across this little orchid 
in the woods fallen from the tops of the higher trees, but 
never was fortunate enough to iind any trace of flowers 
till I obtained one on a plant collected in the woods 
bordering the Tebrau .River in Southern J oho re. The 
single flower obtained is verv small and delicate but I 
think 1 have made out its structure completely. The 
plant seems to be intermediate between Sacrolabium and 
TneniuphylliUH. The short stem, slender inflorescence 
with persistent distichous bracts and flowers appearing 
singly, and the pollen masses divided completely, are 
characters of Taenia i>lnjl him, while the disc and pedicel 
of the pollinia resemble those of a Sarcohibium. Since 
writing the above I came across several specimens in the 
Kukub forests Southern Johore, fallen from loftv trees 
in flower in April. 

Drndmcolla minium, n. sp. 

Stem J inch long covered with oblong obtuse fleshy 
leaves A inch Ion" bv A inch wide or less. Racemes 
several .1 inch long, peduncles very short raceme length- 
ening to nearly half an inch with crowded ovate acute 
recurved bracts. Flowers very small £ inch long, ap- 
parently pink. Upper sepal ovate, laterals ovate sub- 
triangular larger. Petals shorter oblong. Lip with 2 
appressed upper lobes linear oblong, below a spur as long 
as the short peduncle elongate serotifonn rounded, mid- 
lobe so short as to be concealed ljcncath the two side-lobes. 
Column Mraight rather tall, no stelidia, rostellum ovate. 
Anther skull-shaped truncate in front with a short 
tooth vcllow. 

R. A. Sue, No. $o, 1909. 


Sarawak: Kuching (Hewitt). 

A very odd little thing. The habit is quite that of a 
Dcadrocolla, hut the lip is very curious, the side lobes 
meet together in the middle line leaving only a slit as 
an entrance to the spur: the main part of these is depress- 
ed so as to form a llat disc, beneath is a minute midlobc. 
The spur is more like that of a Saccolabium. 

Saccolabium laxuw, n. sp. 

Apparently a tall slender plant, upper part of stem 
{ inch through, leaves lorate blunt unequally bilobed, 
coriaceous. G indies long J inch wide. Panicle 18 inches 
long lax dilTuse brandies 4-ti indies long. Flowers dis- 
tant. Bracts ileshy triangular. Flowers numerous ^ 
inch long. Sepals oblong obtuse upper one slightly 
hooded. Petals smaller linear oblong shorter and only 
half as wide, greenish inside with a dull brown tinge. 
Lip white inside lobes triangular lanceolate, midlobc sub- 
cordate with a narrow base, flesh v blunt with a ileshv 
central keel running down into the spur and forming 
a partition, between the lateral lobes it is pubescent, but 
in the spur and on the midlobc it is glabrous. Spur 
1 inch long thick porrect, curved forwards parallel to 
the midlobc or nearly *o, callus on the back of the spur 
in the mouth, a raised tonguc-shaj)ed ridge fleshy grooved 
down the centre and pubescent at the lower end. Col- 
umn short and broad, with two short linear pubescent 
stelidia, at the points where the lip is aduate to the 
column. Anther broad front margin, broad truncate, 
top of anther rounded grooved. Pollinia elliptic small, 
grooved transversely below the middle, pedicel triangular 
short, disc large ileshy saddle-shaped deeply bilid. Pos- 
tellar arms short blunt widelv divaricate. 

Sarawak: Matang, June 1007 (J. Hewitt). 

This is one of the tiammt hits set of this genus, and 
fccems very distinct. The abrupt forward curve of the 

Jour. Strata Branch 


thick spur reminds of the form of the lip in S. penung- 
ianum, mine rum, etc. The form of the column and the 
curious pollinia recalls that of $. rostcllatus, Ridl. 

S. pi ui folium, n. sp. 

A dwarf plant 1 inches tail, interuodes very short. 
Leaves crowded erect, sheaths strongly grooved } inch 
long, lamina terete acute 1£ inch long £ inch wide. 
Raceme slender £ an inch long 2 or 3 flowered. Bracts 
very small ovate. Flowers inch long from tip of 
sepal to spur tip. SepaU, upper one ovate, blunt, laterals 
broader ovate curved, strongly 3 nerved. Petals narrow- 
er and shorter linear oblong, slightly dilated towards the 
tip dull green with red centre. Lip shorter than sepals 
bright yellow spur short scroti form, lateral lobes liner 
subacute erect small, midlobe has tall acuminate, basal 
lobes rounded <malh callus in spurmouth a small short 
ridge, on back of spur a short cylindrie deciirved process. 
Column rather tall. Anther broad, beak large ovate 
triangular, pollinia not seen. Kostellar lobes very short. 

Sarawak: Bidi (C. Brookes, eoiinn. J. Hewitt). 

>'. strong ijl oi(l>\^ t n. sp. 

Stem elongate x l a inch through. leaves terete recurv- 
ed 4-5 inches long £ inch thick obtuse, sheaths 1 inch 
long ribbed and closely transversely wrinkled. Raceme 
5 inches long, flowers distant on pedicels £ inch long. 
Bracts very small ovate acute. Sepals oblong ovate 
broad and short, quite blunt. Petals broader almost 
orbicular ovate. All yellow with red brown centre /^ 
inch long. Lip pale violet, lateral lobes linear obtuse 
short apex *poon-shapcd mid-loin? hastate, narrow, basal 
lol>es broad rounded larger than the side-lobes, tip narrow 
obtu>e crenulate, thin, spur short thick blunt slightly 
curved forward, lip ret use. In the centre of the mid-lobe 
near the mouth of the spur is a depression edged by an 
elevated V shaj>ed ridge in front, in the centre of the 
depression a thin keel running down to form the spur 

R. A. Soc., No. 50, iooB. 


partition which is incomplete. Callus on the back of the 
spur curved narrow, grooved, apex pubescent, mouth of 
the spur pubescent. Column short, foot prolonged into 
the spur in a short process. Anther broad with a narrow 
straight margin. L'ollinia semiorbicular, with a very 
broad thin pedicel subijuadrate with an acute tip, disc 
fleshy apparently orange colored, saddle-shaped, back 
rounded; rosteilar lol>es broad deflexed quadrate. 

Sarawak: Kuching Feb. 1908 (J. E. Lewis, comra. J. 

Allied to S. Machadonis, Ridl. but with broader leaves, 
rounded broad petals and sepals and a different callus. 

Fodochilus rupicola, n. sp. 

Tall stout tufted plant with long stems 2 feet long. 
Lea\es elliptic 2 inches long J inch wide slightly narrow- 
ed at base obtuse at tip. Inflorescence (>-8 inches long 
pendulous, raceme 1.1-1 inches long slender. Bracts 
small lanceolate deflexed, acute persistent. Flowers T y T) 
inch long. Upper sepal ovate small, laterals large tri- 
angular. Petals small oblong, mentuni gibbous wide. 
Lip oblong apex bilobed lobes rounded, ba>e rounded, 
with the liorse-shoe-shaped callus at the base and 2 
parallel ridges on the limb. Fruit £ inch long fusiform. 

Borneo, Sarawak: on rocks at Bidi (Kidlev 11792) ; 
Batu (Hewitt). 

Leucolcna ornala, Ridl. 

I put this curious saprophytic orchid into the section 
Kpidendreae of Orchids with some amount of doubt as 
there was nothing at all which shewed anv affinity to the 
plant in the section. Its appearance certainly suggested 
that its affinities lav with the Xeottieae section among 
which saprophytes are not at all uncommon. But in 
the plants obtained in Bukit Sadanen in Malacca, I 
found what appeared to be a distinct disc to the pollen 
masses and the anther is not at all like that of most 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


Neottieae. I have recently (April IT, 1907) rediscover- 
ed the plant in Singapore, in dense forests by the side of 
a stream at a spot formerly known as Stagmount, and 
have thus had an opportunity of examining the plant 
again. The Singapore plant di Iters from the ones found 
in Malacca in having the lip nearly quadrate with a 
central tooth and hardlv distinct I v bilobed, the limb 
white and onlv the claw violet. The rostellum vcrv small 

ft V 

in the Malacca plant seems quite absent and the curved 
sausage-shajK'd pale flesh-colored pollinia have no trace 
of any disc at all. This plant was evidently destined to 
be self- fertilised as the pollinia slip into the stigma with 
the greatest ease. The filament so long in the Malacca 
plant is quite short in the Singapore one. For the present 
it may be preferable to consider the Singapore plant as a 
variety, Singapomisis of the species. 

Xow in the light on the plant shown by this variety, 
we can more easilv determine its aftmitv, and that is I 
think with the genus Gastrmlia, to which it is allied in 
its stout rhizome, its connate perianth, (for the whole 
of the perianth is connate at the base, though divided into 
two lips, tme consisting of the sepal and two petals, the 
other of the two lower sepals), and the form of the pol- 
linia. (jnstrndifi differs in the almost completely tubular 
flower, and the verv short stelidia. 

Lcucolcna ornata var. Singaporcnsis. 

Lip subquadrate with a median tooth hardly bilobed, 
limb white, ba.M 1 violet. Kostellum quite absent. Pol- 
linia free 1 with no disc. Filament of anther much 

Damp sandy woods on a stream bank at Stagmount. 
Singapore, flowering in April 190 T. 


(it'Oilnuis, n. gen. 

Creeping herbs with rather slender rhizomes throwing 
up leafy stems and inflorescences at intervals. Leaves 

R. A. Soc., No. 50, 1908. 


elliptic lo lanceolate* shortly petiolod. Inflorescence on 
a tall or short peduncle covered with long green sheaths, 
raceme erect many flowered. Flowers orange or red very 
shortly pedicelled. Bracts very small spathaceous. Ca- 
lyx tubular triful, lobe* caudate eiliate. Petals as long 
j-omewhat similar. Lip divply bifid into two narrowed 
linear lobes base adnate to the corolla. Stamen iiiameut 
broader than the anther involute forming a tube with the 
lip, with two short subulate staminodes at the upper 
angle. Anther broad oblong with an entire ovate ap- 
pendage. Style stout. Stigma obcuneate curved sub- 
bilobed. Stvlodes annulate lobed. 

Johore, Sumatra and Borneo. 

This genus though based on a plant obtained in Johore, 
I think must include one at least and probably boih of 
the plants ilr.M-rihed by Sehuman under the section (Jro- 
rhm-is of Aljiuiia vis. .1. hinrrosfehtuii, Schumann of 
Sumatra, and probably .1 i /tin in ilmuva, Ridley a New 
(iiiiin'a plant. I have therefore adopted Schumann's 
seetional names as a generic namc> for the.-e plants. 
Schumann who included a great many and verv varied 
plants in the genus Al/nn'w, noted the fact that both 
the above mentioned plants resembled the genus /'/iv/f- 
lio, and it is possible that -1. ih'rurw, Ridl. may belong 
to that Papuan genus. I cannot sec any connection with 
or resemblance to the plants of the genus Geostachyx, 
as suggested by him. 

G. aurantiaco, n. sp. 

Rhizome J inch thick, leafy stems about 2 feet tall 
swollen at the base, sheaths rugose closely brown hairy 
blade a foot long IJ inches wide elliptic glabrous deep 
green shining above, paler beneath, petiole J inch long 
brown hairy. Peduncle of inflorescence 1 inch long, 
covered with long loose deep green rugose sheaths. 
Raceme .*> inches long, flowers crowded very shortly 
stalked numerous. Bract > minute spathaceous. Calys Straits Branch. 


tubular 3 lobed, lobes caudate hairy 1J inch long, glabrous 
except at the cuspidate tip, orange. Corolla lobes 
equally long linear oblong orange. Lip as long as the 
anther, deeply split into two linear lobes for nearly all 
its length lobes obtuse crimson with a yellow edge. An- 
ther oblong pale yellowish with a small ovate crest, fila- 
ment broad, edges involute towards the lip and forming 
a tube with it, pinkish yellow, with two subulate points 
at the top near the anther. Stylodcs forming a shortly 
3 lobed pale violet ring. Style stout, stigma obcuneate, 
upper lip longer than the lower and incurved. Base of 
filament in the tube with a large tuft of silky hairs. 
Ovules numerous. 

Johore: In thick low swampy forest at Kukub. In 
bud April 1008. Borneo, Sarawak: Bidi (Hewitt Aug. 

This remarkable plant seems most nearly allied to the 
genus Kicdelia which is confined to the Papuasian region 
of the Archipelago. 

The separate inflorescence and the corolla-like sepals 
are very remarkable points of difference, and the broad 
involuted filament forming a tube with the lip though 
free from it is very curious. I only found one plant of 
it in bud. 

The woods in which this plant occurs are remarkable 
in inanv wavs. The soil consists of nothing but dead 
and rotten timl)er and vegetable debris, for a very con- 
siderable depth, below and in other parts of the estate 
there is a great deal of a very greasy stiff clay. 
The presence of recognisable fruits of the Xipa palm 
show that this part of the coast was marine at no very 
distant period. The mangrove swamps and tidal streams 
seem to have receded and been covered up with a dense 
wet forest, containing a somewhat peculiar flora. The 
trees are of very large size, Cumjxma Malaccensis 
being very abundant. The absence of Nephrodiums 
Lastreas and such ferns is very striking, and indeed the 

&. A. Soc., No. 50, WA 

* 10 • 


terrestrial ferns common in the elavev woods of Sine:- 
apore and the greater part of the Singapore flora is not 
represented, except in the matter of epiphytes. Calanthc 
veralrifolia. A very tine form with unusually grey leaves, 
Lvphlogyiu 1 lun gi ful in otherwise only known from Penara 
liukit in Penang, Cystorclii* purpunw-ens, Plocoglottis 
javaiiira, Xcphrlaphyllum pulrkrum were among the ter- 
restrial orchids. In some spots the preponderance of 
Monocotyledon* over Dicotvledons was verv marked. 

«• •• •» 

Tims some parts of the forests consisted of Phrynium 
wnhirceiixe and Ph. hirluin, Panax grand is, Alpitiia 
laclanncarpa, Phiyioslachy* al hi flora n. sp., with several 
other Ziiujibcrarvac not in iiower. Zalavca conferta and 
Wa/lichiana ; one or two species of Pacmunorops, Cala- 
nuw pcnrillnlus and several species of Pinonga, and 
Xvngu Weml/unrfiuua, Omvspcrnia figillaria and Pholi- 
dncar pus Khigimuts a few tree ferns, and some large 
dicotyledonous trees, formed the rest of the flora. Schis- 
malughtlh Wallidiii often in great abundance, Alocnsin 
longiluba, Iluiualoniena rostra la represent the aroids. 

The immense mass of vegetable debris forming the soil 
to a considerable depth, without any apparent mixture 
of mineral matter, not a pebble or fragment of stone 
being visible over the whole of this area, suggests that 
the tertiary coal deposit* of .Borneo and Labium have had 
some such origin as this. 

G. rubra, n. sp. 

Jihi/ome slender with strong rather stout roots. Stem 
slender 14 inches long £ inch through. Leaves narrow 
lanceolate caudate tapering gradually at the base to a 
short petiole, glabrous above, pubescent on the hack es- 
pecially on the mid-rib ( J inches long 1-J inch wide, ligule 
oblong rounded entire, sheaths ribbed with transverse 
ribs. Kaeeme iM5 inches long erect from the rhizome, 
on a short peduncle 1-11 inch long covered with lax 
sheaths. Flowers red, on slender erect pedicels 1 inch 
long. Bracts very small ovate pubescent. Calyx i inch 

Jour. Strata Brined 


long with throe triangular caudate lobes. Corolla tube 
but little longer, lobes linear oblong obtuse slightly 
pubescent and hooded at the tip. Lip deeply bifid into 
two narrow linear blunt lobes for half its length basal 
portion linear with a strong median keel, free from the 
filament except near the base. Anther oblong curved, 
with the cells slightly diverging at the tip, appendage 
very short rounded ovate, filament below the anther for 
some way linear flat fleshy, then winged widely with the 
staminodes in the form of two short triangular subulate 
processes. Style and stigma about as long as to the tip 
of the appendage. 

Borneo, Sarawak: at Quop (Hewitt, March 1908). 
Flowers red. 

This specie? differs from the preceding in its much 
smaller size, short racemes of long pedicelled flowers, and 
colour. The wings of the filaments, evident! v the at- 
taehed staminodes do not reach as high in this species as 
in the other, where they are adnate to the anther. The 
lip is not split so far down and is free for a longer dis- 

A/pinia vittata, TTort. Bull. Nicholson (lard. Diet. 54. pi. 63. 
Cost us Zebrinu*, Ilort. 

Stems rather .slender about G feet tall, leaf v. Leaves 
lanceolate acuminate glabrous narrowed at the base not 
jM'tioled, fifteen inches long and three inches across, green 
strijK'd longitudinally with white, ligule short entire 
truncate edges ciliate, pink. Kacemc terminal many 
flowered, :> inches long rather lax, rachis white. Bracts 
about seven not imbricate, elliptic rounded at the top 
hardly narrowed at the base, glabrous pink half an inch 
long and wide, shortly mucronate. with a scarious edge. 
Flowers 1 to each bract white. Ovary glabrous obovoid 
\ inch long polished. Calyx tubular J inch long, shortly 
split on one side, with three short teeth on the other. 
Corolla tulie hardly longer than the calyx lobes oblong 
half an inch long, truncate hooded not expanding, all 

R. A. Soc., No. 50, I9°8. 


white. Lip as long oblong fleshy slightly tapering to the 
blunt tip, concave with a median depressed line quite 
entire except that occasionally there is a short tooth on 
one side. Filament of stamen adnate lx>low the anther 
to the lip and forming a tube with it. Anther cells ob- 
long white narrow. Connective very thick fleshy ending 
above in an irregularly dentate thick appendage. Style 
shorter than connective. Stigma thick and wide with a 
transverse slit. Stylodes fonning a complete circle with 
numerous vertical grooves. 

New Ireland (Micholitz). 

This plant has long been in cultivation for its orna- 
mental foliage. I saw it in Ceylon Botanic Gardens in 
1888, and it appears to have been introduced before that. 
It was named Castus zebrinm in Ceylon. Probably 
Alpinia albolineata, Williams Cat. 1880 is the same 
tiling. The flowers do not appear to have ever been 
described nor lias any proper description of the plant 
ever been published. It is only mentioned in Schumann's 
v. Saturn ineae in the P//anzenrcieh. It is best I think to 
refer it to the genus Alpinia though it differs from 
typical species of that genus in the entire lip of the same 
shape as the corolla lobes but more fleshy, and the pro- 
longation of the very thick connective into a crest behind 
the anther, and the lip connate with the filament up to 
the anther. 

A. grandiceps, n. sp. 

A stout plant, stem over J inch through. Leaves ob- 
long lanceolate caudate acuminate, base long acuminate 
into a distinct petiole, blade 00 inches long, petiole 4 
inches long subtercte, width of blade 3 inches finely 
appressed pubescent on both surfaces, petiole pubescent, 
ligule oblong 3 inches long hairy on the edge, sheath 
pubescent. Capitulum subterminal 4 Inches through 
nodding, outer bracts lanceolate acuminate papery 4 
inches long, ribbed pubescent, edges silky hairy, ovate. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


Floral bracts tubular bilobed, lobes ovate triangular, 
strongly ribbed pubescent, containing 5 flowers, inner 
ones contained in similar but smaller bracteolcs. Calyx 
broad tubular 3 lobed, lobes ovate subobtuse, half an inch 
long apparently red. Corolla tube hardly longer, lobes 
broadly oblong keeled, upper one hooded yellow. Lip 
rather longer cymbiform edge crisped and curled, fleshy 
" veined with red brown 1k?1ow the throat." Stamen 
rather short, filament broad linear, anther lobes thick 
and fleshy unappendaged. Fruit capitulum very large, 
six inches through. Capsule glabrous hairy an inch 
long, crowned with the persistent calyx tube. 

Sarawak: Kuching (Hewitt). 

This fine plant is closely allied to Alpinia capitellata, 
Jack, and A. javanica, Bl. but a very much larger plant. 

Zingiber longipedunculatum , n. sp. 

Stem stout. leaves lanceolate acuminate caudate 
narrowed to the base, widest about the middle, slightly 
puliescent at the base otherwise glabrous 12 inches long 
2 inches wide, ligule rounded } inch long pulx\scent, 
sheath 4 inches long pubescent. Scape peduncle 12 
inches long stout covered with oblong truncate sheaths 
tubular at the base 2 inches long, about 5. Spike cylin- 
dric acuminate, base not narrowed, inches long 1 inch 
through. Bracts ovate obtuse with a scarious edge, pu- 
bescent, I inch long £ inch wide. Corolla tuln? thick, 
1o1m?s lanceolate acuminate acute J inch long. Lip broad. 
Stamen hardly longer than corolla. Anther thick, ap- 
pendage, curved narrowed to a long point. Style stout, 
stigma broad flattened triangular with long hairs on the 

Sarawak (J. Hewitt). 

Z. chryscum, n. sp. 

Stems tufted alxwt G feet tall stout. leaves oblong 
lanceolate caudate dark green paler beneatli glabrous, 

R. A. Soc., No. 50. 1906. 


base rounded broad, sessile, IS inches long, 3$ to 4 inches 
wide, ligule very short rounded entire. Flower spikes 
cylindrie acuminate, ? inches long on a peduncle of the 
same length covered with loose sheaths, all bright lemon 
yellow. Bracts J to J- an inch across, rounded glabrous. 
Inner bracts oblong acute 2 inches long. Calyx spatha- 
ceous entire, mouth obliquely elliptic 1 inch long. Co- 
rolla tube 2 inches long, lobes lanceolate acuminate over 
an inch long creamy white. Lip trilobed, side lobes erect 
rounded, mid-lobe oblong obtuse entire, the same colour 
as the petals and nearly an inch long. Anther an inch 
long with the long curved appendage. 

Singapore: Stagmount, in thick woods. In flower 
April 1908. 

This superb species was certainly quite a surprise. 

1 had many limes explored the Stagmount woods, but had 
never came across this plant although I had been several 
times close to where this time \ discovered it. It belongs 
to the same group as Z. <jra<ih\ .lack, and Z. Griffith ii, 
but is very distinct in it> brilliant yellow spikes, those of" 
all the others of this group being pinkish red. It. is 
much larger in all its parts than any other species of this 
section here except Z. jmbrrnla, Hidl. which rivals it in 
height of stems at least. In flower spike and flower this 
plant is bigger than any of this section. Its deep green 
shining leaves and the numerous bright yellow spikes 
make it the most attractive of its group. 

Phujiusfachyfi albi flora, n. sp. 

A t lifted plant about six feet tall. Stems several 
rather swollen at th ebase and reddish, -J an inch through. 
Leaves lanceolate caudate narrowed at the base to the 
petiole, Y.\ inches long .1 inches wide, glabrous, petiole 

2 inches long, ligule j inch long deeply eleft into two 
rounded lobes. Spikes from near the base of the stems 
oblong obtuse, solitary or three together 2 inches long, 
1J inch thick. Flowers densely crowded. Bracts ob- 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


long pectinate, as long as the calyx tube pink at the base, 
brown above. Calyx lobes unequal acute ovate very thick 
and fleshy. Petals lanceolate acute, the upjHT one howl- 
ed white tipped with pink. Lip obovate hairy at the base 
apex bifid with two short points, bright yellow with 
horizontal red streaks running from the edges inwards 
towards the centre. Stamen white, anther broad pubes- 
cent at the base, filament* broad. Staminodia not visi- 
ble. Stylodes as in PL laleralis but with several distinct 
lobes. Fruit elliptic obovate obscurely triquetrous, apex 
flat depressed with a circular scar of the perianth, dull 
red pulpy at iirst \ inch long, pericarp becoming even- 
tually leathery. ;J celled. Seeds 12 very small J inch long 
black ovate smooth. 

•lohore: I>en>e wet woods at Kukub. In flower April 


Altogether smaller than PL ftifrralitt. Kidl. with white 
flowers, and a differently shaped lip yellow marked with 
red. The inflorescence is lower down on the stem and 
quite near the base. 

Talma e. 
PhrtocoHiiii minor, n. sp. 

I^caf as sent 1 feet long, petiole 8 inches, flagellum 2 
feet, sheath with a few small thorns on the ^(\^', thorns 
acicular J inch long, petiole with a few distant short 
thorns, back rounded channelled above; leaflets elliptic 
lanceolate in threes below in alternate pairs above, base 
narowed subpetioluled, apex with a long slender point, 
many nerved, no distinct mid-nerve, -1-0' inches long 2 
inches aeros> filiform point 3 inches long or less, rachis 
with distant solitary hooks, flagellum with clusters of 
hooks 1 inch apart. Fruit spikes 2 feet long. Bracts 
oblong apex blunt 2 inches long 1 J inch wide. Kachis 
pul)cscent. Fruit 'J-l in a bract as large as in P. elong- 
ala. Bracteole triangular lanceolate. Pedicel stout 
angled distinct. Sepals large ovate obtuse. Petals 

R. A. Sod No. 50, 1906. 


narrow lunccolate Kmallcr. Fruit auhglolioae L»n ■ 
stales dark brown longer than broad acuti'. li 
hairy wlgea ami tip, tip 1 mil's elongate up-turned. 

Sarawak: Santoboag (Hewitt). 

A remarkably small ipo >■■ for this :■ am o 

■utiittihiis tli*r,,!„r. Beco. 

Mr. Hewitt scads the termination nf u tUail with 
sputhc and >|m<ii\ of «!ial appears to be Ihi* 
The rtem U little armed. The bu<9 surrounded by u dry 
brown iheath lanceolate over a foot long and 3 
wide, acuminate. The young leaf lias a bIoiiI 

With llOOfcM in LlirCCC, unil tlll'lr ;mv l\vo Iki^i'lh ■■ 

bearing one or two abortive leaileU at the bawj, I 
then xlundcr sad without leaflet*. Snathe 18 in< 
lanceolate ending in two long stiff points, smooth brown 
about i inches acrroHv. Spedis 9 tnc-hei much brandntl 
with slender branches and distant Rowera. Spathah 
small dilate upwards with a short lanceolate lini 
sauccr-ahaped with three Bhort points. Petals mate stiff 
connate at base, largo. Ovary covered with bri 
toning seata?. 

Sarawak: Batu (Hewitt). This plant tuterto baa only 
been known titan a leaf obtained at Kuehing. Tim 
flowers have not pnsvisualy been mat tdbed. 

Jo ik. 5itiin Brine*. 

[No. 51] 


To Journals Nos. 1 to 50 


Straits Branch 


Royal Asiatic Society 


Notes and Queries I to IV. 

Compiled by 


A J'ice President of the Society, 


Prixtkd at the Methodist Publish int. House, 



The full title of each pa]>er is given in the reference under 
the author's name. Abbreviated titles are usually used in 
other references. 

No attempt has been made to compile a subject-index ; 
references to papers dealing with the following subjects have, 
however, been collected under the appropriate headings: — 



China and Chinese 



Negri Sembilan 





Siam and Siamese 











Geology and Mineralogy 

Malay Customs and Amusements 

Malay Language and Literature 

Malay Law 

Malay Legends and Traditions 

Malay Religion and Superstition 

Wild Tribes of Malay Peninsula 



The dates of publication of the Societies' journals, &c, are 
as follows : — 



July 1878 Vols. XXVII 




December 1878 ? 





July 1879 





December 1879 





June 1880 





December 1880 





June 1881 





December 1881 





June 1882 





' December 1882 





June 1883 





December 1883 





June 1884 





December 1884 





June 1885 





December 1885 





June 1886 





December 1886 















June 1890 





December 1890 





June 1891 





December 1891 





January 1894 



Notes ai: 

id Queries Part 1 

December 1884 



June 1885 



December 1885 



June 1886 

W. D. E 


Singapore, '2. 11. OS. 



Journals I. to L. of 5. ft. R. A. 5. 

and to 

Notes and Queries I. to IV. 

Abbott, 1)k. 

Human linages among the (Jiang Mantong, XLI. 128- 

Bark Canoes among Jakuns and Dvaks (with plate), 


Geography of (translation), III. 120-123. 

Acheh, it. l\ Tolson. V. rtt-oO. 

Letter of King of Aehin to James II., W. K. Maxwell, 
X and Q, III. <>:i. 

A< Id ress 

(Inaugural , 18*8), Ven'hle Arehdeaeon Hose, D.D., 

I. 1-12. 
President's Annual . Veiflde Archdeacon Hose, 

D.i>., II. 1-4 ; IV. xix-xxii. 

Anamha Islands 

See Kloss. 

Ancestral Worship, .1. <J. Scott, XV. KM-1T1. 

On hahits of Caringa, II. X. Kidlcv. XXII. JU.V.'M;. 

Nesting of silk-weaving . li. Slid ford, XLV. 281- 


Jour. Straits Branch R.A. Soc., No. Si. 1909 



Anatomical Notes on Malay (with diagrams and 

illustrations), Dr. A. Kei'tli, XXIII. 77-89. 


Antiquities of Province Wellesley, W. E. Maxwell, I. 

Stone Implement found in Singapore, If. X. Bidlev, 
XX11I. 141-142. 

r riie Stone Age in IVrak, A. Hale, X and Q, III. 02. 

Malayan Antiquities. A. II. Keane, X and Q. III. 88-1) 1. 

A Buddhist Votive Tablet. <\ (). Blagilen, XXXIX. 205- 

Some old Sanskrit inscriptions in the Malav Peninsula, 
Prof. II. Keen, XL1X. 1)5-101. 


Inscription. X and Q. II. 57-58. 


Of Borneo. II. X. Ridlev, XLIV. 169-188. 


TIu» Pak Si Bairok and the Girl, G. M. Laidlaw, 

XliVI. 65-; 1. 


A new from Tenimbor Islands, II. X. Ridley, 

xxxix. 2or. 


Japanese folklore concerning the prince and princess of 
bv \Y. K. Maxwell, XVII I. 357-358. 



Flowering (plate), X. B. I). Dennys, IX. 163. 

Banin^tonia racemosa 

On the flowering of , II. X. Bidley, XLI. 125-126. 

Additional note on above, II. X. Bidley, XLVI. 263. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


Haktlktt, Kdwakd 

The Crocodile and Lizards of Borneo in the Sarawak 
Museum with descriptions of supposed new species 
and the variation of colours in the several species 
during lift., XXVIII. ;:i-97. 

BaHNKS. W. D. 

Notes on a trip to (lunong Henom in Pahang, XXXIX. 

Abstract of I*. \Y. SchmidtV, the Sakai and Scmaiig 
Languages in the Malay Peninsula and their relation 
to the Mon-K Inner Languages. XXXIX. :»8- !.">. 

Translation of Prof. Kern's Sanskrit Inscriptions in 
Malay Peninsula, XLIX. !>.V101. 

Jlaskct making 

at Tanjong Kling, Malacca, with five plates, Mrs. 

Bland. XLVI. 1-S. 


White-winded in Singapore, II. X. Ridley, XXXI. 


s in a Bamboo. II. X. Ridlev, L. 10:5-104. 


Visits to Island. ('. linden Kloss, L. (>l-7l. 

liatara (iuru 

R. .1. Wilkinson, XXX. 307. 
liatu Kodok 

I). F. A. llervev, XI. 1<>7. 


of Borneo, II. X. Ridley, XLVI. 217-201. 


R. .1. Wilkinson, XXX. 30(5. 

lies is i 

See Wild Tribes. 

See (iiiliga. 

R. A. Soc, No. 51. 1909. 



Contribution of Mala van , X. B. Dennvs, V. 69- 

123; VI. 225-2T2. * 

of Malava, Jan. 1888 — June 1890, C. Davies Sher- 
borne, XXII. 349-428; XXIV. 121-1G4; XXVI. 219- 
200; XX VII. 133-175; XXIX. 33-74. 

of Siam bv E. M. Satow, XVII. 1-85; XVlll. 103- 


of papers on Christmas Inland, H. X. Kidley, 

XXI11. 140. 

W. C, XXXII. 217. 
Bjhcii, E. \V. 

Vernaeular Press in the Straits, IV. 51-55. 

The Election and Installation of Tungku Muhammad, 
r.M.o. bin Tungku Antah, as the Yang di per Tuan 

Besar, Negri Scmbilan, XLVl. 9-22. 


See Ornithology. 

Bla(;di:n\ C. Otto. 

Earlv Indo-Chinese influence in the Malar Peninsula, 
XXVII. 21-50. 

Xotes on the Folk-lore and popular religion of the 
Malavs, XXIX. 1-12. 

An account of the cultivation of Kice in Malacca. 

(Malay text — ronianised — bv Inche Muhammad Ja'far 
with translation bv C. 0. H.), XXX. 285-304. 

The name ' Malavu/ XXXII. 211-21:5. 

Dialects of the Malav Peninsula, XXXVII. 141-142. 

A Ma la van Element in some of the Languages of South- 
ern lndo-China, XXXVIII. 1-27. 

The Comparative Philology of the Sakai and Semang 
Dialects of the Malay Peninsula — A Review, XXXIX. 
1 i -Go. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


Blaudkn, C. Otto. 

A Buddhist Votive Tablet (found in Kedah), XXXIX. 

Dr. Brandstet tor's Mala vo- Polynesian Bcsearches: an 
appreciation, XLll. 211-21G. 

Curriculum of a Course in Malav in Paris, L. 81-83. 
Bland, R. N. 

Currency (Negri Sembilan), XVI IF. 35('-357 

Notes on Kavu Gharu, XVI II. 359-361. 

Aturan Sungei Unjong, XX VI 1 1. 53-72. 

Keview of Dr. A. B. Mayer's Negritos, XXXIV. 35-38. 

Arthur W. S. O'Sullivan. In Memoriam, XL1. J 

Hunting Invocations, XL1I. l!)-22. 
Bland, Mks. 

Malacca Lace with 4 plates, XLV. 273-277. 

A few notes on the k * An vain Gila " Basket Making at 
Tanjong Kling. Malacca; with tiw Plates, XLV1. 1-8. 


II. T. Haughton, XXX. 313. 


I'etara or Sea Dvak gods, Rev. J. Perham, VII I. 133- 

Sea Dvak Religion, Rev. J. Perham, X. 213-213; XIV. 

Manangism in (Witch-doctors), Rev. J. Perham, 

XLV X7-103. 
Two Sea Dvak Legends, Rev. Edwin H. Gomes, XLI. 


Another Sea Dvak legend, Bev. E. H. Gomes, XLV. 71- 


British North , E. P. Gueritz, XIV. 323-335. 

Ancient Chinese Colon v in North , ' M. S." X and 

(J, II. 31-32. 
North . Land Begulations, XV. 158-1G3. 

R. A. Soc., No. si. 1909- 



Land Tenure in North . X and Q, II. 58. 

The Coalfield, Rev. J. E. Tenison-woods, N and Q, 

III. 84-87. 

British , W. H. Treacher, XX. 13-74; XXI. 19- 


The Malingkote in in June 1891, XXVI. 204. 

Vocabulary of Dusun Language of Kimanis, XXX. 1-29. 

Contents of a Dvak medicine chest, lit. Rev. (J. F. Hose, 
».i>., XX XIX. <m-70. 

Methods of computing time for planting, Dr. Charles 
Hose, XL! I. l-r> and 209. 

Report on exploration of caves of , A. Hart Everett. 

vi. 2:3-28;. 

Tawaran and Putatan Rivers hv 8. Elphinstone Dai- 
ry m pie, XIII. 2(U-2;2. 

Expedition to Mt. Kinahalu with summary of scientific- 
results and four plates — three reptiles, 1 frog, 1 fish, 
R. Hanitseh, XXXIV. 49-88. 

A trip to Mt. Penrissen, Sarawak by R. S. Shelford (with 
lists of mammals, birds, plants and ferns collected), 
XXXIII. 1-2G. 

Ferns of , Rt. Rev. (J. D. Hose, D.D., XXXII. 31- 


Aroids of , II. X. Ridley. XLIV. 1G9-188. 

List of Birds of by A. H. Everett, XX. 91-212. 

Crocodiles and Lizards of in Sarawak Museums bv 

E. Bartlett, XXVIII. 73-9;. 

List or Reptiles of , R. Shelford, XXXV. 43-(>8. 

Addenda and Corrigenda, XXXVI 1 1. 133-13:>. 

List of Butterflies of , R. Shelford, Part I, XLI. 

81-111 : Part II, XLV. 89-120. 

Butterflies of Mt. Penrissen Sarawak, R. Shelford, 
XXXV. 29-42. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



Description of new Jungle-fowl said to come from 

by H. J. Kelsall, XXIV. 167-168. 
A large mias in Singapore, XXIV. 168-169. 
Xew species of Chalcis from , C. Cameron, XLII. 

Notes on fossil tooth from Bau, Upper Sarawak, R. S. 

Shelford, XXX II. 218-219. 
Grasses and Sedges of , H. N. Ridlev, XLVI. 215- 


Scitamineae of . H. X. Ridley, XLVI. 229-246. 

Begonias of . H. X. Ridley. XLVI. 229-246. 

Xew species of Hvmenoptera from , 1\ Cameron, 

XLVI 1 1. 1-26. * 
On tallv sticks and strings from , Dr. Hose and 

J. Hewitt. XLIX. MO. 
Journey into interior of (with sketch-map), R. S. 

Douglas, XLIX. 53-62. 
Bark Canoes among Jakuns and Dyaks (with plate), 

Dr. W. L. Abbott. XLIX. 109-lli). 
Tin and lead coins from Brunei (with plate), Dr. R. 

Hanitseh, XLIX. 111-114. 
Two new species of Cicindela from , Dr. W. Hoen, 

L. 9:5-104. 
See Sarawak, Brunei. Dyaks. 

Bo ro Budur 

K u ins of , Bishop Hose ? VI. 203-223. 


Xote on I poh tree, Perak, VIII. 161. 

The lpoh Tree, L. Wray, X and Q, III. 61-62. 

Daun Senguru, C. C. S., X and Q. I. 5. 

(Jutta Juices. X. B. Dennys, X and Q, I. 5. 

and Malay (names of plants). Rev. B. Seorte- 

chini, XVI. 413-415. 

R. A. Soc.. No. 51. 1909. 



The Bringal, < G. H. ? X and Q, IV. 97. 

< Ketiar/ W. K. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 97-98. 

Xotes on Economic Plants, X. Cantlev, XVII T. 295- 

Xotes on Kayu Oharu, R. X. Bland, XVIII. 359-361. 
Oaru and Chandan, H. X. Ridley, XXXV. 73-82. 

Destruction of Coconut palms bv beetles, H. X. Ridlev, 

XX. 1-11. 
List of Animals and Plants recorded from Christmas 

Island, H. X. Ridley, XXI II. 130-136. 
Burmanniaceae of Malav Peninsula, H. X. Ridlev, XXTI. 


Tiger's Milk (Susu Rimau) of Malava, H. X. Ridley, 
XXII. 321-339. 

Further Xote, H. X. Ridley, XXXIV. 101. 

Note on Matonia Pectinata in Carimons, H. X. Ridlev, 

XX II. 430. 

Xote on Mosquito larvae in pitchers of Xcpenthes, H. X. 
Kidlev, XX If. 430. 


(J rasses and Sedges of Malav Peninsula. H. X. Ridlev, 

XXIII. 1-33. 

Plants collected at Bukit Ktam Selangor, H. J. Kel- 
sall, k.k.: H. X. Ridlev, XXIII. 72-75. 

Rhododendron in Singapore, H. X. Ridley, XXIII. 144- 

Pogonia Punctata Bl. in Singapore, H. X". Ridlev, 
XXI II. 146-147. 

A Note on Rengas-poisoning, Dr. \V. C. Brown, XXIV. 


IVtrosavia in Pcrak, H. X. R.. XXIV. 170-172. 

On the dispersion of seeds bv mammals, H. X. Ridlev, 
XXV. 11-32. 

Vegetation of Pahang. H. X. Ridley, XXV. 49-56. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. ,-g 


Catalogue of flowering plants and ferns found wild in 
Penang Island, C. Curtis, XXV. 67-163. 

Botanists of Penang, II. X. Ridley, XXV. 165-167. 
Large beetle caught in pitcher of Nepenthes, XXV. 172. 

List of Plants collected by Lake and Kelsall during trips 
across J oh ore, XXVI. 25-33. 

Camphor-Tree and Camphor Language of Johore, H. W. 
Lake and H. J. Kelsall, it. a. with note by H. X. Ridley, 
XXVI. 35-56. 

Stick-Insects destroying orchids, H. X. Ridlev, XXVI. 

Malay Plant Names, H. X. Ridley, XXX. 32-283. 

Malav Plant Xames, TL X. Ridley and C. Curtis, 
XXXVI IT. 39-122. 

Calanthc vestita Lindl. in Selangor, H. X. Ridlev, 

XXX. 311-312. 

Peliosanthes of the Malav Peninsula, H. X. Ridlev, 

XXXI. 91-9S. 

Ferns of Borneo, Rt. Rev. (J. F. Hose, n.n., XXXII. 

Scitiimineae of Malav Peninsula, H. X. Ridlev, XXXII. 

Some new Eastern (lingers, (Addendum to last paper), 
II. X. Ridley, XXXIV. 97-99. 

Note on Malayan (fingers. H. X. Ridley, XXXTV. 99- 

Note on Plants collected at Fenrissen Sarawak bv R. S. 
Shelford, H. X. Ridlev. XXXIll. 22-24. 

List of Ferns of lVnrisscn Sarawak. Rt. Rev. (?. F. Hose, 

n.i)., XXXI II. 25-26. 
The Flora of Singapore, H. X. Ridley, XXXI II. 27-196. 
Supplementary Notes on the F'lora of Singapore, H. X. 

Ridlev. XXXIV. 81-90. 


R. A. Soc.. No. 51. 1909- 



A Botanical Excursion to Kedah Perak, H. X. Ridley, 
XXXIV. 23-30. 

Dammar and Wood oil, H. X. Ridley, XXXIV. 89-94. 

The Flora of Mt. Ophir, H. X. Ridley, XXXV. 1-28. 

Gam and Chandan, H. X. Ridley, XXXV. 73-82. 

Silk and Cotton dveing by Malays, W. W. Skeat, 
XXXV11I. 123-137. 

List of Plants collected on Gunong Benom Pahang, H. 
X. Ridley, XXXIX. 10-18. 

New Malav Orchids, H. X. Ridley, XXXIX. 71-87. 

A new Balanophora from Teninil>er Islands, XXXIX. 

New Malayan Plants. H. X. Ridley, XLI. 31-51 ; XLIV. 

189-211': XLIX. 11-52; L. 111-152. 

On the flowering of Barringtonia racemosa, II. X. Ridley. 

XLI. 125-12<>. 
Additional note to ahoye, XLVI. 263. 

The (Jesneraccae of the Malay Peninsula. H. X. Ridley. 

XLIV. 1-92. 
The Aroids of Borneo. II. X. l?idle\\ XLIV. 1G9-1SS. 


On the fertilisation of Granmiatoplivllum. H. X. Ridley. 
XLIV. 22S-229. 

The Botany of Christmas Island. H. X. Ridley, XLV. 

Grasses and Sedges of Borneo, H. X. Ridley, XLVI. 

Seitamineae of Borneo, \\. X. Ridley, XLVI. 229-24(5. 

Begonias of Borneo. II. X. Kidley, XLVI. 247-2<>l. 

A list of the Ferns of the Malay Peninsula. H. X. Ridley. 
L. 1-59. 

Hats in a Bamboo, ||. X. Ridley, L. 103-104. 

The Labiates of the Malay IVnisula, H. X. Ridley. L. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 11 


Christmas Island Flora, additional notes, XLVIIl. 107- 

See Banana, Gutta-percha. Rubber, Koenig. 

Bott. D«. \V., F.C.S. 

The Thermal springs of Selangor and Malacca, XXIV. 

The alleged discovery of Mercury in Malacca, XXIV. 


Brandstetter, Dr. 

Malayo-Polvncsian Researches of ; an appreciation, 

CO. Blagden, LI I. 211-210. 

Brown, \Y. C, m.d. 

A Note on Rengas poisoning, XXIV. 83-85. 


Selesilah (Book of descent) of Rajas of Brunei, Sir 
Hugh Low, V. 1-35. 

(ienealogv of Royal family of , \V. H. Treacher, 

XV. 7!>-80. 

Tablet at dated 1004, V. 32-35. 

.Journal of trip from Sarawak to Meri 18)2, X. Pcnison, 
X. 173-188. 

See British Borneo hv \Y. H. Treacher, XX. 13-74; XXI. 

List of Brunei — Malay words, H. S. Havnes, XXX IV. 

Tin and Lead Coins from . R. llanitsch, XLIX. 



Votive Tablet. C. O. Blagden, XXXIX. 205-200. 

1 > 1 1 k i t Ktam 

Trip to , 11. J. Kelsall. U.K., XXIII. 07-75. 

R. A. Soc., No. 5i, 1909. 

12 TNDEX. 

Burbidgk, F. W. 

Xotcs on Gutta perclm and caoutchouc-yielding trees, 
III. 52-59. 

Correction to above, IV. til. 

Burma nniaceae 

— of Malay Peninsula, H. X. Ridley, XXII. 341-344. 

Bl'TLKR, A. L. 

Birds collected and observed on the Lanit Hills Perak in 
March and April 1898, XXXII. 9-30. 

The Birds of the Larut Hills, XXXIV. 99. 

Remarks on the Rhinoceros Hornbill (Buceros rhin- 
oceros) and some other species mentioned in Mr. IS id- 
lev's paper on the birds of the Botanical Gardens, 
XXXII. 215-217. 

On the occurrence of Mus surifer (G. S. Miller) in 
PerakyXXXVI. 137. 

Calanthe vestita Lindl. 

in Selangor bv H. X. Ridlev, 311-312. 

Calogramma festiva (Walk) 

II. X. Ridley, XXXV. 82-83. 



French Land Decree in , YV. K. Maxwell, XV. 81- 


Journev through Laos from Bangkok to Vbon LSS4, 
G. Oabin, XV. 103-117. 

Camkkox, P. 

On the Hvmcnoptera collected bv Mr. Robert Shelfonl at 

• I • 

Sarawak and on the llvmenoptera of the Sarawak 
Museum. XXXVII. S'l-UO; XXXIX. S9-1S1 ; 
XLIV. 93-1 (JS. 

Krrata, XLL 121. 

A Fourth contribution to the knowledge of the llvmenop- 
tera of Sarawak, XLVL 103-123. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 1 3 

Camerox, P. 

On some Hvmenoptera from the Baffles Museum, Sing- 
apore, XL. 119-12:*. 

New species of Chalcis from Borneo, XLIL 52. 

Description of new specie* of Iphiaulax and Chaoha 
(Braeonidae) from Sarawak, Borneo, XLIL 23-51. 

Krrata, XLIV. 229-230. 

Xew species of Hvmenoptera from Borneo, XLVIII. 

Cameron, W. 

Kota Gianni or Klanggi Pahang, IX. 15.3-1 (>0. 

On the Patani (with maps), XI. 123-142. 

Exploration of Pahang, letter concerning, XV. 155-1. "5 7. 


Tlie survey cpiestion in Cochin China translated hy W. 
K. Maxwell from the 'Bulletin' des Ktudes Indo- 
Chinoises de Saigon for the first half-vear of 188(J, 
XVIII. 271-294. 

Camphor Language 

S(v Trip to (iunong Blumut, Ilarvev I). F. A.. III. 113- 

of the Madek Jakuii, I>. F. A. llervey, IX. KJ7. 


Tree and Language of .lohore, II. \Y. Lake and 

II. J. Kelsall, r.a., XXVI. 35-5ti. 

See ha m. 
Cantlky, X. 

Xotes on Economic Plants, XV I II. 295-3*34. 


of Books in the Lihrarv of the Straits Branch of 

the Royal Asiatic Society Journal 1«<S4, XII. xxi- 

On the svstem of adopted in Sarawak Museum, 

XXX I i I. 259-2IU. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. 1509. 

14 INDEX. 


— - at Sungei Batu. T). D. Daly, III. 116-119. 

Pepoit on exploration of of Borneo, A. H. Everett, 

VI. 2:3-287. 

Klonwang and it* (Acheen) translated, VIII. 153- 


Kota Glanggi, Pahang, W. Cameron, IX. 153-160. 

Wiite Snake of of Selangor, IT. X. Bidlev, XXXI. 



The game of , G. T. Hare, XXXI. 63-: 1. 

Cerruti, G. B. 

The Sakai of Batang Padang Perak, XLI. 113-11?. 

Malay , J. B. Eleum, XLIX. 8?-92. 

China and Chinese 

Secret Societies, W. A. Pickering, I. 63-64; TIT. 1-18. 

Pidgin-Knglish, X. B. Dennys. II. 168-174. 

Statement of Haji Mahomed Ali concerning Mahonie- 
dans in China, IX. 165- 1(56. 

Ancient Chinese Colony in North Borneo, M. S.. X and 
Q, II. 31-32. 

' Chai Mui/ \Y. A. Pickering, X and Q, II. 54-56. 

Chinese lotterv Hua-lioev, C. W. Snevd Kvnnerslev, 
XVI. 203-250. 

The game of Chap-ji-ki, G. T. Hare, XXXI. 63-U. 

The Wai Seng Lottery, (J. T. Hare Publication Xo. 1. 

Invitation to collect folk-lore of China from Hongkong 
branch Folk-lore Society. XVI. -1-10-442. 

Land Revenue System of China, X and Q, IV. 130-131. 

Xative names of streets in Singapore. J I. T. Ilaughton, 
XXIII. 19-65. 

Chinese names of M reefs in Penanir. l.o Man Yuk. 
XXXIII. 19;-216. 

Jour. Siraits Branch 

INDKX. 15 

China mikI Chinese 

Chinese names of streets and places in Singapore and 

Malay Peninsula, II. \Y. Firmstone, X LI I. "53-208. 
Index to above by Tan Kee Soon, XLVI. 195-213. 
Chinese names of streets. A. Kniglit, XLV. 28T-288. 

CI i ina Sea 

Cruise in Southern , C. Boden Kloss, XLI. 53-80. 


(Formula recited at installation of Malav chiefs), 
W. K. Maxwell, X. 2H]-2H<). 

Christinas Island 

A dav at ; with list of animals and plants recorded, 

II. X. Uidley with bibliography. XXIII. 123-140. 

An expedition to , II. X. Hidley, XLV. 121-155. 

Frrata, XLVI. 2<il. 

The Botany of . II. X. Hidley, XLV. 15<>-2;i. 

Floia. additional notes, II. X. Hidlev, XLVlll. 


Clifford, Hrc;ii. 

Manuk, X and Q, IV. 101-102. 
The Sakai Language, X and Q, IV. 101-102. 
The Crocodile, X and Q, IV. 123. 

Some Xotes on the Sakai Dialects of the Malav Penin- 
sula, XXIV. 13-2!). 
A new collection of Malay Proverbs, XXIV. 8<-120. 
The Ilikayat Haja Budiman (Malay), Publication Xo. 2. 

The Ilikayat Haja Budiman (English translation), 
Publication Xo. 3. 

Cochin China 

The survev question in, M. Cainouillv, translated by 
W. K. Maxwell, XVIII. 2;i-2<U. 


Destruction of palms bv beetles, 11. X .Hidlev, 

XX. 1-11. 

R. A. Soc, No. 51, 1909. 

16 INDEX. 


Notes on beetles, A. Hale, XXII. 421). 

Precocious , A. B. Stephens with note bv II. X. 

Kidlev, XXXI. 103-104. 


See Hanitsch. 

Collyris emarginatus 

"Xote on , It. Shelford, XLV. 283-284. 


in Xegri Semhilan by It. X. Bland, XVIII. ;J5(>- 

OO < . 

(VllTIS, C. 

A Catalogue of tlie Howering plants and ferns found 
growing wild in the Island of Penang, XXV. (>7-l(>3. 

Malav Plant names bv II. X. Kidlev and C. Curtis, 
XXXVIII. M)-\n. 

Damn, (J. 

A missionary'* Journey through Laos from Bangkok to 
Cbon (1884); translated from the French bv \V. E. 
Maxwell. XV. lo:.i-li;. 

Dammar and Wood oil 

II. X. Bidley, XXXIV. 8!MU. 


r lhe Tawaran and Putatan Bivcrs North Borneo, XII 1. 
2(51-27 2. 

Daly, 1). I). 

Metalliferous formations of the Peninsula, II. ID 1-198. 
Caves at Sungei Batu in Selangor, III. 11G-111). 

Davison. William. 

•lournal of a trip lo Pahang, &c. with II. K. the Covernor 

August i ; th to n\\\\ \w.)< XX. 8:;-!)o. 

Eudromias Veredus in Singapore, XX HI. 1 17-148. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 1 7 

I ) i:\isox, (Xokl). 

Journal ( f rum 2!>th April to 2-">lh May 1 8 T ^ ) when on 
a l rip from Sarawak to Men on the X. \\\ Coast of 
Borneo in the Biunei Territory, X. 173-188. 

The Kura u Districts Perak, XV'llI. 349-352. 

Dknnys, ( X. B. ) 

Breeding Pearls, I. 31-3 L 

Breeding Pearls, and Bacteria in Pice, X and Q, I. 12-13. 

• Pidgin English/ II. USN-174. 

()j)hiophagus claps in Singapore, 1. 1)9-105. 

Snake poisons, IX. 1(51. 

Python's eggs (plate), IX. KJ1-1G2. 

Flying Lizard (plate), IX. 1<;2-1<>3. 

Singapore Lohstcr (plate), IX. 1(53. 

Flowering Banana (plate), IX. 1<>3. 

Contrihution to Malayan Bihliography, Y. f>9-123; VI. 

(tiitta Juices, X and Q, I. 5. 

Turtles, X and Q, 1. 12-13. 

The octopus. X and Q, 1. 14. 

Are cockatoos carnivorous, X and Q, I. 14. 

Tiger traps, X and Q, I. 15-1(5. 

Man-eaters, X and Q, 1. 16-17. 

Tigers eating frogs, X and Q, I. 17. 

(harms, X and Q, I. 17-18. 

Index to Logan's Journal of the Indian Archipelago, 
XVIII. 335-344. 

Dknnys, Dk. X. B. 

In Memoriam, H. X. Bidlev, XXXV. 10G-107. 

I)j;w, (Annan T.) 

Exploring Kxpedition from Selaina Perak over the moun- 
tains to Pong Patani in Xovember 1883, XIX. 105- 

R. A. Soc, No. 51. IW- 

1 8 INDEX. 

Dew, (Airmrn T.) 

Fishing Industry of Krian and Kuraii Perak, XXIII. 


in Malay Peninsula, PI. X. Pidley, XXIV. 1GG-1G7. 

D hidings 

Dutch occupation of , \\\ K. Maxwell, XI. 1(>9- 


Outline of historv of , E. M. Merewether, XXIII. 


Dodd, John. 

A few ideas on the probable origin of the hill tribes of 
Formosa, IX. (><)-<S4 : X. 195-211. 

A (ilinij)se at the manners and customs of the Hill tril>os 
of Xorth Formosa, XV. ()9-7<S. 

I )og 

Account of creation of , W. G. Maxwell, XLVI. 


Douglas, K. S. 

A journey into the interior of Borneo to visit the Kalabit 
tribes, (with sketch-map), XLIX. 53-62. 

Draco fiuibriatus 

Nesting of . II. X. llidley, XL1V. 22). 


Habits of , 11. X. Iiidlev, XXXV. 105. 


Vocabulary of Dusun language of Kimanis, XXX. 1-29. 


The in Perak, W. E. Maxwell, X. 215-268A. 

The in Perak, \V. K. Maxwell. X and Q, II. 31. 

■ occui)ation of the Dindings, &c. bv YV. E. Maxwell, 

XL 169-170. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 19 

Dutch East Indies 

Extract from * Truhncis Record ' concerning articles ap- 
pearing in Bijdragen, X. I., XIX. 14!)-].*>0. 


Mengap The Song of the Dvak Head feast, Rev. J. Per- 
ham, II. 12o-l :{,>. 

IVtara or Sea Dvak Cods. Rev. J. Perham, VIII. 1^3- 

Peligion of Sca-Dvaks hv Rev. J. Perham, X. 213-2-1;*; 

XI V. 2S7-304. ' 

Klieng's War-raid to the Skies hv Rev. J. IVrham, 
XVI. 2G.V2SS. 

Contents of a Dvak Medicine chest. Rev. (J. F. Hose, i>.n., 

xxx ix. <>:>-; o. 

The Sea-Dyak legend. Rev. Edwin II. Comes., XEl. 
Another Sea- Dvak legend. Rev. E. H. (ionics, XLV. 1 1- 


Ceremonies in Pregnane v and child-l)irth. Rev. W. 

Howel, XLV I. 12.V1.H. 
Bark Canoes among Jakuns and Dvaks, Dr. W. L. Abbott, 

XLIX. 10SM10. 


Silk and cotton 1>\ Malavs, W. W. Skeat, 

xxxvi il. d>;;-i;j;. 


in the Malav Peninsula, II. X. Ridlev, XXV. 169- 


Eeonomie Plants 

Xo ti . s on . X. Cantlev, XVIII. 2<)o-Xtt. 

Elitm, .1. H. 

Malay Chess (with plate), XLIX. 87-92. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51, 1909. 

20 INDEX. 


Modi's of sitting in driving an , W. K. Maxwell. 

X and (J. I. 10 

Management of - , \V. K. Maxwell, X and Q, II. 

The Malav Howdah, W. K. Maxwell, X and (J. IT. 52. 

Rate of speed of , k A. J. L.,' X' and Q. II. 58-59. 

See Mantra Gajah. 


Report on Padi-borer, L. Wray Junior, XIX. 73-82. 

Report on Ponieloe moth, L. Wray Jr., XIX. 7;>-82. 

Report on destruction of coconut palms hv beetles, H. X. 
Ridley, XX. 1-11. 

Sphingidae of Singapore, Lieut. II. J. Kelsall, XXII. 

On habits of Caringa (Formica gracilipcs (Jrav), II. X. 
Ridley, XXII. :M5-:S47. 

Xote on Coconut- beetles, A. Hale, XXII. 12!). 

Mosquito larvae in pitchers of Xepenthes, Xote on. 

H. X. Rildey, XXII. AIM). 
Large beetle caught in pitcher of Xepenthes. XXV. 17 2. 
Bird-dropping spider in Johore, H. X. Ridlev, XXV. 


Stick-insects destroying orchids, H. X. Ridley, XXVI. 

Hyblea puera ('ram, H. X. Ridley, XXXI. HU-105. 

On a remarkable dipterous larva, R. S. Shelford, 
XXXIII. 25(5-257. 

On a male specimen of Purlisa giganteiis, Dist: R. S. 
Shelford, XXX II I. 2^-2^8. 

On a female of Oodona elvira, Stand, R. S. Shelford. 
XXXI II. 25S-2(J1. 

Butterflies of Mt. Penrisseii Sarawak, R. Shelford, 
XXXV. 2<J-12. 

Jour. Straits Branch 




Note on Condvlodera tricondvloides (West) in Borneo, 
If. Shelford, WW. <>!»-; L 

Calogramma f estiva (Walk), II. X. Ifidlev, WW. 

List of Insects from lit. Kinalmlu Borneo. If Hanitsch, 

xxxiv. ;twS4. 

Notes on millepedes. Centipedes. Scorpions, \c. of Malay 
Peninsula and Siani, ('apt. Stanley S. Flower, 
XXXVI. 1-48. 

lfambong Beetle, H. X. lfidley, XXXVI. i;i8-l;W. 

llvmenoptera from Sarawak, I*. Came: on. WWII. 
>.>-l 10; XXXIX. S!>-lsi : XI- IV. !i:M(5S. 

Krrata. XLI. 121. 

Fourth contribution on llvmenoptera from Sarawak, 
I*. Cameron. 

Parthenogenetie breeding of Kurwnema I lerciilanea 
(charpentier). If. Hanitseh, XXXVIII. :J5-:5S. 

Malav Tiger Beetles. II. X. Ifidlev, XXXVIII. 12!>-l:il. 

A swarm o[' Butterflies in Sarawak, If. Shelford, 
XXXIX. 2o,V*o|. 

List of Butterflies of Borneo, If. Shelford, Part I, XLI. 
Sl-111; Part II, XLV. 8«M20; Knata. XLV1. 2G-L 

llvmenoptera from 1 (a tiles Museum Singapore, P. Caine- 

ron, XLI. 119-1*:$. 
New species of Iphiaulax and Chaolta from Sarawak, 1\ 

Cameron, XLI I. 23-51. 
Krrata, XLIV. 2*8-230. 
New species of (halcis from Borneo, P. Cameion, XLI I. 

*:$-:> 1. 
A wasp attacking a leaf-mining caterpillar, II. X. Ifidlev, 

XLIV. 22;-**S. 
Xote on Collvris eniargiiiatus Dej., If. Shelford, XLV. 


R. A. Soc. f No 51, 1909* 

22 INDEX. 


Nesting of Si Ik- weaving ants, K. Slid ford. XEY. 284- 


New species of llvmcnoptera from Borneo. V. Cameron, 
NEY1IL. l-2(>/ 

Two new species of Cieindcla from Borneo, Dr. \V. 

Horn, L. 99-102. 
The Crackling Moth, H. X. Hidley, E. 109-110. 


Useful minerals in Sarawak, I. 13-30. 

Note on above, IE 229-231. 

Notes on (iuliga of Borneo, IV. 5G-58. 

The Tiger in Borneo, V. ETi-l(>0. 

Beport on Exploration of Caves of Borneo, VI. 2<3-28?. 

A list of the Birds of the Bornean group of Islands with 
maps, XX. 91-212. 

Eudromias veredus 

in Singapore, \V. Davidson, XXI 11. 147-148. 

Eurvcnema hereulanea 


Parthenogenetic breeding of , If. Hanitsch, 

XXXV HI. 35-38. 

Explore; s 

Mints on Reconnaissance for in unsurveyed coun- 
tries, prepared bv the Intelligence De])artment of the 
War Office, XXVI. 2<>;-218. 

Fi:i{(Jis()X, A. M. Jin. 

Notes illustrating the changes which consonants under- 
go in passing from one Malavan dialei-t to another, 
XI I. 233-214. 


Eist of of Malav Peninsula, IE X. liidlev. E. 1-59. 


■ comparative vocabulary, VI1E lu'2-lo9. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 23 

FlKMsTONI?, H. W. 

Chinese names of streets and places in Singapore and 
the Malay Peninsula. XUI. .5:5-208. 

Index by Tan Kee Soon. XLVI. 1<>:>-213. 

See Knight. 


List of from Mt. Kinahalu Borneo, K. Hanitseh, 

XXXIV. 75-76. 

Fishing industry 

of Krian and Kurau Perak, A. T. Dew, XXIII. 


Flowkr, Captain Stanley S. 

Notes on the Millipedes, Centipedes, Scorpions, &c. of 
the Malav Peninsula and Siam, XXXVI. 1-48. 



Probable origin of Hill Tribes of , John Dodd, 

IX. (W-84: X. 11)5-211. 

North , manners and customs of the hill-tribes of, 

.1. Dodd. XV. (W-; 8. 

(iallus violaceus 

Notes on , H. .1. Kelsall. XXV. 17:). 


(Geography of Malay Peninsula, A. M. Skinner, (with 
Maps),' I. 52-<>2. 

(iengrapliiial Notes, A. M. S., II. 222-225; III. 132-133. 

Some account of the Independent Native States of Malav 
Peninsula. Sir F. Swettcnham, VI. ltfl-202. 

Ac< mint of journey across the Malay Peninsula from 
Koh Lak to Mergui, A. Keith, XXIV. 31-41. 

Notes on Siamese provinces Koow Bangtaphan Patcro 
and Champoon (immediately north of Isthmus of 
Kra), A. Keith, (with map), XXIV. t>3-78. 

R. A- Soc., No. 51, 1909. 

24 INDEX. 

Geology and Mineralogy 

Notes on Distribution of useful minerals in Sarawak, 
A. Hart Everett, I. 13-30. 

Note on above, A. II, E., U. 229-231. 

Metalliferous formation of Peninsula, I). 1). Dalv, II. 

The Mining Districts of Lower Perak, J. Errington tie la 
Croix, VII. 1-10. 

Stone Age in Perak, A. Hale, III. G2. 

Stone implement found in Singapore, H. X. llidlew 
XXIII. 141-142. 

On the Patani (with map), Win. Cameron, XI. 123-142. 

Stream tin deposits of Perak, Kev. J. E. Ten i son-Woods, 
XIII. 221-240. 

Mines and Miners in Kinta Perak, A Halo, XVI. 303- 


r lhe Borneo Coalfields, Kev. J. E. Ten ison- Woods, X and 
<J, III. 81-8T. 

Alleged discovery of mercury in Malacca. Dr. W. Holt, 

l.c.s.. xxiv.* ;9-s2. 

Diamonds in Malav Peninsula. H. X. P., XXIV. 1()<>- 


Toj)ograj)hv and Geology ohsorvod during trip across 
Johoie, Harry Lake. XXVI. 19-24. 

Notes on fossil tooth from Ban Cpper Sarawak, H. S. 
Shelford, XXXI 1. 21S-219. 

Earthquake in Malav Peninsula. H. X. Pidlev, XXV. 

Se;* * Springs.* 

( icsneiaccae 

The of Malav Peninsula. II. X. Pidlev. XLIV. 1- 


Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 25 

Gharu. (Kayu) 

Xotcs o„ , R. \. Bland, XVI IF. .V,0-;W1. 

Pantanu: (Jaharu, 1>. F. A. Ilervey, X and Q, I. 8-9. 
(Jam and ( handan, II. N. Ridlcv, XXXV. 7 .'5-82. 


'1 he White handed , (\ Boden Kloss, L. 19-80. 

(J hosts 

Supposed evil influence of , A. 1). Machado, 

XXXIX. *os-2(>:). 

(J oat 

Wild of Malay Peninsula. H. Xonnan. XLV. 2»9. 

(Jomks, Ri:v. Edwin II. 

Two Sea-Dyak Upends, XLI. 1-29. 

Another Sca-Dyak legend, Pi:laii£r-£ana and how he came 
to he woishippcd on Karth. XLV. 11-8:5. 


On the fi'stilisalion of , II. X. Ridley, XLIV. 22S- 

■» V • ' • 

( i rasses 

— and Sed«res of Malav Peninsula, H. X. Ridlev, 

xxiii. i-;n. 

— and Scdjres of Borneo. II. X. Ridlev, XLVI. 215- 



of Sultans of Perak, Stia Bijava di Raja. XLVI 1 1. 


(Jl'KUITZ, K. P. 

British Xorth Borneo (pap; i r rem I at British Association 
1SH-L XIV. im-XK. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. 190?. 

26 INDEX. 

Guliga (Bezoar Stone) 

Notes on of Borneo, A. Hart Everett, IV. 56-58. 

Gunong Tahan 

Attempt to reach . Capt. H. J. Kelsall, XXV. 32- 


Trip to , J. Waterstradt, XXXVII. 1-27. 


Gutta and Caoutchouc in the Malay Peninsula, H. J. 
Murton, I. 106-107. 

Xotes on Gutta-percha and Caoutchouc-yielding trees, 
F. W. Burbidge with remarks by W. T. Treacher, 
III. 52-59. 

Postcript to above, H. .1. Murton, III. 59-61. 

Correction to above, IV. 61. 

Xative names of Getah, 1). F. A. Hervey, VIII. 159-160. 

Gutta-produeing trees, Leonard Wrav Jr., XII. 20 N 

Xotes on Economic plants, N. Cant ley, XVIII. 307. 
See Rubber. 

IIali:, A. 

On the mines and miners in Kinta Perak, XVT. 303- 

The Stone Age in Perak. III. 62. 

Sang Kalembai, X and Q. III. 63. 

The title 'Sang/ X and <>, III. 64. 

Legend of ' Toh Panglima Cliapar of Kinta,' X and Q, 
III. S1-S3. 

Kvidenee of Siamese work in Perak, XVIII. '^>^^. 

Xote on Coconut beetles, XXII. 12!). 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 27 

Han men, 1?. 

An expedition to Mount Kina Bnlu British North 
Borneo (with lists of mammals, birds, reptiles, am- 
phibians, fishes, mull usee and insects collected and 
four plates — two of reptiles), XXXIV. 49-88. 

Notes on flving-flog, Khacophorus nigropalmatus, 

xxxiv. 96-97. 

On the Parthenogenetie breeding of Eurvenema Her- 
eulanea (Charpentier), XXXVIII. 35-38. 

On a collection of coins from Malacca (with two plates), 
XXXIX. 183-202. 

On a second collection of coins from Malacca (with plate) 
XLIV. 213-216. 

Tin and Lead coins from Brunei (with plate), XLIX. 


Hare, G. T. 

The game of Chap-ji-ki, XXXI. 63-71. 
The Waiseng Lottery, Publication No. 1. 

ILvssKi/r, m.a., L. Van 

The object and results of a Dutch expedition into the 
interior of Sumatra in the years 1877, 1878, 1879, 
(translation from French by H. X. Bland), XV. 39-50. 

Further note, XVI. 415-417* 
IT a re; 1 1 ton, H. T. 

Landing of Kafflcs in Singapore bv an eve-witne3S, X. 


The Berik-le:ik or Baterik, X and Q, II. 39. 

Notes on names of places in the Island of Singapore 
and its vicinity, XX. 75-82. 

Native names of Streets in Singapore, XXIII. 49-65. 

Boriah, XXX. 312-313. 

Havil-wd. (*. Y. 

Xoles on an infant maias. XXVI. 2(M-2<X>. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. IW 


28 INDEX. 

Haynes, H. S. 

A list of Brunei-Malay Words, XXXIV. 39-48. 

Haynes, T. H. 

English, Sulu and Malay vocabulary, with Notes and 
additions. bv W. K. Maxwell, XVf. 321-384; XVI II. 

Hellier, M. 

Notes on the Malav Game 'Jongkak' (with plate), 
XLIX. 93-94. 

Henicurus Ruficapillus 

Nest and eggs of , H. J. K(elsall), XXIV. 170. 

Hervey, D. F. A. 

Trip to Gunong Blumut with vocabulary of Camphor 
Language, III. 85-115. 

Endau and its tributaries (with map), VIII. 93-124. 

Itinerary from Singapore to source of the Sembrong and 
up the Madek, VIII. 125-132. 

Additional Notes, IX. 1(57-1(58. 

Klonwang and its caves (translation). VIII. 153-158. 
Native names of get ah and rotan, VIII. 159-1(50. 
Pantang Kapur of the Madek Jakun, IX. 107. 
Stone from Batu Pahat, IX. 168-170. 
The Mentra Traditions, X. 189-194. 
Batu Kodok (legend concerning rock in old Singapore 
Straits), XI. 1(57. 

Prigi Acheh (tradition concerning well on Joho:e coast), 
XI. 1(58. 

Malacca in the eighteenth century (translation of Ma- 
lacca Dutch records), XII. 202-2(57. 
Kembau, XIII. 241-258. 
Pantang Cjaharu, X and Q, I. 8-9. 
Sumatran mawas. X and Q, 1. 10-11. 
Signs and Omens, X and Q, I. 18-19. 

}o:ir. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 2 9 

Her\ey, D. F. A. 

Legends of Petrified ships, X and Q, II. 38-39. 

Malacca Legends of Xakhoda Pagam, X and Q. if. 40-14. 

Penang Legends of Xakhoda fiagam, X and Q, IT. -J4-IC>. 
Hewitt, John 

Account of three snakes, XLV. 282-283. 

See Hose Dr. Charles and J. Hewitt. 

Shamsu '1-Bahrain, XLVII. 

Raja Budiman, Puhlications 2 and 3. 


Geography of Malay Peninsula (with maps), A. M. 
Skinner, I. 52-62/ 

Two Pcrak manuscripts, W. E. Maxwell, II. 183-103. 

History of Pcrak from Xatiye source*, W. E. Maxwell, 
IX.85-103; XIV. 305-321. 

The Dutch in Perak. \Y. E. Maxwell, X. 245-2(>8. 

Outline history of British connection with Malaya, 
A. M. Skinner, X. 2(>9-280. 

Outline of history of Dindings. E. M. Mcrewether, 
XXI 1 1. 35--H. 

Early Indo-Chinese Influence in the Malay Peninsula, 
(\ Otto Blagden, XXVII. 21-50. 

Address on the Straits Settlements and Malav Peninsula 
deliyeied Ik 1 fore the Indian Society hv Mr. J. A. 
Kruijt. XXVIII. 19-51. 

At man Sungei Ijong, \\. X. Bland. XX VI 1 1. 53-72. 

Relations l>etween Southern India and the Straits Settle- 
ments, A. \Y. S. O'Sullivan, XXXVI. (JT-TL 

A Buddhist Votive Tablet, ('. O. Blagden, XXXIX. 

R. A. Soc.. No. 51. 190). 

30 INDEX. 


Old Sanskrit Inscriptions, Prof. H. Kern, XLIX. 05- 

See Dutch, Malacca. 

Horn, Dr. Walter 

Two new species of Cieindela (Tiger Beetles) from 
Borneo, L. 99-102. 


A naturalist's visit to Selangor, III. 12-1-125. 

Hose, Dr. Charles 

Various methods of computing time for planting among 
the races of Borneo, XLII. 1-5 and 20i). 

Hose, Dr. Charles and J. Hewitt. 

On tally-sticks and strings in Borneo, XLIX. 7-10. 

Hose, G. F., d.d., Bishop of Singapore, Laruax, and 

Inaugural address 1878, I. 1-12. 

Presidential address 18T9, II. 1-4. 

Presidential address 1880, IV. xix-xxn. 

Buins of Boro Budur in Java, VI. 203-223. 

A Catalogue of the Ferns of Borneo and some of the 
adjacent Islands which have been recorded up to the 
present time, XXXII. 31-84. 

List of ferns of Penrissen, Sarawak, XXXIII. 24-26. 

The contents of a Dvak medicine chest, XXXIX. 65-70. 

Howell, (.Rev. William) 

Dvak ceremonies in pregnane v and childbirth, XLVI. 


Chinese lotterv, C. W. S. Snevd Kvnnerslev, XVI. 


Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 31 

Hyblaea puera, (Cram.) 

H. X. Kid ley, XXXI. 104-105. 


from Sarawak Muslim, P. Cameron, XXXVI I. 

29-140; XXX IX. 89-181. 

from Raffles Museum, Singapore, P. Cameron, XLI. 


Errata, XLI. 124; XLiV. 93-168. 

Fourth contribution on of Sarawak, P. Cameron, 

XLVI. 103-123. 


Human among the orang mantong, Dr. Abbott, 

XLI. 128-129. 


to Logan's Journal of the Indian Archipelago, 

bv X. Dennvs, XVI II. 335-344. 

to the Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal 

Assiatic Society, Volumes I. to XXXI., XXXI. 153- 
1 90. 

to Names of Streets and Places in Singapore, by 

Tan Kee Soon, XLVI. 195-213. 


Southern and the Straits Settlements, A. W. S. 

O'Sullivan, XXXVI. 67-74. 

Indo Chinese 

Nationalities of Indo-Chinese region, Extract from 
Quarterly Review, XVI. 417-421. 

Indo-Chinese influence in the Malay Peninsula, C. 
Otto Blagden, XXVII. 21-56. 

Malayan Element in some of languages of Southern 
Indo-China, C. O. Blagden, XXXV11I. 1-27. 


Numerals, 11. J. Wilkinson, XXVIII. 99-103. 

R. A. Soc, No. si. 1909. 

32 INDEX. 

Ipoh Tree 

Perak, Note on. VIII. 11>1. 

Iitvixu, ('. .1. 

Suggestion regarding new Malay Dictionary, II. 199-204. 


Kuins of Boro Budur, Bishop Ho^e. VI. 203-213. 

The System, A. M. Skinner, XL 155-166. 

A Tiger Hunt in , XII. 269-281. 

Origin of British treaty with in 1811, Letter from 

X. Trotter, XIX. 151-152. 


By H. A. O'Brian, XIV. 337-343, Map at end of XV. 

J oh ore 

Trip to Gunong Blumut, I). F. A. Hervey, III. 85-115. 
The Endau and its tributaries (with map), D. F. A. 
Hervev, VIII. 93-124. 

Itinerary from Singapore to source of the Sembrong 
and up the Madek, VIII. 125-132. 

Additional Note, IX. 167-168. 

Johore, W. E. Maxwell, X~ and Q, I. 10. 

Seals of and Pahang in 1819, W. E. Maxwell, X 

and Q, IV. 114. 

Journey to the source of the Indau, H. W. Lake, XXV. 
1-9. * 

Rare bat hawk in Johore, H. J. Kelsall, XXV. 171- 

Journey on the Sembrong lliver from Kuala Indau to 
Batu Pahat bv H. W. Lake and H. J. Kelsall, k.a., 
with lists of mammals, birds and plants collected and 
note on topography and geology, XXVI. 1-33. 

Camphor tree and camphor language of Johore, H. W. 
Lake and H. J. Kelsall, h.a., XXVI. 35-56. 

Flora of Ml. Ophir, H. N. Ridley, XXXV. 1-28. 

Tour. Straits Branch 

1NDKX. 33 


A Pvthon, C. Bodcn Kloss, XLV. 281-282. 

Pare leathcrv turtle in waters, V. Hoden Kloss, 

WAX. G3-Gr>. 


Malay (iame , M. Hellier, XLIX. 93-94. 

Journal of Indian Archipelago (Logan's) 

Index to l)v X. Dennvs, XVIII. 335-344. 


Address to Queen. 

of Penang Mahoinmedans 188? (Malay Text), 

XVI II. 3G0-3G8. 

of Perak Raiyats, XVIII. 3G9-3U. 

of Perak Penghulus, XVIII. 371-3i5. 

Kkaxk, A. H. 

Malayan Antiquities, X and Q, III. 88-91. 


Translation of extract from Marong Mahawongsa, W. E. 
Maxwell, IX. 88-89. 

A Buddhist Votive Tablet, C. 0. Blagden, XXXIX. 205- 


and mv trip to Gunong Tahan, J. Waterstradt, 

XXX VII. 1-27. 

Keiidixg, F. 

Extracts from Xotes on Sultanate of Siak by II. A. 
llymans van Anroij, XVII. 151-15?. 

Sumatra in 1886 (Statistics concerning), XVII I. 345- 

Kkitii, Dn. A. 

Anatomical Xotes on Malay Apes, XXI II. 77-89 (with 
diagrams and illustrations). 

R. A. Soc., No. si, 1909. 

34 INDEX. 

Keith, Dr. A. 

An account of a journey across the Malay Peninsula 
from Koh Lak to Mergui, XXIV. 31-11. 

Xotes on the Siamese Provinces of Koowi, Bangtaphan, 
Pateeo and Champoon (with map), XXI V. 63-78. 

Kelham, Captaix H. R., 74th Highlanders. 

Ornithological Xotes made in the Straits Settlements 
and in the Western States of the Malay Peninsula 
(extract from Ibis), IX. 109-140; XL 1-29; XII. 

Kelsall, Lieut: H. J., k.e. 

Xotes on a trip to Rukit Ktam Selangor, XXIII. 07- 
75, (with notes by H. X. Ridley on plants collected). 

Account of a trip up the Pahang, Temheling and Tahan 
Rivers and an attempt to reach Gunog Tahan, XXV. 

Description of a new species of Jungle fowl said to come 
from Borneo, XXIV. 167-168. 

A large Mias in Singapore by H. J. K., XXIV. 168-169. 

Xote on Xest and Eggs of Xyctiornis amicta, XXIV. 

Xest and Eggs of Henicurus rufieapillus Temm, XXIV. 

On the occurrence of the rare Bat-hawk in Johore, XXV. 

Xotes on Gallus violaceus, XXV. 173. 

List of Jakun names of persons, XXVI. 57. 

H. \\\ Lake and 11. J. KelsalTs Journev on the Sembrong 
River, XXVI. 1-33. 

H. W. Lake. and H. J. Kelsall, Camphor Tree and Cam- 
phor Languages of Johore, XXVI. 35-56. 


Caringa (Formica gracilipes (Jrav) on the habits of, H. 
N. Ridley, XXII. 345-347. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 35 


Note on, H. X. Ridley, XXIII. 147. 

Kkkn, Pkof. H. 

Concerning some old Sanskrit inscriptions in tlie Malay 
Peninsula, (Translation of extract from De Vcrslagen 
en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademic van 
Wetenschappen Div. Lit. Series, 111. Pt. I), XL1X. 


The Story of — - , G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 27-57. 


Ascent of Mt. and journev from Tuaran to Kiau, 

R. M. Little, XIX. 1-25. 

Expedition to Mt. with lists of collections, R. 

Hanitsch, XXXIV. 49-88. 

Kinta (Perak) 

On Mines and Miners in , A. Hale, XVI. 303- 



's War-raid to the Skies, Dvak nivth, Rev. J. 

Perham, XVI. 265-288. 

Kloss, (C. Boden) 

Pratincola maura (Pall), XLiV. 225-226. 

Xotes on a cruise in the Southern China Sea, XLI. 53- 

The new Sumatran Pig. Sus oi of the Rio-Linga Archi- 
pelago (with 3 plates), XLV. 55-60. 
Erratum, XLVI. 264. 

Some birds of Tiuman Island, XLV. 280-281. 

A Johore Python, XLV. 281-282. 

Malavan Musical Instruments, XLV. 285-287. 

Errata, XLVI. 264. 

R. A. Soc, No. SI. 1909. 

36 INDEX. 

Kloss, (C. Boden) 

Notes on capture of a rare leathery turtle ( Dermoehelys 
coriaeea) in .Johore waters (with three plates), XLIX. 

Malayan Pigs. A recent Zoological paper, G. 8. Miller's 
Notes on Malayan Pigs, XLIX. 67-69. 

Some visits to Batam Island, L. 61-71. 

Some Ethnological Notes, L. 73-77. 

The White-handed Gibbon, L. 79-80. 
Knight, A. 

Singapore weather in 1885, XVI. 435-436. 

Sacred fire, X and Q, III. 79-80. 

Chinese names of streets, XLV. 287-288. 

Koknig, Dk. J. G. 

Journal of a voyage from India to Siam and Malacca in 
1779, XXVI.' 58-201, XXVII. 57-133. 

Kiuyt, J. A. 

Address by, delivered before the Indian Society on ' The 
Straits Settlements and the Malay Penisula/ XXVIII. 

and Payah Kun, W. G. Maxwell, XLVI. 25-26. 


The District Perak, X. Denison, XVIII. 34!)- 


Kyxnersley, C. W. Sneyd 

A description of the Chinese lottery known as Hua-hoev, 
XVI.. 203-250. 

Notes on a Tour through the Siamese States on the 
West Coast of the Malav Peninsula 1900, XXXVI. 

Allen Maclean Skinner,, In Memoriam, XXXVT. 

Notes of visits to Puket, Ghiibec and Trnng, XI, II. 7-18. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 37 


in Malay Peninsula, H. X. Ridlev, L. 105-107. 


Sec British Borneo l>v \Y. T. Treacher. XX. 1:3-74; XXI. 

Malacca , Mrs. Bland (with four plates), XLV. 

4 I O-iC i i . 

La Ckoix, (.1. KititiNciTON do) 

The Mining Districts of Lower Perak (with map), VIT. 

Laidlaw, G. M. 

Malav Stories, English and Romanised Malav, XLV I. 

The Storv of Kerudin. 

Pa' Senik and his son-in-law Awang. 

The Baboon IV Si' Bagok and the (Jirl. 

A Pelandok Tale. 

Pelandok and other Stories, English and Romanised 

Malav, XLVI1I. 27-90. 

the Pelandok, his adopted son and Pa' Si' Bago\ 

The Story of five men who stole the King's daughter. 

Mat Janin. 

Pa' Pandir. 

The Pelandok and Kotan cutters. 

How the Bear lost his tail. 

The rich man, the poor man and the way the Pe- 
landok squared the score. 

Lakk, II. W. 

A Journev to the sources of the Indau, XXV. 1-9. 

and H. J. Kelsall, n.A. A Journey on the Sem- 

brong River from Kuala Indau to Batu Pahat, with 
list of mammals, birds and plants and note on topog- 
raphy and geology, XXVI. 1-33. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. 1909* 

38 INDEX. 

Lake, H. W. 

and H. J. Kelsall, k.a. The Camphor Tree and 

Camphor Language of Johore, XXVI. 35-56. 

Land Tenure 

Malav , \V. E. Maxwell, XIII. 75-220. 

French land decree in Cambodia, W. E. Maxwell, XV. 

Land Regulations Xorth Borneo, XV. 158-163. 

Land tenure in Xorth Borneo, X and Q, II. 58. 

Feudal land tenure in Dutch East Indies in 17th centurv, 
W. E. Maxwell, XVI. 436-438. 

Land revenue system, X^ and Q, IV. 130-131. 

Pulau , W. G. Maxwell with map, XIX. 27-33. 


H. A. O'Brien, XI. 143-153. 

Further notes on , H. A. O'Brien, XII. 283-285. 

Extract from Forbes' Xaturalists' Wanderings in the 
Eastern Archipelago, XIV. 445-446. 

Lekch, H. W. C. 

About Kinta, IV. 21-33. About Slim and Bernam, IV. 

Lkxnon, Capt. W. C. 

Journal of voyage to Molucca Islands, VII. 51-74. 


Catalogue of books in of S. B. E. A. S., January 

1884, XII. xxi-xxxi. 

Gifts to , XVII. 159-160. 


The Family, N and Q, IV. 115-116. 

Memoir of Capt. Francis ,,, A. M. Skinner, 

XXVI11. 1-17. 

Jour. Straits F ranch 

INDEX. 39 


Cases of discharge, G. E. V. Thomas, XXXIII. 


Conductors, G. E. V. Thomas, XL1V. 217-222. 


See Kloss. 

Little, (R. .M) 

Report on a journey from Tuaran to Kiau and ascent of 
Kinahalu Mountain, XIX. 1-25. 

Lister, Hox'ble Marti x 

The Xegri Sembilan. Their origin and constitution, 
XIX. 35-53. 

Malay law in Xegri Sembilan, XXII. 297-319. 

Pantang Larang of Xegri Sembilan, XXIII. 142-144. 

The Putri of Mount Ophir, XXIV. 165-166. 

A Malav Lullabv, XXV. 174. 

Lister, r l lie Jlon'ble Martin 

In Mcmoriam, XXX. x.v. 

Singapore (plate), X. B. Dennys, IX. 163. 

Loo ax, J. R. 

Memorandum on various tribes inhabiting Penang and 
Province Welleslev, VII. <S3-92. 


Plan for a volunteer Police in the Muda districts Pro- 
vince Wclleslev submitted to Government bv the late 
J. R. Logan in 1867, XVI. 173-202. 

Sketch or (areert)f , .1. T. Thomson, VII. 75-81. 

Index to Logan's Journal of Indian Archipelago, by X. 
Dennys, XVIII. 335-344. 

Lo Max Yt'K. 

Chinese names of Streets in Penang, XXXIll. 197-246. 

R. A Soc., No. 51. 1909. 

40 INDKX. 

Low, Sir Hugh 

Selesilah (Book of Descent ) of the Rajas of Brunei, V. 

Luerino, Rev. H. L. E. 

A vocabulary of the Dusun Language of Kimanis (Brit- 
ish North Borneo), XXX. 1-29. 

The Sakai dialect of the Ulu Kampar, Perak, XXXV. 

Notes on the formation of words in Malay and cognate 
languages, XXXIX. 19-37. 

Machado, A. D. 

The hot-springs of Ulu Jelai (Pahang), XXXIII. 263- 

A Vocabulary of the Jakuns of Batu Pahat, Johore to- 
gether with some remarks on their customs and pe- 
culiarities, XXXVIII. 29-33. 

On the supposed evil influence exercised bv ghosts in 
the Malav Peninsula, XXXIX. 208-209. 


Some records of Malav , \V. W. Skeat XXXI. 1-6 

Mahoniad Ali, ( Haji) 

Statement of a Mahommcdan of Arabic extraction 

born in the Island of Hainan China regarding Mh- 
hommedans in China. IX. IGo-lGG. 

Mai as 

A large Mias in Singapore bv H. J. K(elsall), XXIV. 

Xotes on an infant Maias bv G. F. Haviland. XXVI. 

SindbacPs old man of the sea, \Y. (J. Maxwell, L. 91-9."). 


Journal of vovajre to Moluccas, ('apt. \Y. C. Ixuinon, 
VII. 58-70.' 

Jour. Straits Rranch 



Stone used in building fort of , D. F. A. Hervcv, 

IX. 168-170. 

in the 18th centurv, D. F. A. Hervev, XII. 262- 


Valentyn's Description of , XIII. 49-74B; XV. 

119-138; XVI. 289-301; XVII. 117-149; XXII. 225- 
246 (with map). 

Armenian inscription in church at , X and Q, II. 


Inscriptions in St. Paul's Church, E. M. Merewether. 
XXXIV. 1-21. 

Attack bv Rhio Malays on in 1784, See ' Raja 

Haji/ XXI. 173-224. 


Thermal springs of , Dr. Bott, XXIV. 43-62. 

Alleged discovery of mercury in , Dr. W. Bott, 

XXIV. 79-82/ 

The Putri of Mount Ophir, M. Lister, XXIV. 165-166. 

Journal of vovage from India to Siam and in 1779, 

Dr. J. G. Koenig, XXVI. 58-201; XXVII. 57-133. 

Cultivation of rice in , C. O. Blagden, XXX. 


The Put ii Gunong liedang, R. J. Wilkinson, XXXII. 

Coins from , R. Hanitsch, XXXIX. 183-202. 

On a second collection of coins from , R. Hanitsch 

(with plate), XLIV. 213-216. 

Lace, Mrs. Bland (with 4 plates), XLV. 273-277. 

Basket making at Tanjong Kling with five plates, 

Mrs. Bland, XLYL 1-8. 

R. A. Soc.. No. 51. 1909. 

42 INDEX. 


See 4 Romanising/ Proverbs, Camphor-language, Latah. 

Malav Customs and Amusements. 

A Malay Xautch, F. A. Swettenham, II. 163-167. 

Chiri (formula recited at installation of Chiefs), W. E. 
Maxwell, X. 287-289. 

Medicine, \Y. E. Maxwell, X and Q, I. 23-24. 

Daun tiga ? lei, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, J. 24-23. 

Daun tiga 'lei, M. S., X and Q, II. 57. 

Fighting dress of Malavs, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IT. 

Biith ceremonies in Perak, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, 
III. 74-79. 

' Ketiar,' W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 97-98. 

Panjat, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q ? IV. 118-120. 

Ceremonies at Seedtime, A. \Y. S. O'Sullivan, XVI LI. 

r l lie cultivation of rice in Malacca, (Malay 1 text — Roman- 
ised — bv Inche Muhammad Ja'far. Translation bv (\ 
0. Blagden), XXX. 2-5-304. 

Boriah, H. T. Haugliton, XXX. 312-313. 

Election and Installation of Yam Tuan of Negri Sem- 
bilan, E. W. Birch, XLV1. 9-22. 

Gravevards of the Sultans of Perak, Stia -Bijava di 
Raja, XLVIII. 97-106. 

Malav Chess, .1. B. Elcum, XL1X. 87-92. 
Jonjrkak, Malav Game. M. Hellier, XLIX. 93-94. 
Notes and Queries. \V. K. (Maxwell), XLIX. 108. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 43 

Malay Language and Literature. 

Two Perak Manuscripts, \V. E. Maxwell, II. 183-193. 

Suggestion regarding new Malav Dictionary, C. J. Irv- 
ing, II. 199-204. 

Malay-English Dictionaries, L. C. B., II. 239. 

Changes in consonants in different Malav dialects , 

A. M. Ferguson, XII. 233-244. 

Note on criticisms of Faure's Dictionarv bv Devic and 
Marre, W. E. Maxwell, XII. 257-259. 

Malay language and literature, R. Rost, XV. 93-101. 

The Malay Howdah, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, II. 52. 

On the roots of the Malav language, J. Pijnappel, XVI. 

Botanv and Malay Names of Plants bv Rev. B. Scorte- 
chiiii, XVI. 413-415. 

The title Sang, A. Hale, X and Q, III. 64. 

Malav words of Portuguese origin, W. E. Maxwell, N 
and Q, III. 64-70. 

Malav titles in Clu Perak, \Y. E. Maxwell, X and Q, 
III. 70. 

Malay Fairy tales, Sri Rama, Malay text and English 
translation, W. E. Maxwell, XVII. 86-115. 

Malays, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 98. 

Pagar, \V. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 98. 

Temikei ; Mendikei Kamendikei, \Y. E. Maxwell, N. 
and Q, IV. 98. 

Jalibut, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 99-100. 

Cockup, \Y. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 100. 

(talgal. \Y. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 100. 

Jam, \Y. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 101-102. 

The Crocodile, H. Clifford, X and Q, IV. 123. 

Malav Fairv tale. Raja Donan, Malav text and English 
translation, \Y. E. Maxwell, XVIII. 240-269. 

R. A. Soc.. No. 5i. 1909. 



44 INDEX. 

Malay Language and Literature. 

Raja Ambong fairv tale with English translation, W. E. 
Maxwell, XIX. 55-71. 

A new collection of Malav proverbs, Hugh Clifford, 
XXIV. 87-120. 

A Malay lullaby, M. Lister, XXV. 174. 

Malay plant names (Malav-Latin), H. X. Ridlev, XXX. 

Malay plant names (Latin-Malay), H. N. Ridley and C. 
Curtis, XXXVIII. 39-122. 

Account of oldest Malav manuscripts (with facsimile and 
extracts), Rev. W. G. Shellabear, XXXI. 107-151. 

The name Malayu, C. 0. Blagden, XXXII. 211-213. 
Bikin, W. Conlay, XXXII. 217. 

List of Brunei-Malay words, H. S. Haynes, XXXIV. 

. The evolution of Malav spelling, Rev. W. G. Shellabear, 
XXXVI. 75-135. 

Malayan Element in some of the languages of Southern 
Indo-China, C. 0. Blagden, XXXVIII. 1-27. 

Formation of words in Malay and Cognate languages, L. 
E. Luering, XXXIX. 19-37. 

Dr. Brandstetter's Malayo-Polynesian Researches, an 
appreciation, C. 0. Blagden, XLII. 211-216. 

Kun and Payah Kun, W. G. Maxwell, XL VI. 25-26. 

The story of Kherudin, G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 27-57. 

Pa Senik and his son-in-law Awang, G. M. Laidlaw, 
XLVI. 59-64. 

The Baboon, Pak Si Bagok and the Girl, G. M. Laidlaw, 

XLVI. 65-71. 
A Pelandok Tale, G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 73-102. 
Hikaiat Shamsu'l-Bahrain, XLVII. 

Pelandok and other stories, English and Romanised 
Malay, G. M. Laidlaw, XLV1II. 27-96. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 45 

Malay Language and Literature. 

Curriculum of Course of Malay in Paris, L. 81-83. 

Spada, W. G. Maxwell, L. 97-98. 

The Hikaiat Raja Budiman, H. Clifford. 

Malav Text — Publication No. 2. 

Translation — Publication Xo. 3. 

Malav Law 

Maritime Code of Malavs, Sir Stamford Raffles, TIL 
62-84; IV. 1-20. 

Further Xote, III. 143-144. 

Malay Land Tenure, W. E. Maxwell, XIII. 75-220. 

The Menangkabau Code, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, II. 

Slavery law, W. E. Maxwell, XXII. 247-297 with Malay 

Malav law in Xegri Sembilan bv Hon. Martin Lister, 
XXII. 297-319. 

Pantang Larang of Xegri Sembilan, M. Lister, XXIII. 

Aturan Sungei Unjong by R. X. Bland, XXVIII. 53-72. 

Constitution of Negri Sembilan, E. \V. Birch, XLV1. 

Malay Legends and Traditions 

Folklore of Malays, W. E. Maxwell, VII. 11-29. 

Xotes on the folklore and popular religion of the Malays, 
C. 0. Blagden, XXIX. 1-12. 

Xotes and queries (Malav folklore), R. J. Wilkinson, 
XXX. 305-311. 

Prigi Acheh, D. F. A. Hervey, XL 167. 

Batu Kodok, D. F. A. Hervey, XL 167. 

Sumatran Mawas, D. F. A. Hervey, N and Q, I. 10-11. 

Malay folklore, D. F. A. Hervey, N and Q, I. 18-19. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51, 1909. 


46 INDEX. 

Malay Legends and Traditions 

Legend of Changkat Rambian, W. E. Maxwell, N and 
Q, I. 19-22. 

Nakhoda Ragam, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, I. 22. 

Malacca Legends concerning Nakhoda Ragam, D. F. A. 
Hervey, N and Q, II. 40-44. 

Penang Legends concerning Nakhoda Ragam, D. F. A. 
Hervey, N and Q, II. 44-46. 

Legend of Petrified ships, D. F. A. Hervey, N and Q, II. 

Legend of Toh Kuala Bidor, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, 
II. 47-48. 

Legend of Kerbang Aji, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, II. 

Legend of Pulau Tunggal, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, II. 

Origin of Orchids, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, II. 51. 

Sang kalcmbai, W. E. Maxwell, II. 51. 

Sang kalembai, A. Hale, III. 63. 

Legend of 'Toh Panglima Ghapar of Kinta, A. Hale, 
N. and Q, III. 81-83. 

The Raja of the Bamboo, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, IV. 

The Prince or Princess? of the Bamboo, Japanese folklore 
concerning, W. K. Maxwell, XV II I. 357-358. 

The Putri of Mount Ophir, M. L., XXIV. 165-166. 

The Putri Gunong Ledang, K. J. Wilkinson, XXXII. 

Golden Flowers, H. X. Ridley, XXXII. 214-215. 

Some mouse-deer tales, H. V. Winstedt, XLV. 61-69 . 

An account of the creation of the dog, \Y. G. Maxwell, 
XLV1. 23. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 47 

Malay Legends and Traditions 

The story of Kherudin (English and Romanised Malay), 
G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 27-57. 

Pa Senik and his son-in-law Awang (English and Ro- 
manised Malay), G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 59-64. 

The Baboon, Pak Si Bagok and the girl (English and 
Romanised Malay), G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 65-71. 

A Pelandok Tale (English and Romanised Malav), G. M. 
Laidlaw, XLVI. 73-102. 

Pelandok and other tales (Romanised Malav and Eng- 
lish), G. M. Laidlaw, XLVIII. 27-96. 

Miscellaneous Notes, W. E. Maxwell, XLIX. 103-107. 

Father Civet (with romanised version), R. 0. Winstedt, 
L. 85-90. 

Malay Religion and superstition 

A Malay Kramat, W. E. Maxwell, II. 236-238. 

A Tiger's Walk, III. 139-140. . 

Shamanism in Perak, W. E. Maxwell, XII. 222-232. 

Signs and Omens, D. F. A. Hervev, X and Q, I. 18-19. 

Ganju, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q,* I. 22-23. 

The Berik-berik, H. T. Haughton, X and Q, II. 39. 

Mantra Sandaran, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, II. 46-47. 

Magic circle, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, II. 49. 

Malay superstition, G. C, X and Q, II. 53-54. 

Sacred Fire, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, III. 79-80. 

Pelas Xegri, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, III. 80-81. 

Mantra, \V. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 124-126. 

Belief in spirits and demons, W. E. Maxwell, X" and Q, 
IV. 126-130. 

Some records of Malay Magic, W. W. Skeat, XXXI. 1- 

On the use of the slow lorfe in Malay medicine, H. N. 

Ridley, XXXIV. 31-34. 

R. A. Soc.. No. 5i> 1909. 

48 INDEX. 

Malay Religion and superstition 

A Pulau Tiunian Superstition, W. Conlay, XXXIV. 101. 

On the supposed evil influence of ghosts, A. 1). Machado, 
XXXI X. 208-209. 

Malay Witchcraft, H. Marriott, XXXIX. 209-210. 

Hunting Invocations, R. X. Bland, XLII. 19-22. 

Mantra Uajah, W. E. Maxwell, XLV. 1-53; XLIX. 71- 

See Camphor language. 

Outline of history of British connection with , 

A. M. Skinner, X. 269-280. 
Malaya antiquities, A. H. Keane, X and Q, III. 88-91. 


The name , C. 0. Blagden, XXXII. 211-213. 


See ' Elephant/ ' tiger/ maias. 

Sumatran mawas, I). F. A. Hervey, X and Q, I. 10-11. 

Tupaia, frugivoious habits of, H. X. Ridlev, XXI II. 


Tupaia Habits of, H. X. Ridley, XLV. 2T9. 

A large mias in Singapore, H. J. Kelsall, XXIV. 168- 

Xotes on an infant Maias, (}. F. Haviland, XXVI. 

List of mammals recorded from Pahang, H. X. Ridley, 
XXV. 57-65. 

List of mammals collected or observed during trip on 
Sembrong River Johore, H. J. Kelsall, XXVI. 16-17. 

White-winged bat in Singapore, H. X. Ridley, XXXL 


An Insectivorous Squirrel, H. X. Ridley, XXXII. 217. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 49 


List of mammals collected on Mt. Penrissen Sarawak, R. 
S. Shelford, XXXIII. 9-10. 

List of mammals from Mt. Kinabalu Borneo, R. 
Hanitsch, XXIV. 68-69. 

The Sumatran Rhinoceros, H. X. Ridley, XXXV. 

Mus surifer in Perak, A. L. Butler, XXXVI. 137. 

Sus oi, C. Boden Kloss (with 3 plates), XLV. 55-60. 

Erratum, XLV I, 264. 

Pen-tailed Tree Shrew in Selangor, H. C. Robinson, 
XLIV. 224-225. 

Wild goat of Malay Peninsula, H. Norman, XLV. 279. 

Cruise in Southern China Sea, C. Boden Kloss, XLI. 

Malayan Pigs, C. Boden Kloss, XLIX. 67-69. 

The White handed Gibbon, C. Boden Kloss, L. <9-80. 

Bats in a bamboo, H. X. Ridley, L. 103-104. 


in Borneo (witch-doctors), Rev. J. Perham, XIX. 



Human images among the orang , Dr. Abbott, 

XLI. 128-129. 


Sandaran, W. E .Maxwell, X and Q, II. 46-47. 

, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, IV. 124-126. 

Gajah, W. G. Maxwell, XLV. 1-53; XLIX. 71- 



Malayan Peninsula, T. Moniot 1862, I. 52-62. 

Malay Peninsula 1878, I. 52-62. . -- 

R.A. Soc., No. 51. 1909* 

50 INDEX. 


Plan of Pcra River, Capt. Thomas Forest, I. 52-62. 
Outline of the Malav Peninsula, VI. 161. 

Plan of the Kinta District with Geological section, J. 

Errington de la Croix, VII. 1. 
The Endau and Sembrong Rivers .Tohore, D. F. A. 

Hervey, VIII. 125. 
of Petani and Sketch of mines, W. Cameron, 

XI. 123. 

Sketch of journev across Malav Peninsula from 

K. Bernam to K. Pahang, F. A. Swettenham, XV. 38. 

Sketch survey of Sungei Triang Jelehu, XV. 173. 

of Pulau Langkawi, XIX. 34. 

of Palawan and adjacent islands, XX. 212. 

Xiewe Kaart van het Evland Sumatra verheterd door 
Francois Valentvn (includes the Peninsula), XXII. 

Sketch map of Siamese Provinces Koowi, Bengtaphan, 
Pateeo and Champoon, also showing route from Koh 
Lak to Mergui, XXIV. 79. 

Sketch map of Batam District Sarawak showing Kalabit 
Country, XL1X. o(j. 

Marong Mahawangsa 

Translation of extract from , W. E. Maxwell, IX. 


Makriott, H. 

Malav Witchcraft, XXXIX. 209-210. 

Maxwell, W. E. Sin 

Malay Proverbs, I. 85-98; II, 136-162; III. 19-51; XL 

Notes on two Perak manuscripts, II. 183-193. 

A Malay Kramat, II. 236-238. 

Antiquities of Province Wellesley, I. 114. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 51 

Maxwell W. E. Sir 

Aboriginal tribes of Perak, IV. 46-50. 

Folklore of the Malav*, VII. 11-29. 

A Journey on foot to the Patani frontier in 1876 being 
a Journal kept during an expedition undertaken to 
capture Datoh Maharaja Lela of Perak, IX. 1-67. 

Ceremonies when shooting rapids, X and Q, IV. 124. 

The Historv of Perak from Xative sources, IX. 85-108; 
XIV. 305-321. 

On the transliteration of Malav in the Roman character, 
IX. 141-152. 

The Dutch in Perak, X. 245-268 A. 

Notes to memorandum upon Malav Transliteration, X. 

The Chiri ( formula recited at installation of Malay 
Chiefs), X. 287-289. 

Dutch occupations of the Dindings, XI. 169-170. 

Shamanism in Perak, XII. 222-232. 

Notes on criticisms of Fa lire's Dictionary bv Devic and 
Marre, XII. 257-259. 

The Law and Customs of the Malays with reference to 
the tenure of land, XIII. 75-220. 

Titles and offices of the officers of the State of Perak, N 
and Q, I. 6-8. 

Ophir, X and Q, 1. 8. 

Johor, X and Q, I. 10. 

Modes of sitting in driving an elephant, N and Q, I. 10. 

Legend of Changkat Rambian, N and Q, I. 19-22. 

Nakhoda Ragam, X. and Q, I. 22. 

Ganju, X and Q, I. 22-23. 

Medicine, X and Q, I. 23-24. 

Daun tiga 'lei, X and Q, I. 23-24. 

French Land Decree in Cambodia, XV. &L-92. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51, 199. 

52 ISDEX. 

Maxwell W. E. Sir 

Review of ' Work and Adventure in New Guinea 1ST7- 
1885 T by Rev. J. Chambers and Rev. W. W. Gill, XV. 

Perak and Penang in 1829, X and Q, II. 29-30. 

Visit of Lord William Bentinek to Penang in 1828, N 
and Q, II. 31. 

The Dutch in Perak, X and Q, II. 31. 

Management of Elephants, X and Q, II. 32-36. 

Menangkabau Code, X and Q, II. 36-38. 

Mantra Sandaran, X" and Q, II. 46-47. 

Legend of Toll Kuala Bidor, X and Q, II. 47-48. 

Gelagah nasi, X and Q, II. 48. 

Serawa langut, X and Q, II. 48. 

Magic circle, X and Q, II. 49. 

Legend of Kubang Aji, X and Q, II. 49-50. 

Legend of Pulau Tunggal, X and Q, II. 50-51. 

Sang Kalembai, X and Q, II. 51. 

Origin of Orchids, X and Q, II. 51. 

The Malay Howdah, X and Q, II. 52. 

Fighting dress of Malays, X' and Q, II. 53. 

Xotes to Sulu vocabulary bv T. H. Havnes, XVI. 321- 


Feudal tenure in the Dutch East Indies in the 17th 
centurv (extract from Plakaatboek bv Van der Chijs), 
XVI. 436-438. 

Rembau, X and Q, III. 63. 

Letter of King of Achin to James II., X and Q, III. 

Malay words of Portuguese origin, X* and Q, III. 64-70. 
Malay titles in Flu Perak, X and Q, III. 70. 
Birth ceremonies in Perak, X and Q, III. 74-79. 
Pelas Negri, N and Q, III. 80-81. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

IKPEX, 53 

Maxwell W. E. Sir 

Sri Kama A Malav Fairy Tale founded on the Kama- 
vana. Malav text and English translation, XVII. 

Ketiar, X and Q, IV. 97-98. 

Malays, X and Q, IV. 98. 

Pagar, X and Q, IV. 98. 

Tcmikci, Mcndikei, Kamendikei, X and Q, IV. 98. 

Jalibut, X and Q, IV. 99-100. 

Cockup, X and Q, IV. 100. 

Ualgal, X and Q, IV. 100. 

Jam, X and Q, IV. 101. 

English trade with Perak, X and Q. IV. 103. 

The founding of Singapore, X and Q, IV. 104-113. 

Seals of Johore and Pahang in 1819, X and Q, IV. 114. 

Senna, X and Q, IV. 116-118. 

Panjat, X and Q, IV. 118-120. 

Mode of earning loads, X and Q, IV. 121. 

The Kaja of the Bamboo, X and Q, IV. 121-123. 

Mantra, X and Q, IV. 124-12(3. 

Belief in spirits and demons, X and Q, IV. 126-130. 

Kaja Donan a Malav Fairv Tale, Malay text and English 
translation, XV 111. 240-269. 

The survey question, translation of i The Survey question 
in Cochin-China bv M. Camouillv from Bulletin des 
Etudes Indo-Chinoises de Saigon,* XV III. 271-294. 

The Prinee or Princess of the Bamboo, (Keferencc to 
Japanese folklore concerning), XVIII. 357-358. 

Pulau Langkawi with map, XIX. 27-33. 

Kaja Ambong A Malay Fairy tale (with Malay text and 
English translation), XIX. 55-71. 

Journev from Province Wellesley to Selaina in 1874, 
XIX. 120-123. 

R. A Soc., No. 51. IW 

54 INDEX. 

Maxwell W. E. Sir 

Raja Haji (Romanised Malay poem on attack on Malacca 
hv Rhio Malavs in 1784 and translation from Xet- 
seller's Twee Belegeringen van Malacca), XXII. 173- 

Hie law relating to slavery among the Malays with ex- 
tracts from the Perak Code of laws relating to slavery 
(Malay text and translation) and extracts from Ma- 
layan laws of Johore bearing on slavery, XXII. 24:7- 

The Ruling family of Selangor, extract from Selangor 
Administration Report for 1889, XXII. 321-329. 

Maxwell, Sir W. E. 

In Memoriam, XXXII. ix-xii. 

Maxwell, W. (j. 

Mantra Gajah, XLV. 1-53; XLIX. 71-8G. 
An account of the creation of the dog, XL VI. 23. 
Kun and Payah Kun, XLYI, 25-26. 
Miscellaneous Xotes, XLIX. 103-107. 
Notes and Queries, XLIX. 108. 
Sindbad's Old Man of the Sea, L. 91-95. 
Spada, L. 97-98. 


, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, I. 23-24. 

Influence of breath in healing, G. H., .X and Q, IV. 

Senna, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, IV. 116-118. 
On the use of slow loris in Malay medicine, H. X. Ridlcv, 
XXXIV. 31-34. 

Contents of a Dyak medicine chest, Rt. Rev. G. F. Hose, 
d.d., XXXIX. 65-70. 

at Botanic Gardens Singapore, H. N. Ridley, XLVI. 


Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 55 


See Wild Tribes. 


Alleged discovery of in Malacca, Dr. W. Bott, 

XXIV. 79-82. 

Merewether, E. M. 

Outline of the history of the Dindings from the 17th 
century to the present time, XXIII. 35-47. 

Inscriptions in St. Paul's Church Malacca, XXXIV. 


Journey across the Malay Peninsula from Koh Lak to 
, A. Keith, XXIV. 31-41. 


Meteorological Returns Singapore, I. 119; II. 241; III. 
145; X. 290. 

Notes on Rainfall of Singapore, J. J. Wheatley, VII. 

Further notes on the rainfall of Singapore, J. J. 
Whcatlev, XV. (>l-(>7. 

Straits meteorology, A. M. Skinner, XII. 245-255. 

Meteorological Return for Singapore 1841-1845, XV. at 

Mcterological Report Straits Settlements for 1885, 
Dr. T. Irvine Howell, XVI. 385-412. 

Singapore weather in 1885, XVI. 435-436. 

Metzueh, Emil 

Rock pictures in New Guinea, X and Q, III. 91-95. 

Mkyer, Dk. A. B. 

's ' Negritos/ Review of, R. N. Bland, XXXIV. 


R. A. Soc., No. 51, 1909. 

56 INDEX. 

Miklucho-Maclay, (N. von) 

Dialects of the Melanesian Tribes in the Malay Peninsula 
(translated), T. 38-44. 

Ethnological excursion in Malay Peninsula, Xov. 2874 
to October 1875, II. 205-221." 


Journal of voyage to , Capt. W. C. Lennon, VII. 


Montano, (Doctor J.) 

Report on a mission to the Philippines and e Malaisie ' 
1879-1881. Review of, Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 
XV. 139. 


larvae in pitchers of Nepenthes, Note on, H. N. 

Ridley, XXII. 430. 

Muller, (Professor) 

Review of Pardo de Tavera's Essay on the alphabets of 
the Philippine Group, XVII. 157-158. 

Murton, H. J. 

Notes on Gutta Caoutchouc in the Malay Peninsula, I. 

Postscript to Notes on Gutta percha, &c, III. 59-61. 

Oriental proposed collection of instruments, liter- 
ature, &c. to be deposited in Oxford University, XVI. 

Illustrated Catalogue of Musical Instruments in Sarawak 
Museum, R. Shelford, XL. 

Malayan Musical Instruments, C. Boden Kloss, XLV. 
285-287 ; Errata, XLVI. 264. 

Nakhoda Ragam 

, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, I. 22. 

Malacca Legends concerning , I). F. A. Hervey, N 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 57 

Nakhoda Ragam 

and Q, II. 40-44. 

Pcnang Legends concerning , D. F. A. Hervey, X 

and Q, II. 44-46. 

Native States 

See Siani. 


, W. E. Maxwell, III. 71. 

Xewbold (Capt. T. J.) 23rd Madras Light Infantry. 
Biographical memoir of, (extract from ' Bombay 
Times and Journal of Commerce 5. 6. 50/ XIX, 

Negri Sembilan 

Pabei Pass Rambau, II. 227-229. 
Rambau, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, III. 63. 
Negri Sembilan currency, R. N. Bland, XVIII. 356- 

The Negri Sembilan, their origin and constitution, 
M. Lister, XIX; 35-53. 

Malay law in , Hon. Martin Lister, XXII. 297- 


Pantang Larang of , M. Lister, XXIII. 142-144. 

Aturan Sungei Ujong, R. N. Bland, XXVIII. 53-72. 

Election and Installation of Yam Tuan of , E. W. 

Birch, XLVI. 9-22. 

See History. 

Pigmies, A. De Quatrefages, XI. 83-120. 

Mosquito larvae in pitchers of , XXII. 43U. 

J^arge beetle caught in pitcher of , XXV. 172. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. 1909- 

58 INDEX. 

New Guinea 

Keview of book on by Rev. J. Chambers and W. W. 

Gill, W. E. Maxwell, XV. 145-154. 

Rock pictures in , Emil Metzger, N and Q, III. 


New Zealand 

comparative vocabulary, VIII. 162-169. 

Nordenskjold Professor 

Reception of, IV. xxii-xxv. 

Nobman, Henry 

Note on the Wild Goat of the Malay Peninsula, XLV. 


See Hanitsch. 

Nyctiornis amicta 

Note on Nest and Eggs of , H. J* alphabets Y« 

169-170. ' r 


Obituarv Notices 

The Hon'ble H. A. O'Brien, XXX. xiy ~ 
Martin Lister, XXX. xx. 
Reinhold Ernest Rost, XXX. xix. 
Hn. Vaughan Stevens, XXX. xxi. 

Sir \Y. E. Maxwell, k.c.m.g. by C. W. S. K., XXXII. 

Dr. X. B. Dennvs bv H. X. Ridlev. XXXV. 106-107. 

■ » « 

Allen Macleane Skinner, c.m.g. bv (\ W. S. Kvnnerslev, 
XXX VI. 139-140. 

Mr. Arthur \Y. S. O'Sullivan by R. X. Bland, XLI. 1. 
O'Bkikx, H. A. 

Latah, XL 14:M5:5. 

Further notes on Latah, XII. 383-28"). 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 59 

O'Brien, H. A. 

Jelebu, XIV. 337-343 (Map at end of XV.) 

An old minute by Sir Stamford Raffles, XXIV. 1-12. 

O'Brien, the Hon'ble H. A. 
In Memoriam, XXX. xix. 


, W. E. Maxwell, I. 8. 

The Putri of Mount , M. Lister, XXIV. 165-ltifi. 

Putri Guong Ledang, It. J. Wilkinson, XXXII. 213-214. 

Flora of — , II. X. Ridley, XXXV. 1-28. 

Origin of , W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, II. 51. 

Destruction of bv Stick-insects, H. X. Rtdlev, 

XXVI. 204. 

Xew Malav , II. X. Ridley, XXXIX. G5-70. 


Ornithological notes made in S. S. and Western States 
of I Vn insula, ('apt. II. R. Kelham (from Ibis), IX. 
NM.M40: XI. 1-21): XII. K 1-205. 

Are cockatoos carnivorous? X. B. Pcnnvs, X and Q, I. 

Xotes on some birds from IVrak, R. Bowdler Sharpe 

(extract from Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1880), XVIII. 


On a second collection of birds from IVrak, R. B. 
Sharpe (extract from Proc Zool. Soc. I.ond. 1887), 

XIX. 125-H1. 

List of birds of Borneo, A. H. Everett with maps, 

XX. IU-212. 

Birds collected in IVrak, R. R. Sharpe, XXI. 1-18. 

Collecting expedition to Mountain of Batang I'adang 
(IVrak), L Wrav Jr.. XXI. 12;M<>5. 

R.A. Soc.. No. 51. I90Q. 

60 INDEX. 


Description of new Jungle fowl said to come from Bor- 
neo, II. J. Kelsall, XXIV. 107-168. 

Notes on Gallus violaeeus, H. .1. Kelsall, XXV. 173. 

Note on nest and eggs of Xvctiornis amicta, H. J. K.„ 
XXIV. 169-170. 

Xest and eggs of Henicurus Ruiicapillus, H. J. K 
XXIV. 170. 

Rare Bat-hawk in .lohore, H. J. Kelsall, XXV. 171- 

List of birds collected and observed during trip across 
Johore, H. J. Kelsall, XXVI. 17-19. 

Birds. in the Botanic Gardens Singapore, H. X. Ridley, 
XXXI. 73-89. 

Remarks on Rhinoceros Hornbill and other birds men- 
tioned in Mr. KidlevV paper. A. L. Butler, XXXII. 

Birds on I.arut Mills IVrak, A. L. Butler, XXXI I. 9-:*0. 

Birds of La rut Hills. A. L. Butler (addendum to last 
paper), XXXI V. 99. 

List of birds collected on Mt. IVnrisscn Sarawak, R. S. 
Slid ford, XXXIII. 10-21. 

Habits of Drongo, H. N. Ridley, XXXV. 105. 

The short-eared owl in Singapore, H. N. Ridley, XXXV. 

Cruise in Southern China Sea, C. Boden Ivloss, XLI. 

Xew wood-pecker in Selangor, II. ('. Robinson, XL1V 

Prntim-filii niaura (Pall), V. Boden Kloss, XLIV. 225- 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 6 1 


Xesting of the little grev wood-pecker, H. X. Ridley, 
XLIV. 22<>-22T. 

Some hirds of Tiunian Island, C. Boden Kloss, XLV. 

(VSvlliyax. A. W. S. 

Malay Ceremonies at Seedtime, XVI II. 'M\2-M:k 

The relation hetween Southern India and the Straits 
Settlements, XXXVI. lil-M. 

O'Sullivan, A. \Y. S. 

In Memoriam, H. X. Bland, XLI. 1. 


Short-eared in Singaj>ore, H. X. Ridley, XXXV. 



Malav Ceremonies at Seedtime, A. \V. S. O'Sullivan, 

XVIII. :i<;2-:w:>. 

Report on Padi-horcr. L. Wrav Jr., XIX. 7:5-82. 

Methods of computing time for planting in Borneo, 

Dr. Charles IIosc. XLI I. K> and WK 

Sec liite. 
Pagan Races of Malay Peninsula. Blagden ami Skeat. 

Review of . II. X. Ridley, XLIX. l-o. 


Kota (ilanggi. NY. Cameron. IX. l^-KIO, 

Journal of Journey across the Malay Peninsula (with 
maps). F. A. Swettenham, XV. 1-37. 

Seals of Johore and in 1811), \Y. K. Maxwell, X and 

Q. IV. 114. 

Journal of trip to , \Y. Davidson. XX. 83-00. 

R. A. S«c., No. si, 1909. 

6 2 INDEX. 


Trip up Pahang, Tembeling and Tahan ttivcrs and at- 
tempt to reach Gunong Tahan, H. J. Kelsall, XXV. 

Trip to Gunong Tahan, J. Waterstradt, XXXVII. 1-27. 
Vegetation of , H. N. Kidley, XXV. 49-56. 

List of Mammals recorded from , H. X. Ridlcv, 

XXV. 57-65. 

An unexplored corner of , W. Bertrand Roberts, 

XXXII. 1-8. 

The hotsprings of I'lu Jelai, A. D. Machado, XXXIII. 

A Pulau Tinman superstition, W. Conlay, XXXIV. 101. 

Trip to Gunong Benom, W. 1). Barnes, XXXIX. 1-10. 

See Historv. 

Pantang Kapur 

Sec Camphor language. 

Pa Scnik 

and his son-in-law Awang, G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 



On the (with maps). Win. Cameron, XL 123-142. 

Expedition to Pong, Patani from Selama. Perak, A. T. 
Dew. XIX. 105-12(1. 


Breeding , X. B. Dennys, Ph. 1)., I. 31-3T. 

Furtlier Notes. 111. 140-143. 

Breeding and Bacteria in Pice, X. B. Dennvs, N" 

and Q, 1. 12-13. 


A tale, G. M. Laidlaw, XLVI. 73-102. 

|our. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 63 


Some mouse-deer tales, 1L 0., XLV. G1-G9. 
and other tales, U. M. Laidlaw, XLVlll. 27-96. 


of the Malav Peninsula, H. N. Kidley, XXXI. 



Journal of Voyage to Moluccas, ('apt. W. C. Ixmnon, 
VII. 53-57. 

Memorandum on various tribes inhabiting Penang and 
Province Wellcsley, .1. K. Logan, VII. 83-92. 

Ancient Settlement in , ('. J. Skinner/ X and Q, 

I. 6. 

Perak and in 1829, W. E. Maxwell, X and Q, II. 


Visit of Lord William Kentinck to in 1828, W. E. 

Maxwell, X and Q, II. 31. 

The Light family, X and Q, IV. 115-116. 

Address in Malay of Mahommedans of to the Queen 

at Jubilee 1887, XVIII. 366-375. 

Catalogue of flowerirg plants and ferns found wild in 
Penang Island, C. Curtis, XXV. G7-163. 

Botanists of Penang, H. X. Kidley, XXV. 163-167. 

Memoir of Captain Francis Light, A. M. Skinner, 
XXVHI. 1-17. 

Chinese names of streets in Penang, Lo Man Yuk, 
XXXIII. 197-246. 

See Proviee Wellesley. 


Ascent of Bujong Malacca, II. 225-227. 

Xotes on the Perak manuscripts, W. E. Maxwell, II. 

R. A Soc., No. 51. tW. 

64- INDEX. 


Survey report on Tin LVrak, II. S. Deane. III. 1:55-13;). 

About Kinta, H. W. (\ U'cch, IV. 21-3:$. 

About Slim and Bernam, II. \V. (\ I^eex-h, IV. 34-45. 

Aboriginal Tribes of Perak, W. E. Maxwell, IV. 4(5-50. 

From Perak to Slim and down the Slim and Bernam 
Uivers, Sir. F. A. Swcttenham. V. 51 -(58. 

The mining districts of Lower Perak. .1. Errin^rton tic la 
Croix, VI l. 1-10. 

Note on Ipoh tree in . VI II. 161. 

.Journey on foot to the Patani Frontier in 187(5, W. K. 
Maxwell, IX. l-(n. 

Jlistorv of from Native sources, W. K. Maxwell. 

IX. 85- ins : XIV. 305-321. 

Perak Salsila or book of descent, translation of extracts 
from, W. E. Maxwell, IX. 515-108; XXIV. 305-321. 

The Dutch in , \Y. E. Maxwell, X. 245-20XA. 

Shamanism in . \Y. E. Maxwell, XII. 222-232. 

New mountain seen in , F. A. Swetteiiliam. XII. 


Stream tin deposits of , Hew .1. K. Tennison- Woods 

XIII. 221-240. 

»lourncv to the summit of (iiutumj Jhtlm bv I Jew J. K 
Tennison- Woods. XIV. 2 j 5-285. 

Titles and offices of the officers of , W. E. Maxwell, 

X and Q, J. (5-8. 

Legend of Changkat Kambian, \V. E. Maxwell, X and 
(J, I. 19-22. 

and Penang in 1.S29, \V. E. Maxwell, X and Q, 11. 


The Dutch in , W. E. Maxwell, X and i). 11. 31. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 65 


Legend of Toh Kuala Hidor, W. K. Maxwell, X and Q, 
Ii. 4;-48. 

Legend of Kertang Aji, \Y. E. Maxwell, X and Q, 11. 

legend of Pulau Tunggal, \V. K. Maxwell, X and Q, 

I I . 5U-3 1 . 

On Mines and Miners in Kinta, A. Hale, XVI. 303- 

Malav titles in 1'lu , \V. K. Maxwell, X and Q, 


Birth ceremonies in , \V. K. Maxwell, X and Q. 

III. U-1\). 

Pelas Xcgri, W. K. Maxwell, X and Q, III. 80-81. 

Legend of 'Toh Panglinia (tliapar of Kinta, A. Hale, 
X and <J, III. 81-83. 

English trade with , W. K. Maxwell, X and Q. IV. 


The Kurau District, X. Dcnisou, XVIII. 34H-352. 

Notes on birds from — , H. Howdler Sharpe, XVIII. 


Xotes on a second collection of birds from , It. 

B. Sharpe. XIX. 125-141. 

Birds collected in , It. B. Sharpe, XXI. 1-18. 

Evidence of Siamese work in , A. Hale, XVIII. 


Expedition from Selania to Pong, Patani, A. T. Dew, 
XIX. 105-120. 

Jon me v to Selania from Province Welleslev, \V. E. 
Maxwell, XIX. 120-123. 

Collecting expedition to mountains of B^tang Padang, 
L. Wray Jr., XXI. l*3-lbo. 

R A. Soc., No. 51, 1909. 

66 INDEX. 


Extracts from Perak Code concerning slavery, \V. K. 
Maxwell, XX 11. 211-297. 

Fishing industry of Krian and Kurau, A. T. Dew, 
XX II I. 95-112. 

Petrosavia in , II. X. 11., XXIV. 170-K2. 

Birds on Larut Hills, A. L. Butler, XXXII. 9-30. 

Birds of Larut Hills, A. L. Butler (addendum to last 
paper), XXXIV. 99. 

Sakai dialect of Tin Kampar. H. L. E. Luering, XXXV. 

Mus surifer in , A. L. Butler, XXXVI. 137. 

Sakais of Batang Padang, (J. B. (Vrruti, XLI. 113-1 IT. 

(iravevanls of Sultans of Perak, Stia Bijaya di Raja, 
XEV11I. 9M0(>. 

See Geography of Peninsula. 

Pkmiam, Rev. J. 

Mangap the Song of the Dyak Mead feast. 11. 125-135. 

Petara or Sea Dyak (Jods, VIII. 133-152. 

Sea Dyak Religion, X. 213-213; XIV. 287-304. 

Klieng's War-raid to the Skies, A Dyak Myth, XVI. 


Manangism in Borneo (witch-doctors), XIX. 87-103. 
Petrosavia in Perak, II. X. P., XXIV. 170-172. 


Review hy Pew .1. E. Tenni son-Woods of Report oil 

hy Dr. J. Montano, XV. 139. 

Review of Pardo de Tavera's Essay on alphabets of 

, Prof. Miiller, XVII I. 157-158. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 67 

Pickkimx^, W. A. 

Chinee Secret Societies, I. 63-84; III. 1-18. 

'CJiai Miii' (Ilokkic-n ' Hoah Hoon'), X and Q, II. 

Pidgin English, 

, X. H. Lennvs, II. 168-1 74. 


, A. de Quatrrfages, XI. 83-120; XIII. 1-48. 

Pj.ix.\ri kl. .J. 

On the roots of the Malav language (from the Dutch), 
XVI. 251-263. 

Plant Names 

'Malav , (Malav-Latin), 11. X. Kidlev, XXX. 32- 


Latin-Malay, H. N. Ridley and C. Curtis, 

XXXVI11. 39-il2. 


Plan for a volunteer police in Muda Districts Province 
Wellesley, J. R. lx>gan, XVI. 173-202. 

Pogonia punctata, Bl. 

in Singapore, H. X. Ridley, XX III, 146-147. 


Report on , L. Wray Jr., XIX. 83-86. 


Malay words of origin, W. E. Maxwell, N and Q, 

Hi. 64-70. 

Pratincola Maura (Pall) *-... 

, C. Boden Kloss, XLIV. 225-226. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. 1909. 

68 INDKX. 

Pri^i Acheh 

I). F. A. Hervev, XI. 10?. 

1 Von vrl >s (Malav) 

. W. K. Maxwell, I. 8WI8: II. i:W-l(52: HI. 1!)-51 ; 

XI. J31-82. 

A new collection of Malav , Hugh Clifford. XX I V. 


Province Welles lev 

Antiquities of , \V. E. Maxwell, I. 114. 

Memorandum on various tribes inhabiting Penang and 

, ,1. H. U)gan, VII. 83-<)2. 

Plan for a Volunteer police in Muda Districts ? 

J. It. Logan, XVI. i;:i-202. 

.Journev from to Selama Pcrak, \V. E. Maxwell. 

XIX. 1*0-123. 

Qiatki:fa(;i:s. A. de 

The Pigmies of Momer, Herodotus, Aristotle. Pliny, &c- : 
the Asiatic Pigmies or Negritos: the Negrillos or 
African Pigmies (h'rst published in Journal (U^ Sa- 
vants 1881 and 1882 now translated f>v J. Erringtou 
«le la Croix). XI. 83-120: XIII. 1-48. " 

Kaitlks, Sih r l\ Stamfokd 

letter from to Colonial Addcnhrookc of 10. o\ l«> 

concerning founding of Singapore, II. 1i.V182. 

Translation of Maritime Code of the Malavs, III. 02-84 ; 
IV. 1-20. 

Further Note, III. 143-141. 

Account by eye-witness of landing of , H. T. 

llaughton, X. 285-28G. 

Landing of in Singapore, Note bv W. II. Head, 

XII. 282-283. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 69 

Raffles, Sik T. Stamford 

An old min u to l>v (eoneerning Singapore), XXIV. 


Rafiles Museum 

Ilvmonoptora from , P. Cameron, XLI. lHM&t. 

Raja Am boii^r 

Malav fairv tale, Malav toxt with Knirlisli translation bv 
\Y. K. Maxwell, XIX. 55-T1. 

Raja Donan 

Malav fairv talo, Malav toxt and Kn«/lish translation hv 
W.' E. Maxwell. XVIII. 240-2W. 

Raja Ilaji 

. \V. K. Maxwell. Romanised Malav jmk.mii on 

attaok on Malaooa l>v Rliio Malavs in li84 and trans- 
lation from Net seller's * r IVoo Helegering van Malaka,' 
XXI. U.V224. 

Rkad, \V. II. 

Xoto upon Landing of Raffles in Singapore, XII. 282- 


Hints on for explorers in unsurveved ooun tries, 

prepared bv the Intolligonoo Department of the War 
Office, XXVI. 207 -2 IS. 


, I). F. A. Hervev, XIII. 241-258. 

, W. K. Maxwell, X and Q, III. 63. 


A note on , Dr. W. C. Brown, XXIV. 83-85. 

R. A. Soc./No. 51, 19C9. 

70 INDEX. 


Flying lizard, X. B. Dennys (plate), IX. 162-163. 

Turtles, X. B. Dennys, X ami Q, 1. 12-13. 

The Crocodile, H. V. (\, X and Q, IV. 123. 

The crocodiles and lizards of Borneo in the Sarawak 
Museum. K. -Bartlett, XXVIII. 73-<>T. 

White snakes in Sclangor ( 1 aves. II. X. Ridley, XXX I. 

llahits of Malav Reptiles (with list), II. X. Ridley, 
XXXII. 185-210. 

List of Reptiles from Mt. Kinahalu Borneo, R. Hanitsch 
(with two plates), XXXIV. 69-75. 

List of Reptiles of Borneo, K. Shelford, XXXV. 43-08. 

Addenda and corrigenda, XXX VI 1 1. 133-135. 

Xote on colour varietv of Coluber oxvcephalus (Boic), 
R. Shelford, XXXV. 71. 

Draco maximus in Selangor, H. V. Robinson, XLIV. 223. 

Nesting of Draco fimbriatus, H.N. Ridley, XLIV. 227. 

A Johore Python, C. Boden Kloss, XLV. 281-282. 

Account of three* snakes, J. Hewitt, XLV. 282-283. 

Rare leathery turtle (Dennochelys coriacea) in Johore 
waters (with three plates), C. Boden Kloss, XLIX. 


The Sumatran , H. X. Ridley, XXXV. 105-106. 


Malays attack Malacca in 1784, See Haji, XXI. 


Rhododendron in Singapore, H. X'. Ridley, XXIII. 144-146. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INPEX. 71 


An account of the cultivation of in Malacca hv C. 

0. blagden, XXX. 285-304. 

Sec Padi. 

Ridley, Henry N., f.r.s. 

Hcport on the destruction of coconut palms by beetles, 
XX. 1-11. 


The Buimanniaceae of the Malay Peninsula, XXII. 321- 

On the so-called Tiger's milk " Susu Kimau ■ of the 
. Malays, XXII. 341-344. 

Susu Hi mau Further Xote, XXXIV. 101. 

On the habits of the Caringa (Formica gracilipes, Grey), 
XXII. 345-34 T. 

Xote pn Mosquito larvae in the pitchers of Nepenthes, 
XXII. 430. 

Note on Matonia Pretinate in the Karimon Islands. 

XXII. 430. 

'lhe (Jrasses and Sedges of the Malav Peninsula, XXIII. 

Plants collected at Bukit Ktam Selangor by II. #1. Kel- 

seii, ilk., xxm. r*-rr>. 

A dav at ( hristmas Island with list of animals and 
plants recorded and bibloigraphy, XXIII. 123-140. 

Oiseo.erv of stone imj)lement in Singapore. XX 11 1. 

On the occurrence of a Hhododendron in Singapore, 

XXIII. 144-14(>. 

Pogonia punctata Bt., in Singapore, XX II I. 146-147. 

r I he Keringga. XXIII. 147. 

Frugivomus habits of Tupaia, XX III. 14«S. 

R. A Soc., No. 51, 1909- 

72 INDEX. 

Hh)ij:y, Hkxky X. 

Diamonds in Malav Peninsula, XXIV. 16(5-167. 

On the occunencc of Pctrosavia in Perak, XXIV. 17<>- 

On the dispersal of seeds by mammals, XXV. 11-32. 

Vegetation of Pahang, XXV. 49-56. 

List of mammals recorded from Pahang, XXV. 57-65. 

The Botanists of Penang, XXV. 163-167. 

Earthquake in the Malaya Peninsula. XXV. 169-171. 

A laige beetle caught in a pitcher of Nepenthes, XXV. 

The bird-dropping spider (Ornithoscatoides) in Johore, 
XXV. 1*2-173. 

List of plants collected by Lake and Kelsall during trip 
across Johore, XXVI. 25-33. 

Note of Camphor Tree, XXVI. 35-39. 

Stick insect destroying orchids, XXVI. 204. 

Malay Plant names, XXX. 32-283. 

Calanthc vestita Lindl. in Selangor, XXX. 311-312. 

Birds in the Botanic (hardens Singapore, XXXI. 73-SO. 

4 he Pel iosant lies of the Malay Peninsula, XXXI. DI- 

4 be white snake of the Selangor caves, XXXI. 99-101. 

Note on precocious coconuts. XXXI. 103-101. 

The white-winged bat in Singapore. XXXI. 101. 

Ilyblea puera Cram. XXXI. 104-105. 

Seitamineae of the Malav Peninsula, XXXII. S5-1S4. 

Some new Kastern (lingers (addendum to last paper), 
XXXIV. 91-99. 

Note on Malayan gingers, XXXIV. 99-100. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 73 

Ridley, Henry N. 

The habits of Malav Heptiles (with list), XXXII. lSo- 


Golden flowers, XXXII. 214-215. 

An insectivorous squirrel, XXXII. 217. 

Xote on plants collected at Penrissen Sarawak hv J{. S. 
Slid ford, XXX III. 22-24. 

The flora of Singapore, XXX 111. 27-196. 

Supplementary notes on the flora of Singapore. XXXV. 

A botanical excursion to (iunong Jerai (Kedah Teak), 
XXXIV. 23-30. 

On the use of the slow Loris in Malay Medicine, XXXI V. 

Dammar and wood-oil, XXXIV. 89-94. 

f lhe flora of Mt. Ophir, XXXV. 1-28. 

(■urn and (Impdan, XXXV. 73-82. 

Calogranima festiva (Walk), XXXV. 82-83. 

Habits of the Drongo, XXXV. 10.*>. 

'1 he short-eared owl in Singapore, XXXV. 10.">. 

The Sumatran Rhinoceros, XXXV. 10.V10t>. 

Hon. Vaughan Stephens. In Meinoriam. 

Kambong Beetle, XXXVI. 138-139. 

Malay Tiger Beetles, XXXVIII. 129-131. 

List of Plants collected by Mr. \Y. 1). Barnes on (Junong 
Bcnom Pahang, XXX IX. 10-18. 

New Malay Orchids, XXXIX. 71-87 . 

A new Balanophora from TenimlnT Islands. XXXIX. 

New Malayan Plants, XL1. 31-:>1 : XUV. 189-211; 

XLIX. U-:»«; L. 111-152. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51, 1909. 

74 INDEX. 

Ridley, Henry N. 

On the flowering of Barringtonia raeemosa, XLI. 125- 
126; additional note, XLVI. 263. 

Fertilisation of Webera stelhilata, XLI. 126-127. 

The Gesneraceae of the Malay Peninsula, XLIV. 1-92. 

The Aroids of Borneo, XLIV. 169-188. 

Nesting of the Little Grey Woodpecker, XLIV. 226-227. 

Nesting of Draco fimbriatus, XLIV. 227. 

A wasp attacking a leaf-mining caterpillar. XLIV. 227- 

On the fertilization of grammatophyllum, XLIV. 228- 

On the expedition to Christmas Island, XLV. 121-155. 
Errata, XLVI. 264. 

The Botany of Christina* Island, XLV. 15(5-271. 

Additional Notes to above, XLVI II. 107-108. 

Habits of the Tupaia, XLV. 279. 

41>e Menagerie at the Botanic Gardens. XLVI. i:i:M!)|. 

Grasses and Sedges of Borneo. XLVI. 215-22$. 

Scitamincae of Borneo, XLVI. 229-246. 

Begonias of Borneo. XLVI. 24; -261. 

Curious nesting place of Simote< octolineatus. XLVI. 

.■w V I f i . 


lT.e Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula by W. W. Skoal 
and C. 0. Blagden (a review), XL1X. 1-5. 

A list of the Kerns of the Malay Peninsula, L. 1-5'J. 
Bats in a Bamboo. L. 10.V10-1. 
The labiates of the Malay Peninsula, L. 105-107. 
The Crackling Moth, L. IOjMIO. 

lour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 75 

H. X. Ridley and C. Curtis 

Malay Plant names (Latin-Malay), XXXIII. 39-122. 

H. X. Ridley and W. W. Skeat 

The Orang Laut of Singapore, XXXIII. 247-250. 
Additional note, XLI. 128-129. 

Roberts, W. Bertrand 

An unexplored corner of Paliang, XXXII. 1-8. 

Robixson, II. C. 

Xote on the occurrence in Selangor of three Vertebrates 
new to the Malay Peninsula, XLIV. 223-225. 

Romanising Malay 

Malay and English spelling, I. 45-51. 

Transliteration of Malay, W. E. Maxwell, IX. 141-152. 

Memorandum upon with notes, W. E. Maxwell, 

X. 282-284. 

Rost, R. 

Malay language and literature (extract from Encyclo- 
paedia Brittanica 1883), XV. 93-101. 

Asiatic studies by Dutch Societies in 1885, XVI. 439- 

Rost, Eknest Reixhold 

In Memoriam, XXX. xix. 


Xative names of , D. F. A. Hervcy, VIII. 1G0. 

Row ell, Dr. T. Irvixe 

Meteorological Report S. S. for the year 1885, XVI. 


Gutta and Caoutchouc in the Malay Peninsula, H. J. 
Murton, I. 106-107. 

R. A. Soc., No. 5L 1909- 

76 INDEX. 


Notes on Gutta-percha and Caoutchouc yielding trees, 
F. W. Burbidge with remark by W. H. Treacher, III. 

Postscript to above, H. J. Murton, III. 59-61. 

Correction to above, IV. 61. 

Native names of getah, D. F. A. Hervey, VIII. 159-160. 

Gutta-producing trees, Leonard Wrav Jr., XII. 207- 

Notes on Economic Plants, N. Cantley, XVIII. 307. 

Kambong beetle, H. N. Ridley, XXXVI. 138-139. 

See Gutta. 


The language, H. Clifford, N and Q, IV. 102-103. 

See Wild Tribes. 


Old inscriptions in Malay Peninsula, Prof. H. 

Kern, XLTX. 95-101. 

Notes on the distribution of useful minerals in 9 

A. Hart Everett, I. 13-30. 

Journal of trip from to Meri 1872, H. Denison, X. 


Ascent of Kinabalu Mt., and journev from Tuaran to 
Kiau, K. M. Little, XIX. 1-25. 

Hvmenoptera from , P. Cameron, XXXVII. 29- 

110; XXXIX. 89-181; XLIV. 93-168. 

Errata, XLT. 124. 

Fourth contribution on Hvmenoptera from , P. 

Cameron, XLVI. 103-123. 

A swarm of Butterflies in , P. She! ford, XXXIX. 


Jour. Strait* Branch 

INDEX. 77 


New species of Iphiaulax and Chaolta (Braconidae) 
from , P. Cameron, XLII. 23-51. 

Errata, XLII I. 229-230. 

See Borneo and British Borneo bv W. H. Treacher, XX. 
13-T4: XXI. 19-121. 

Sarawak Museum 

Xotes upon Fossil tooth from Upper Sarawak, XXXII. 

Notes from , XXXIII. 25(5-259. 

Xotes from , R. Shelford, XXXV. 69-71. 

Illustrated catalogue of Ethnographical Collection of 

Part I, musical Instruments, R. Shelford, XL.; 

Part II, Personal ornaments, XLII I. 

Satow, E. M. 

Essav towards a Bibliography of Siam, XVII. 1-85; 
XV 11 1. UW-189. 

Schmidt, P. \Y. 

4 Die Sprachen der Sakei unci Scmang auf Malacca und 
ihr Verhaltnis zu den mon-khmer Sprachen. 

Abstract, \Y. 1). Barnes, XXXIX. 38-45. 

Review, C. O. Blagden, XXXIX. 4G-G3. 

Scitamincac 4 

of Malay Peninsula, H. X. Ridley, XXXII. 85-184. 

Some new Eastern Gingers, H. X. Ridlev (addendum to 
last paper), XXXIV. 9T-99. 

N'ote on Malavan gingers, H. X. Ridlev, XXXIV. 99- 

of Borneo, H. X. Ridley, XLVI. 229-246. 

R. A. S«c. f No. 51, 1909. 

78 INDEX. " * l 

Scobtechini, Rev. B. 

Note on Botany and Malay (names of plants), XVI. 

Scott, James G. 

PMract from * France and Tongking 9 by , con- 
cerning Annamese Ancestral worship, XV. 164-171. 


Caves at Sungei Batu, D. D. Daly, Til. 116-119. 

Naturalist's visit to Selangor, Wm. T. Hornaday, III. 

Sungei Tata Route, B. D., III. 133-135. 

Ruling Family of , W. E. Maxwell, XXII. 321- 


Trip to Bukit Etam, H. J. Kelsall, r.e., XXIII. 67-75. 

Thermal springs of , Dr. Bott, XXIV. 43-62. 

White snake in caves of , H. N. Ridley, XXXI 



Three vertebrates in new to Malay Peninsula, II 

C. Robinson, XLLV. 223-225. 

See Geography and History. 


legend of white , translation bv W. E. Maxwell 

IX. 95-108. 


in Perak by \V. E. Maxwell, XII. 222-232. 


Hikaiat , XLV1I. 

Shakim:, R. Bowdlek 

Notes on some birds from Perak (extract from Proc. of 
Zoological Society, London, 1886), XVIII. 352-355. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 79 

Sharpe, R. Bowdler 

On a second collection of birds from Perak (extract from 
Proceedings Zoological Society, London, 1887), XIX. 

Birds collected in Perak, XXI. 1-18. 


Xotes from Sarawak Museum, on a fossil tooth found at 
Bau Upper Sarawak, XXXII. 218-219. 

A trip to Mt. Penrissen Sarawak (with lists of mammals 
and birds bv P. S. Sbelford, note on plants bv H. X. 
Ridley and list of ferns bv Bishop Hose), XXIII. 

On a remarkable dipterous larva, XXXI II. 250-257. 

On a male specimen of Purlisa giganteus Dist., XXXIII. 

On a female of Doriona Elvira Staud, XXXIII. 258-251). 

On the system of cataloguing adopted in the Sarawak 
Museum, XXX I II. 259-201. 

A list of the Butterflies in Mt. Penrissen Sarawak with 
notes on the species, XXXV. 29-42. 

A list of the Reptiles of Borneo, XXXV. 43-68. 

Addenda and corrigenda, XXXVIII. 133-135. 

On occurrence of mimetic Locustid ( ( 'onll vlodera tricon- 
dyloides West) in Borneo. 

On a colour variety of Coluber owcephalus (Boie), 
XXXV. ($9-71. 

A swarm of Butterflies in Sarawak, XXXIX. 203-204. 

An illustrated Catalogue of the Ethnographical collection 
of the Sarawak Museum, Part I Musical Instruments, 

Part II Personal ornaments, XLIII. 

R. A. Soc., No. 5ii 1909* 

82 INDEX. 


Further notes on rainfall of , J. J. L. Wheatley, 

XV. 61-67. 

Meteorological Returns kept in 1841-1845 by Capt. 

Elliot, XV. at end. 

— Weather in 1886, XVI. 435-436. 

Notes on names of places in , H. T. Haughton, 

XX. 75-82. 

Native Names of Streets in , H. T. Haughton, 

XXIII. 49-65. 

Native names of streets and places in , H. W. 

Firmstone, XLII. 53-208. 

Index to above by Tan Kee Soon, XL VI. 195-213. 

Chinese names of streets in , A. Knight, XLV. 


Stone implement found in , H. N. Ridley, XXIII. 


Rhododendron in , H. N. Ridley, XXIII. 144-146. 

Pogonia punctata Bl. in , H. N. Ridlev, XXIII. 


Eudromias veredus in , W. Davidson, XXIII. 147- 


Birds in Botanical Gardens at , H. N. Ridley, 

XXXI. 73-89. 

Remarks on birds mentioned by Mr. Ridley, A. L. Butler, 

XXXII. 214-215. 

White-winged bat in , H. N. Ridley, XXXI. 104. 

The Flora of , H. N. Ridley, XXXI11. 27-196. 

Supplemcntarv notes on the flora of , H. N. Ridlev, 

XXXV. 84-90. 

The orang Laut of , W. W. Skeat and H. N. Ridlev. 

XXXIII. 247-250. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX, 83 


Additional note, XL1. 128-129. 

Short-eared owl in , H. X. Kidley, XXXV. 105. 

Skeat, \Y. W. 

A vocabulary of the Besisi dialect, XXIX. 13-31. 

Some records of Malay Magic bv an eve-witness, XXXI. 

Silk and cotton dyeing by Malays, XXXVIII. 123-127. 

Skkat, \Y. \Y. and H. X. Ridley 

The Orang Laut of Singapore, XXXIII. 247-250. 
Additional note, XL1. 128-129. 

Skin nek, A. M. 

Geography of Malay Peninsula (with maps), I. 52-02. 
Xote to al>ove on Siamese titles, 1. 117-118. 

Geographical notes 11. 222-225; 111. 132-133. 

Outline of history of the British Connection with Ma- 
lava, X. 209-280. 


The Java system (review of Essai sur les principes 
regissant ('administration de la .Justice aux Indes 
orientales Hollandaises by Dr. C. 1\ K. Winckel), XL 
155-1 66. 

Straits Meteorology, XII. 245-255. 

Memoir of Capt. Francis Knight, XXV11I. 1-17. 

Skixxek, Allen Macleane 

In memoriam, C. \Y. S. Kynnersley, XXXVI. 139-140. 


Malay law concerning , \V. E. Maxwell, "XXII. 247- 


R. A. Soc., No. 51. 1909. 

84 INDEX. 


Ophiophagus Elaps in Singapore, N. B. Dennvs, I. 99- 

Capture of Ophiophagus Elaps in Klang, B. D., II. 

Note on Ophiophagus Elaps in Kuala Kangsa, Perak, II. 

Snake poisons, X. B. Denny s, IX. 101. 

Python's egg (plate), IX. 101-102. 

Death from snake bites, L. VVray Jr., 111. 72-73. 

The bite of a Pvthon, L. Wrav Jr. 111. 73. 

%j - »■ 

Account of three snakes, J. Hewitt, XLV. 282-283. 

Curious nesting places of Simotes octolineatus, H X. 
Kidlev, XL VI. 203. 


, W. G. Maxwell, L. 97-98. 


The evolution of Malay , Kev. W. G. Shellabear, 

XXXVI. 75-135. 


Bird-dropping in Johore, H. X. Kid ley, XXV. 



Thermal of Selangor and Malacca, Dr. Bott, XXIV. 


The hot-springs of Ulu Jelai, A. D. Machado, XXXIII. 


Insectivorous , 11. X\ Kidley, XXX11. 217. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 85 

Sri Kama 

Malav fairv talc, Malay text and English translation by 
\\\ E. Maxwell, XV11. 86-115. 

Stephens, A. B. 

Precocious coconuts with note bv H. X. l\idley, XXXI. 

Stevens, Hn. Vaughan 

In memoriaiii, XXX. xxi. 


The age in Perak, A. Hale, III. 62. 

implement found in Singapore, H. X. Ridley, 

XX III. 141-142. 


Vocabulary, T. H. Haynes with notes, &c. by W. 

E. Maxwell, XVI. 321-384; XVIII. 193-239. 

Sungci Ujong 

See Negri Sembilan. 


Toba in the Batak country; translation from Sumatra 
Commit newspaper, I. 115-117. 

Xote on the name Sumatra, IV. 58-61. 

Klonwang and its caves (Acheen) (translated), VIII. 

Dutch exjMMlition into interior of 1877-1879 by 

M. A. L. van Hasselt, XV. 39-59. 

Further Xote, XVI. 415-417. 

in 1886 (statistics), F. Kehding, XVIII. 345-349. 

Valentyn's map of , XXII. 246. 


The survey question in (Whin China, M. Camouilly 
translated by W. E. Maxwell, XVIII. 271-294. 

R A. Soc, No. 51, 1909. 

86 INDEX. 

Sus Oi 

C. Boden Kloss with 3 plates, XLV. 55-60. 


A Malay Nautch, 11. 103-1(57. 

From Perak to Slim and down the Slim and Bernam 
Hi vers, V. 51-68. 

Some account of the Independent Native States of the 
Malay Peninsula (with map), VI. 161-202. 

New mountain seen in Perak, Xll. 286-288. 

Journal kept during a journey across the Malay Penin- 
sula with maps, XV. 1-37. 


Tally sticks and strings in Borneo, Dr. Hose and J. 
Hewitt, XLIX. 7-10. 

See Kloss 

Tan Kee Soon 

An Index in Romanised Hokkien and Cantonese to the 
Chinese names of streets and places in Singapore 
published by Mr. H. W. Firmstone in Journal No. 42. 
Revised bv Messrs. A. W. Bailev and F. M. Baddelev, 
XLV I. 195-213. 

Tenimber Islands 

A new Balanophora from , H. N. Ridley, XXX IX. 


Tenison-Woods, Kev. J. E. 

On the Stream-tin deposits of Perak (lectures delivered 
at Thaiping, Perak), Xlll. 221-240. 

Journey to the summit of Gunong Bulu, XIV. 275-285. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 87 

Tenison-Woods, Rev. J. E. 

Review of * Rapport a M. le Ministre de l'lnstruction 
Publiquc 8iir line Mission aux lies Pliilippines et en 
Malaisie (1879-1881) par M. le Docteur .7. Montano, 
XV. 139-145. 

Hie Borneo coalfields, X and Q, III. 84-87. 

Thomas, 0. E. V. 

Cases of Lightning Discharge, XXXIII. 251-255. 

Xotes on Materials and method of erecting lightning con- 
ductors in the Straits Settlements, XLIV. 217-222. 

Thomson, J. Turxbcll 

Sketch of career of, J. R. Logan, VII. 75-81. 

A 's Wake, HI. 139-140. 

in Borneo, Everett A. Haxt, V. 157-160. 

A hunt in .lava (extracted from Ceylon Observer, 

account of tiger-poisoning), XII. 209-281. 

Traps, X. B. Dennvs, X and Q, I. 15-16. 

Maneaters, X. B. Dennvs, X and Q, I. 16-17. 

eating frogs, X B. Dennvs, X and Q, I. 17. 

Charms, X. B. Dennys, X and Q, I. 17-18. 

's milk (Susu Rimau), H. X. Ridley, XXII. 341- 


Further note hv H. X. Ridlev, XXXIV. 101. 


Malay, H. X. Ridley, XXXVIII. 129-131. 


Methods of computing for planting in Borneo, Dr. 

Charles Hose, XL11. 1-5 and 209. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. 1909. 

88 INDEX. 


Stream deposits of Perak by Revd. J. E. Tenison- 

Woods, XIII. 221-249. 


Superstition, W. C. Conlay, XXXIV. 101. 

Some birds of , C. Boden Kloss, XLV. 280-281. 

Tolbon, G. P. 

Acheh, V. 37-50. 

See Romanising. 

Treacher, Sir W. H. k.c.m.o. 

Remarks on notes on Gutta-pereha, etc. by F. W. Bur- 
bridge, III. 52-59 correction to above, IV. 61. 

Genealogy of Royal family of Brunei, XV. 79-80. 

British Borneo: Sketches of Brunei, Sarawak, Labnan 
and North Borneo, XX. 13-74; XXI. 19-121. 

Trotter, X. 

Letter concerning original of British Treaty with Java 
in 1811, XIX. 151-152. 

Tu pa i a 

Frugivorous habits of , It. N. Ridley, XXI II. 148. 

Habits of , H. X. Ridlev, XLV. g;j). 


X. B. Dennys, N and Q, I. 12-13. 

Rare leathery turtle (l)ermochclvs coriacea) in .lohore 

• * • ' 

waters (with three plates), ('. Boden Kloss, XLIX. 

Valextyx, Fhaxcots 

Description of Malacca (Translation), XIII. 49-74B ; 
XV. 119-138; XVI. 289-301 ; XVII. 117-1-19; XXII. 
225-246 (with map). 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 89 

Vernacular Press 

in the Straits, E. W. Birch, IV. 51-55. 


Pantang Kapur, D. F. A. Hervey, III. 113-114. 

Comparative of dialects of some of the wild tribes 

of Malay Peninsula, Borneo, etc. collected for and 
compiled bv S. B. R. A. S., V. 125-156, corrections to 
above, VI. 290-291. 

Comparative Fijian and New Zealand, VIII. 162- 


of Tangao Dialects North Formosa, John Dodd, 

IX. 69-84. 

Sulu and Malay , T. H. Havnes with notes, etc. by 

W. E. Maxwell, XVI. 321-384,' XVI IF. 193-239. 

Pantang Kapur, H. Lake and H. J. Kelsall, XXVI. 

41-56. • 

— of Jakun names of persons. Lake and Kelsall, 
XXVI. 57. 

— of Besisi dialect, \V. W. Skeat, XXIX. 13-31. 
of Dusun Language of Kimanis, Revd. H. L. E. 

Luering, XXX. 1-29. 

— of Bmnei-Malav words, H. S. Havnes, XXXIV. 


— of Sakai dialect of Tin Kampar, H. L. E. Luering, 
XXXV. 91-104. 

— of Jakuns of Batu Pahat, Johore, A. D. Machado, 

XXXVIII. 29-33. 


Kelantan and my trip to (Junong Tahan, XXXVII. 1-27. 

Wcl>era stellulata 

Fertilization of , II. X. Ridley, XLI. 126-127. 

R. A. Soc., No. 51. 1909- 



Notes on Rainfall of Singapore, VII. 31-50. 

Further notes on the rainfall of Singapore, XV. 61-67. 

The Putri Gunong Ledang (Fairy Princess of Mt. 
Ophir), XXXII. 213-214. 

Wild trihes of Peninsula 

Dialects of Melanesian tribes, Michlucho Maelay (trans- 
lated), I. 38-44. 

Instructions as to collecting facts and dialects, 1. 107- 

Semang and Sakai Tribes of Kedah and Perak bordering 
on Province Wellesley (extract from Field news- 
paper), I. 111-113. 

Ethnological excursions in Malay Peninsula, November 
1874, October 18*5, II. 205-221. 

Letters from Oxford Professor, etc. Semangs, II. 231- 

Aboriginal Tribes of Perak, W. E. Maxwell, IV. 46-50. 

Comparative Vocabulary of the Dialects of some of the 
wild tribes inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula, Borneo, 
etc., collected and compiled for S. B. R. A. S., V. 125- 
156. Corrections to above, VI. 290-201. 

Memorandum on various tribes inhabiting Penang and 
Province Wellesley, J. R. Logan, VII. 83-92. 

The Endau and its tributaries (with map), D. F. A. 
Ilervey (Jakuns), VIII. 93-124. 

Additional notes, IX. 167-168. 

Comparative Vocabulary Fijian and New Zealand, VIII. 

Legend of white Semang; translation by W. E. Maxwell, 
IX. 95-108. 

Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 9! 

Wild tribes of Peninsula 

The mentra Traditions, I). F. A. Hervev, X. 189-194. 

Pantang Gaharu, I). F. A. Hervev, X and Q, I. 8-9. 

" Manuk/' H. C. Clifford, X and Q, IV. 101-102. 

The Sakai language, H. C. Clifford, X and Q, IV. 102- 

Some notes on Sakai dialect of the Ma lav Peninsula, 
Hugh Clifford, XXIV. 13-29. 

List of Jakun names of persons, H. J. Kelsall, k.a., 
XXVI. 5T. 

Earlv Indo-Chinese Influence in the Malay Peninsula, 
i\ Otto Blagden, XXVI I. 21-56. 

A vocabulary of the Besisi dialect, W. \Y. Skeat, XXIX. 


The Orang Laut of Singapore, \Y. W. Skeat and H. X. 
Uidlev, XXXIII. 2-17-250. 

Additional note, XLl. 129-130. 

The Sakai dialect of ITu Kampar Perak,, H. L. K. Luer- 
ing, XXXV. 91-104. 

Dialects of Malav Peninsula, C. O. Blagden, XXXVII. 

Jakuns of Batu Pahat, Johore, A. I). Maehado, 
XXXVIII. 29-33. 

Pantang Kapur vocabulary, H. Lake and H. J. Kelsall, 
XXVI. 41-5(5. 

Pantang Kapur vocabulary, I). F. A. Hervev, III. 113- 

P. \V. Schmidt, s.v.n., "Die Sprachen der Sakai and 
Seniang auf Malacca and ilir Verhaltnis zu den nion- 
khmer Sprachen." 

(Abstract), W. D. Barnes, XXXIX. 38-45. 

R. A. Soc., No. SI. 1909- 

92 INDEX. 

Wild tribes of Peninsula 

(Review), C. 0. Blagden, XXXIX. 46-63. . 

Sakais of Batang Padang Perak, G. B. Cerruti, XLI. 

Human Images among the orang Mantong, Dr. Abbott, 
XLI. 128-129. 

Malayan musical instruments, C. Boden Kloss, XLV. 


Errata, XLVI. 264. 

The Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula (review) by 
H. X. Ridley, XLIX. 1-5. . 

Bark Canoes among Jakuns and Dvaks, Dr. W. L. 
Abbott (with plate), XLIX. 109-110. 

Some Ethnological Xotes, C. Boden Kloss, L. 73-T7. 

Wilkinson, R. J. 

The Indonesian Numerals, XXVIII. 99-103. 

Xotes and queries: Protective charm, Earthquakes, The 
South, Xames of months. Benzoin, Batara Guru, XXX. 

WlNSTKDT. R. 0. 

Some mouse-deer Tales, XLV. 61-69. 

Father Civet, with Romanised Malay version, L. 85-90. 

Wise, H. 

The fci Malingkota *' in Borneo, in June 1891, XXVI. 


Xesting of the little grey , H. N. Ridley, XLIV. 


Jour. Straits Branch 

INDEX. 93 


in Malav and cognate languages, H. L. K. Luering, 

xxx ix. jy-37. 

Wjuy, Lkoxahd Jx. 

(iiitta producing trees, XII. 207-221. 

The I poh Tree, X and Q, III. <>l-<>2. 

Death from .snake bites, N and Q, III. 72-73. 

The hite of a Python, X and Q, III. 73. 

Report on the Padi l>orei\ XIX. 73-82. 

Summary of Report on the Pomeloe moth, XIX. 83-8(5. 

Journal of a collecting expedition to the mountain of 
Batang Padang Perak, XXI. 123-1«5. 


S<m» Mammals, Ornithology, Entomology, Reptiles, 
Fishes, Menagerie. 

The octopus, X. H. Denny s, X and Q, I. 14-15. 

List of animals and plants recorded from Christmas 
Island, H. X. Ridley, XXIII. 130-13<>. 

Xotes on the flying frog Rhacophorus nigropalmatus, 
H. Hanitsch, XXXIV. 1HJ-D7. 

Other Publications. 

The Society has also published : — 

Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China. Reprinted for 
the S. 13. R. A. S. from * Dalrymple's Oriental Repertory ' 
and the ' Asiatic Researches ' and ' Journal ' of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, 2 vols., London Tnibner & Co., 1886 
(edited by the late Dr. Reinhold Rost). 

Contents of Vol. I. 

I Some Account of Quedah. By Michael Topping. 
11 Report made to the Chief and Council of Balam- 
bangan, (Borneo). By Lieut. James Barton, 
of his several Surveys. 
Ill Substance of a Letter to the Court of Directors 
from John Jesse, dated July 20th 1775, at 
Borneo Proper. 
IV Formation of the Establishment of Pulo-Penang. 
V The Gold of Limong. (Sumatra). By Mr. Mac- 
VI On three Natural Productions of Sumatra. (Cam- 
phor, coral and copper). By the same. 
VII On the traces of the Hindu Language and Litera- 
ture extant amongst the Malays. By Wil- 
liam Marsden. 
VIII Some Account of the Elastic Gum Vine of Prince- 
Wales Island. By James Howison. 
IX A Botanical Description of Urceola Elastica or 
Caoutchou Vine of Sumatra and Pulo-Penang. 
By William Roxburgh M.D. 
X An account of the inhabitants of the Poggy or 
Nassau Islands lying off Sumatra. By John 

Jour. Strait* Branch, R A. Soc., N0.151, 1909. 



















Remarks on the Species of Pepper which are 
found on Prince- Wales Island. By William 
Hunter M. D. 

On the Languages and Literature of the Indo- 
Chinese Nations. By J. Leyden M.D. 

Some Account of an Orang-Outang of remarkable 
height found on the Island of Sumatra. By 
Clarke Abel M.D. 

Observations on the Geological Appearances and 
General Features of Portions of the Malayan 
Peninsula. By Captain James Low. 

Short Sketch of the Geology of Pulo-Pinang and 
^ the neighbouring Islands. By T. Ward. 

Climate of Singapore. 

Inscription on the Jetty at Singapore. 

Extract of a letter from Col. J. Low. 

Inscription at Singapore. 

An account of several Inscriptions found in Prov- 
vince Wellesley. By Lieut-Col. James Low. 

Note on the Inscriptions from Singapore and Prov- 
ince Wellesley. By J. W 7 . Laidlay. 

On an Inscription from Keddah. By Lieut-Col. Low. 

A Notice of the Alphabets of the Philippine Islands. 

Succinct Review of the Observations of the Tides 
in the Indian Archipelago. 

Report on the Tin of the Province of Mergui. By 
Capt. G. B. Tremenheere. 

Report on the Manganese of the Mergui Province. 
By the same. 

Paragraphs to be added to Capt. G. B. Tremen- 
heere's Report. 

Second Report of the Tin of Mergui. By the same. 

Analysis of Iron Ores from Tavoy and Mergui and 
of Limestone from Mergui. By Dr. A. Urc. 

Report of a Visit to the Pakchan River and of 
some Tin Localities in the Southern Portion 
of the Tenasserim Provinces. By Capt., G. 
B. Tremenheere. 

Jour. Straits Branch 





Report on a Route from the Mouth of the Pakchan 
to Kiau and thence across the Isthmus of 
Krau to the Gulf of Siam. By Capt. Al. Fraser 
and Capt. J. G. Forlong. 

Report «fcc, from Capt., G. B. Tremenheere on the 
Price of Mergui Tin Ore. 

Remarks on the different Species of Orang-utan. 
By E. Blyth. 

Further Remarks. By the same. 

Contents of Vol II. 

XXXV Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting the Malayan 

Peninsula and Islands. By Theodore Cantor 
XXXVI On the local and Relative Geology of Singapore. 

By J. R. Logan. 
XXXVII Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the Malayan 

Peninsula and Islands. By Theodore Cantor M.D. 
XXXVIII Some account of the Botanical Collection brought 

from the Eastward, in 1841, by Dr. Cantor. 
By the late W. Griffith. 
XXXIX On the Flat-homed Taurine Cattle of S. E. Asia. 

By Ed. Blyth. 

XL Note by Major-General G. B. Tremenheere. 
General Index. 
Index of Vernacular Terms. 
Index of Zoological Genera and Sub-Genera 
occurring in Vol. II. 

Miscellaneous Papers relating to Indo-China and the Indian 
Archipelago. Reprinted for the S B. R. A. S. from the 
' Journals ' of the Royal Asiatic, Bengal Asiatic, and Royal 
Geographical Societies ; the ' Transactions ' and * Journal ' 
of the Asiatic Society of Batavia ; and the ' Malayan 
Miscellaneous.' Second Series 2 vols. London, Thinner 
1887 (Edited S: Co.. by the late Dr. Reinhold Rost). 

R. A. S«c., No. SI. 1909- 


Contents of Vol. I. 

I Journal of an excursion to Malacca and Penang. 

By J. R. Logan. 
II The Rocksof PuloUbin (Singapore). By the same. 

III Notes on some species of Malayan Amphibia and 

Reptilia. By Dr. F. Stoliczka. 

IV On the land -shells of Penang Island. By the same. 
V Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca. By 

W. P. Groeneveldt. 
VI Outlines of a Grammar of the Malagasy language. 

By Dr. H. N. Van der Tuuk. 
VII Account of the Mantras. By the Rev. Father 


Contents of Vol. II, 

VIII Account of the Malay MSS belonging to the Royal 
Asiatic Society. By Dr. H. N. Van der Tuuk. 

IX Memorandum of a Journey to the summit of 
Gunong Benko (Sumatra). 

X Account of the Island of Bali. Bv Dr. R. 

XI Notices on Zoological subjects. By Messrs. Diard 
and Duvancal. 
XII Descriptions of Malayan Plants. By Dr. W. 
Jack. Notes to this article. By Sir J. D. 
Hooker and Hon. D. F. A. Hervey. 

General and Geographical Index. 

Index of Latin terms. 

Index of Malayan and other oriental terms. 

The Wai Seng Lottery. By G. T. Hare, Civil Service, Straits 
Settlements. Singapore 1895. 

Jour/ Straits Branch 


The Hikayat Raja Bu-liman (A Malay Folk tale). 

Part I Malay Text. 
Part II English Translation with notes 
by Hugh Clifford. 

Singapore, 18(1(1. 

A map of The Malay Peninsula, 

(To be republished in 1909).